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Small Essay On Book Fair Essays and Research Papers. DELHI BOOK FAIR 2012 CONCLUDES SUCCESSFULLY ON sept 9,12 . By : Vijeta Verma One of the most eagerly awaited events in the capital, the essay space, 18th edition of literature survey in research methodology, Delhi book fair and about 14th edition of stationary book fair was organized by reality vs illusion, the India Trade Promotion organisation (ITPO) at Pragati Maidan , New Delhi in hall nos. 18-12A from essay about space, 1st sept-9th sept,2012.The Delhi. Book , E-book , Executive director 983 Words | 3 Pages. Ekushey Book Fair 2012: Celebrating Books Every year when you visit the off an analysis essay, Bangla Academy area during the first few . days of February, the place takes on a festive air with throngs of people making their way to essay about, the annual Ekushey Book Fair . The entire place is literature survey in research, lined with book stalls displaying books from every major publisher in essay about space, the country, catering to the tastes of absolutely every reader.
As you walk in, you are greeted by street artists offering to paint a little something on your face or hands. A Great Way to essays on family, Care , Bengali language , Book 928 Words | 3 Pages. of Ekushey book fair 3 * Importance of the fair 4 * Description of the essay about space, fair . * Structure 5 * Contributors 5 * Visitors 6 * Books 7 * Problems of the fair 8 * Conclusion 9 * References 10 Introduction: Ekushey Book Fair is now a popular festival in vs illusion essay, the life of Bangladeshi people. It is held only once in about, a year. Ekushey Book Fair or Amor Ekushey Grontho Mela ( Book Fair of the Immortal. Bangla Academy , Bangladesh , Bengal 2035 Words | 6 Pages. ? Vanity Fair A Novel without a Hero ( Book Report) I. Book title: “Vanity fair : . A novel without a Hero” II. Author: William Makepeace Thackeray III. Theme: Thackeray wants his audience to realize how vanity itself can affect how people act.
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Homer doesn’t receive much appreciation from his father. Homer sees on television the launch of the satellite sputnik, and after seeing this he is driven to space, be a part of the space race. He convinces some of his friends to help him build a rocket. They used terrible materials, and the rocket blew. Coalwood, West Virginia , Cold War , Homer Hickam 905 Words | 3 Pages. On Finding a Small Fly Crushed in a Book: Analysis. ‘On Finding a Small Fly Crushed in a Book ’ is a sonnet by Charles Tennyson Turner, in which the persona’s reactions to vs illusion essay, finding . the remains of space, a fly crushed in a book are documented. The poem is ap world essays, addressed to the dead fly, which has left its own “ fair monument” behind. Space. The poem is a reflection on make conclusion one’s responsibility to justify one’s existence, as brought out by the explicit metaphor comparing our lives to a book that will one day “close upon us”.
It shares many similarities to Kevin Halligan’s ‘The. Death , English-language films , Human 937 Words | 3 Pages. Shaheed Awati Ms.Pindar ENG2D April 17, 2015 The Book Thief Essay The Book Thief written by about space, Mark . Zusak, which is narrated by Death who is also a character in the story. Thesis Ingles. Death states, ? “It’s just a small story really, about, among things: A small girl, some words, an accordionist, some fanatical Germans, a Jewish fist fighter, and quite a lot of thievery” (Zusak 5). Essay Space. ? Humans are capable of ap world essays, both great compassion and essay great evil based . Adolf Hitler , Antisemitism , Jews 1833 Words | 7 Pages. Independent Novel Essay Small literary devices create maximized results in the novel, The Book Thief by Markus . Zusak. Zusak’s novel is about a young girl, named Liesel Meminger, who after losing her brother was given away by her mother to literature survey in research methodology, a couple from Mochling, Germany, named Hans and essay about Rosa Hubermann. The Hubermann’s raise Liesel well, helping her through chaos she went through, as Liesel made friends, like her best friend and literature in research unknown lover, Rudy Steiner. As Liesel explores her love of books and essay her thrive.
Adolf Hitler , Fiction , Foreshadowing 1395 Words | 4 Pages. International Journal of Infinite Innovations in Technology|ISSN:2278-9057 IJIIT|Volume-I|Issue-I|2012-2013 July|Paper-03 Reg. No.:20120607|DOI:V1I1P03 A . Fair FARE System Prof. Ap World Essays. Arth Koeri Research Head – LTL (Information Technology) Arth.K.IT.LTL@gmail.com ABSTRACT As we all know that there is essay about space, cheating corruption all around. Make Conclusion. Top to essay about space, bottom everyone everywhere looks for the place to earn extra money, in better words easy money. Hate to admit this but auto rickshaw meter tampering in good ways to start, India. Bluetooth , Compiler , Embedded system 1714 Words | 7 Pages. Vanity Fair , an English novel written by William Makepeace Thackeray (United Kingdom: Punch Magazine, January 1847 - July 1948), epitomizes the . early 19th century of British society of the essay about space, duplicity of social climbers, sabotages, avarices, lovelessness, pretentiousness, selfishness. It, at the same time, captures mix pack of emotion of people who have their origin and counterpart in society as a whole. Furthermore, it is a satirical expose of essays seperations, William’s masterpiece which exposes every chunk of the. 19th century , Family , Governess 1357 Words | 4 Pages.
FAIR Summary Understanding Factor Analysis of Information Risk Copyright (c) 2009 Risk Management Insight LLC All rights reserved . Management doesn’t care about security, they care about risk. At the end of the day, the value proposition for security depends on its ability to about space, affect the frequency and/ or magnitude of loss (i.e., risk). Essays On Family. As a result, effectively measuring and communicating this value proposition requires a clear understanding of the factors that drive risk. Enter FAIR . What. Business continuity planning , Copyright , Management 1004 Words | 3 Pages. Book Review: the Pocket Guide to Leading a Small Group.
Seminary 4-MAT Book Review One The Pocket Guide To Leading A Small Group by Dave Earley and Rod Dempesey . A Paper Submitted to essay space, Dr. Quigly Nudge In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Course Small Group Ministries DSMN 630 By Jo Apple Submitted on April 8, 2011 Abstract Moving from the theoretical to the practical can sometimes be the most daunting challenge facing a leader and facilitator of thesis ingles, a small group. It is true enough that. Disciple , Future , Gospel of about space, John 1587 Words | 5 Pages. August 9, 2012 The Negativity of Colonial Materialism In “God of ways essay, Small Things”, written by Arundati Roy, Roy talks about many things but . one thing that stood out was her negativity of what the colonist had brought over into India. Essay Space. Her argument could be that the colonist brought materialism into their culture making the natives think that they need things that they really do not need. The colonist bring the thought that making money any way possible is acceptable and Roy points out that ritual. Colonialism , Culture , Dance 1436 Words | 4 Pages. John Snively English 10B 3/27/12 Lennie Smalls is a barley bucker.
Hidden behind his enormous size, he is literature in research methodology, very innocent. He doesn’t . understand how things work. He has a very pure mind and hasn’t adopted any evils of the world. Essay About Space. For example, in the book , Lennie finds himself in history, Crooks’ room, which few people have ever been in,primarily because he is black. Essay Space. Crooks reluctantly lets Lennie into his room and tells him to set down. They get into conversation and find themselves talking about how Crooks. John Steinbeck , Of Mice and Men , Tell 1090 Words | 3 Pages. Thomas Araujo December 13, 2012 The Book Thief Essay In The Book Thief there are many references to words having . power. Make Conclusion. Throughout the essay about space, book , Liesel stole many books which would affect her life during World War II. She learns how to survey in research, read and essay this allows her to survive the world of war.
These books keep her away from the destruction and despair from the war. Liesel and Max, the Jewish man hiding in her basement, give each other strength through the words and stories that they exchange. There are. Adolf Hitler , Fuhrer , Mein Kampf 898 Words | 3 Pages. ever so greatly over the course of reality, time there are still factors that stand in its way, mainly book banning and essay the fact that the nation is vs illusion, . becoming more and more excepting of the fact, and not truly willing to take any action to prevent it what so ever. Though some pieces of literature might have instances of about, crude and unsettling language, it does not give the community the right to ban them. Say no to book banning, say no to the man that believes to be above all others, say no to the system that. American Library Association , Book , Censorship 1103 Words | 3 Pages. The Little Essay That Could- Open book vs. Closed book. ?Cynthia Ung Ms.
Ligator Honors English 15 November 2013 The Little . Essay That Could- Open- book vs. Closed- book Eugene Nathaniel Butler once stated, “Some people cheat their way through life. They cheat on tests in school. Cheat on girlfriends/boyfriends then graduate to cheating on wives/husbands. They cheat on taxes and good to start off an essay many times.
Academic dishonesty , Anxiety , Cheating 1440 Words | 5 Pages. The God of essay, Small Things Book Analysis. The God of essay, Small Things Book Analysis Character: Esthappen, referred to as Estha, and essay about Rahel are twins. Both are innocent . children who are still learning their manners. When they grow up and separate, Rahel moves to America and gets married, and Estha leaves to go with Babu, their father who has left them. Reality Vs Illusion Essay. When he returns to essay about space, Ayemenem, Rahel also returns because they have a special bond. Their mother is referred to as Ammu. She raises her children well with structure. Ammu has an affair with Velutha. Family , The God of Small Things 1606 Words | 4 Pages.
? BOOK FAIR A book fair is a fair for selling and displaying books on . various subjects. Seperations. A book fair is usually arranged on the important days of essay space, a year. As 21st February is our Mother Language Day, the book fair named “Ekushey Boi Mela” is held in Bangla Academy on vs illusion essay February is the most important and popular book fair of our country. About. The book fair of 21st February takes place in Bangla Academy under open sky. There are many stalls and pavilions in the fair of different publishers. In a book fair. Bangla Academy , Bengali language , Book 349 Words | 2 Pages. love someone whose not loveable compared to someone who is. It embodies a hidden message made by Markus Zusak about love, through the use of Death, Hans, and . Essays Seperations. Liesel, in his book about a family, the essay about, Hubermanns, taking in a foster child, Liesel Meminger, during the Holocaust in Nazi Germany. In Zusak’s historical fiction novel The Book Thief, he promotes his theme of love is more powerful than anything else in the world.
Surprisingly, Death, the narrator of the novel, shows the readers all of the on family, love. Death , Foster care , Interpersonal relationship 895 Words | 4 Pages. ?One of the main themes in The Book Thief is that words have the about space, power to destroy and to save lives. More important, however, is that words can . change the way a person feels. Analysis. Whether written or spoken, words bring the characters in Zusak’s novel happiness, and fear. This novel also shows that words can sometimes be used for evil. The words they encounter influence the moods of essay space, Liesel, and the people around her. Several times throughout the story, words give people a feeling of happiness or serenity. Anger , Emotion , Happiness 935 Words | 2 Pages.
was the largest mass migration in U.S. Survey In Research. history. 1 question you still have- Where slaves in on the gold rush too and was California a free state or a slave . state? I.s.383 Jay-Len McLean 709 April 8, 2015 Essay “The discovery of gold nuggets in the Sacramento Valley in about, early 1848 sparked the Gold Rush” said the history channel. This is what I say is arguably one of the most significant events because it shaped American history during the early half of the. California , California Gold Rush , Gold 921 Words | 5 Pages. Essay on BookHound of the Baskervilles The Hound of the Baskervilles was written by Arthur Conan Doyle in the august 1901,and was published in The Strand Magazine in April 1902.This . book is not the only one: it is the vs illusion essay, third book in essay, the Sherlock Holmes series.
The genre of literature in research, this book is detective: all other books from the Sherlock Holmes Series is written in the same genre. The Hound of the essay space, Baskervilles was listed in the BBC in 2003 as the “best-loved novel”. The action starts in the family house of the Baskervilles, Baskervilles Hall. Arthur Conan Doyle , Jeremy Brett , John Watson 1310 Words | 3 Pages. Where it all began What is fair trade? Where did it start? Who started it and why? Believe it or not, fair trade has been . around for a long time. Fair trade is the practice of directly benefiting producers in the developing world by buying straight from them at a guaranteed price. (thefreedictionary.com) Most items that we buy are not made in thesis tungkol sa wikang, the U.S, their made in different countries and most of the essay about space, time the producers are getting ripped off. Talking about fair trade for thesis sa wikang ingles today isn’t the essay space, vocal.
Fair trade , Fair Trade Certified Mark , Fair trade organizations 1623 Words | 5 Pages. Fair or Not Fair As once said by Nelson Mandela “A good leader can engage in a debate frankly and thoroughly, knowing that at thesis tungkol . the end he and the other side must be closer, and thus emerge stronger. You don't have that idea when you are arrogant, superficial, and uninformed.” Only when you meet that criteria can you be considered a good leader, however in Sophocles’ book Antigone once a crime has been committed not only is the essay about space, guilty killer put on trial but whether or not Creon is a good leader is. Decision making , Decision making software , Decision theory 1266 Words | 3 Pages. Smith 01 Peter Smith Professor Stone HUM 202 26 JAN 2013 Night Comes to the Cumberlands- Book Review Essay I recently . read a book titled “Night Comes to the Cumberlands” written by literature, a man named Harry M. Caudill.
I chose this book for a couple of different reasons. The first is because after reviewing the book , I realized it was very thorough in essay, how it covered the thesis tungkol sa wikang ingles, plight of the essay about, Appalachia people, it also goes into detail about how many different events from when his grandfather’s grandfather. Appalachia , Appalachian Mountains , Coal 2062 Words | 6 Pages. nature. “The madness in the fact that the savage and the splendid can exist in make conclusion, one creature, one person and often in essay, one instant.” I enjoyed reading . about Liesel Meminger in the novel The Book Thief by Markus Zusak. Liesel is nine years old and lives in Nazi Germany. Essays On Family Seperations. In the early chapters of the book we learn that her younger brother has dies, her father is missing ad her communist mother has arranged for her to be adopted by Hans and space Rosa Hubermann.
It is ap world history essays, while Liesel is living in the Hubermann’s. Acts of the Apostles , Adolf Hitler , Interpersonal relationship 1167 Words | 3 Pages. ?Introduction Fair trade is an organised social movement which is based on partnership between producers and consumers, with the aim . of providing secure and sustainable livelihoods to suppliers, as well as fulfilling their potential. As an alternative approach to free trade which focus on establishing an space unrestricted trading relationship, the thesis sa wikang, core goal of fair trade is to aid marginalised producers, promote trading conditions and about sustainability (Fairtrade International, 2011). The last decade has. Economics , Fair trade , Fairtrade certification 1501 Words | 5 Pages. ? BOOK FAIR - 2012 WHEN E- BOOKS MEET THE MANGO PEOPLE… It was a fine sunny morning when I with my bunch of my . classmates went to on family, the 18th annual Delhi book fair on 6th September 2012 at Pragati Maidan. Essay Space. It was a nine-day affair featuring discussions on proliferation of e- books and interaction with authors, apart from availability of make conclusion, vast number of books on divergent genres. We were supposed to report for about a radio show as per our curriculum and were told to survey in research methodology, reach Pragati Maidan at essay about 10 in morning.
Getting. Belle Sebastian , Book , E-book 477 Words | 2 Pages. Children’s Book Essay : The Tale of Peter Rabbit Human nature of children, adolescents, and teens will at times resurrect the . urge to approach a rebellious stance, which include receiving various body piercings, consuming alcohol, and listening to loud music. This stance often challenges the thesis tungkol, intention of parents, who reared their young with hopes that their offspring would reflect good character and proper behavior. Consequently, rebellious children must endure negative repercussions, often affecting. Beatrix Potter , Peter Rabbit , The Tale of Benjamin Bunny 816 Words | 3 Pages. “Is it Fair ” Introduction Cohen (1986) argues that corruption has been described as “acting on opportunities, created by virtue of . one’s authority, for personal gain at the expense of the public one is authorized to serve.” Cohen felt that it can be dangerous that the officers accept these gratuities because what might start without intent on the part of the officer may be become a patterned expectation and can lead to targeting and misuse of power if the gratuity stops. On a different. Accept , Constable , Crime 867 Words | 3 Pages. ?Analyzing Written Essays WK2 ENG 101 For my first analysis, I chose the Lucy Stone Biography “A Soul as Free as the about, Air”, which is an literature methodology . Expository Essay that gives examples, facts, written in a fair and impartial way which can be called non-biased. Also the writer uses the third person for the point of view.
The Thesis Statement, which is one of four characters of an space expository essay , caught my attention right away, and good ways to start gave me a bit of insight on what this essay was about before I started reading. Eris , Hubble Space Telescope , Kuiper belt 920 Words | 3 Pages. The God of essay, Small things by Arundhati Roy Plot Summary The God of Small Things (1997) is the debut novel[-0] of Indian . Essays. author Arundhati Roy[-1]. It is a story about the childhood experiences of fraternal twins[-2] whose lives are destroyed by the Love Laws that lay down who must be loved, and how, and how much. The book is a description of essay, how the small things in life affect people's behaviour and their lives. The book won the reality, Booker Prize[-3] in 1997. The God of Small Things is Roy's. Arundhati Roy , Death , God 1262 Words | 4 Pages. Spring 2014 Essay 3 The Longman Reader Select one of the space, topics below and respond in an essay of between 650 and 1000 words. . Ways Analysis. Develop your own thesis and essay space supporting ideas/details. Include clear, concrete examples so that you can “show” rather than “tell.” Write a 1-3 sentence summary of either the thesis sa wikang ingles, TedTalks Video or The Longman Reader essay in your essay so that your readers understand your references.
Also include a quotation from the about space, essay . Acknowledge any source you use in your essay both in history, the. Bystander effect , EconTalk , Essay 907 Words | 2 Pages. Ethical Consumer and Fair Trade Introduction: Social responsibility and about marketing ethics are natively controversial , continues research in . Good Off An Analysis Essay. this area represents conflicts and challenges addressed to space, marketers in respect to socially responsible approach to marketing activities(Laczniak and thesis tungkol sa wikang ingles Murphy, 1993; Smith and Quelch, 1996).The aim of the essay is to explain arising phenomenon of Ethical consumption by the use of related theoretical frameworks, as well as explaining Fair Trade and essay paradoxes. Business ethics , Corporate social responsibility , Ethical consumerism 1886 Words | 6 Pages. good at things I enjoy (or maybe the other way round) I have no drivers license I made my drivers license with 32 I'm not a vegetarian I get a few . hundred emails per month (excluding spam) but only answer a few dozen I own about to start off an analysis essay, 350 books but have read much more I usually have a few coding project ideas in my mind but can't find the time to start on them When I finally start, I usually finish the first working prototype after a weekend of mad coding I'm not a business person . Curry , Handedness , Left-handedness 751 Words | 5 Pages. The Comparison and about space Contrast Essay the Book and the Movie. THE COMPARISON AND CONTRAST ESSAY THE BOOK AND THE MOVIE Two weeks ago I finished reading . the book “The Firm” by literature, John Grisham. It was really interesting for me to essay space, read this story because of the unpredictable plot and the bright characters. At that moment I thought that the book had a really fantastic ending. Thesis Sa Wikang Ingles. But when I saw the film about “The Firm”, I was surprised that the book and the movie could be so different. I was amazed with the last episodes of the movie.
Antagonist , Crime , John Grisham 929 Words | 3 Pages. 1984 Essay What do you think a normal human being needs to have a good, hearty life? What are the most basic needs that are vital to one’s . survival? According to essay about, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, physiological needs are those required to sustain life, such as air, water, nourishment, and sleep. Good Ways Essay. If such needs are not satisfied, then one’s motivation will arise from the quest to satisfy them.
Higher needs such as social needs and esteem are not felt until one has met the needs basic to one’s bodily functioning. Abraham Maslow , Big Brother , Dystopia 1788 Words | 4 Pages. The aim of this essay is to discuss about the essay space, comment made by the Adam Smith Institute (2008) about how ‘The Fair -trade movement . achieves virtually nothing in terms of reducing world poverty’. Essays. Fair trade is essay about space, a standard that is set to support the ap world, developing countries exports, it is to improve the workers in a developing country’s working conditions, fair payments which help them towards development and planning of their future that may help poverty. It also helps them to sell products to developing. Article , Extreme poverty , Fair trade 1751 Words | 5 Pages.
Capitalism, 1865-1900. New York: Anchor Books , 2010. Paper $17.95. ISBN: 978-0-307-368677-9.. H. W. Brands attended Stanford . Essay. University where he earned a bachelor’s degree in history; he then went on to earn at masters and doctorate in methodology, history at the University of Texas in Austin. In addition to American Colossus, Brands has also written other books about history and biography like the Man Who Saved the Union and American Dreams. He has also edited books such as The Selected Letters of Theodore. American Civil War , Andrew Carnegie , John D. Rockefeller 849 Words | 3 Pages. “The Book of Negroes is a master piece, daring and impressive in its geographic, historical and human reach, convincing in its narrative art . and detail, necessary for imagining the real beyond the traces left by history.” I completely agree with The Globe and Mail’s interpretation of this story. One could almost see the desolate conditions of the slave boats and feel the pain of every person brought into slavery.
Lawrence Hill created a compelling story that depicts the hard ships, emotional turmoil. Africa , African , African people 1281 Words | 4 Pages. changed the way i approached my work and things related to me. Space. That’s why this book connected with me from the very beginning. The story of good ways to start off an, . the book revolves around the story of Mary Jane Ramirez and her workplace and how an accidental visit to a ‘Fish Market’ changed the way an entire department at essay an office as well she changed their style of good to start off an analysis essay, working at work and improved relationships at home. As in the book the main character Mary – a person good at heart mother of 2 children - after the. Change , Employment , Pike Place Fish Market 1407 Words | 4 Pages.
Question: Analyse how an essay idea is developed in texts you have studied. Many meaningful language features and tungkol ingles techniques are used by Markus Zusak in essay space, the . historical fiction novel; The Book Thief to essays, develop the idea of humanities extremes. Throughout this book these techniques work together to demonstrate the utter distinction between man-kinds potential for essay about both beauty and cruelty. Make Conclusion. The idea of humanity is developed through specific use of juxtaposition, narrator’s perspective and symbolism. This. Evil , Good and essay about space evil , Markus Zusak 935 Words | 3 Pages. ? Student Number: 201423787 Course: GradDip Unit: OT501D: Old Testament Foundations Title: What is the theological function of the plague . narratives within the in research, book of Exodus? Word limit: 2000 Word count: 1927 Date due: 16/4/2014 Date submitted: 15/4/2014 Disclaimer: The following essay , of essay space, which I have kept a copy, is entirely the on family seperations, work of the undersigned and all sources of space, ideas and expressions are duly acknowledged in footnotes or endnotes. Make Conclusion. Signed: Daniel Chieng Date.
Bible , Book of Exodus , God 2462 Words | 10 Pages. at Cram.com Upgrade | Hi Iamsiddha. Get Access to StudyMode.com - Complete Your Registration Now. Essay About Space. StudyMode - Premium and survey methodology Free Essays , . Term Papers Book Notes Essays Book Notes AP Notes Citation Generator More Essay On Eye Donation Wikipedia Essays and Term Papers Search Advanced Search Documents 1 - 20 of 47 Laser Eye Surgery Research essay Laser eye surgery Laser eye surgery The eye is the organ of essay about, sight. Essays On Family. It is used in almost everything we do, from playing sport to reading. Critical theory , Essay , Essays 1151 Words | 6 Pages.
Book Analysis Essay - William Penn by John A. About. Moretta John A. Moretta, a history teacher at good to start off an analysis the University of Houston, wrote the . book William Penn and the Quaker Legacy which was a biography that told the tale of about space, William Penn but reminded its readers that Penn was a legend and hero according to http://www.uh.edu/honors/about/faculty-staff/john-moretta.php, . According to Moretta, Penn produced a Founding Father image and to him Penn “shaped the American creed and ideal” (pg.xi). In my opinion. Creed , George Fox , Inner light 957 Words | 3 Pages. killed in the attempt. Living conditions were not pleasant, “We walked all day. No water. No food. Make Conclusion. No breaks to pee.
If you had to go, you had to it and keep . walking with the urine running down your sore legs and burning your broken skin” (116 The Book of essay space, Negroes) is essays on family seperations, what Aminata said of the experience. The slaves had to walk for months until they arrived at essay about a boat to be shipped off to England. Being captured as a slave is bad enough but Aminata endured even more public humiliation. Imagine walking. Black people , Embarrassment , Family 1010 Words | 3 Pages. ?“Completely free trade would be fair . Good Ways To Start Analysis. ‘ Fair trade’ encourages people to stay in uncompetitive sectors in which they will always . be poor.” Discuss.
The concept of the ‘ Fair Trade’ initiative can be summarised with reasonable simplicity; “ Fair Trade works to alleviate poverty in the global South through a strategy of ‘trade, not aid,’ improving farmer and worker livelihoods through direct sales, better prices and stable market links, as well as support for producer organizations and essay about space communities”. Fair trade , Free trade , Globalization 3078 Words | 8 Pages. Essay about literature survey in research methodology, Fair Trade (Cafe Direct) ?What are the foundations of the essay about, fair -trade movement? The foundations of the ways off an essay, fair -trade movement are built upon the producers, . the famers, who everyone who participates in essay space, the coffee market relies upon. Their main principles are market access for marginalized producers, sustainable and make conclusion equitable trading relationships, capacity building and empowerment, and consumer awareness raising and advocacy. These principles are instated to protect the famers from about, greatly fluctuating prices and the volatility. Corporation , Fair trade , Free trade 827 Words | 3 Pages. individual has to on family seperations, suffer. Essay. This is shown in The Book of Negroes. The Book of Negroes by Lawrence Hill is a fictionalized, . Make Conclusion. historical account that explores the story of the space, protagonist, Aminata, who is separated from reality essay, her home, family, culture and faith.
This book demonstrates the effectiveness of Hill's ability to portray imagery. Hill uses effective imagery to essay, emphasize the fact that often loss is on family, worse than death itself. This is essay space, shown through the book when Aminata loses her parents, her child and. Back to the Future , Death , KILL 1014 Words | 3 Pages. Book Review: Masters of Small Worlds by Stephanie Mccurry. Masters of Small Worlds by Stephanie McCurry The book Masters of Small Worlds by ingles, Stephanie McCurry concentrates on . one very specific time and essay space place in good ways to start off an, history. The time is pre-Civil War and the place is the Low Country in southern South Carolina. This area is particularly interesting because of the interaction between the planters and the yeomen in the area. About. The author explores the similarities and differences between these two distinct social classes. The author also brings gender relations.
Law , Ownership , Plantation economy 911 Words | 3 Pages. it is important to survey in research methodology, take these differences into account. About. “Goths, Gamers, Grrrls” by Ross Haenfler, discusses a wide range of youth subcultures, from . British mods to essays on family, recent online communities. The youth subcultures that are covered throughout the book are skinhead, punk, hip hop, hard core, heavy metal, Goths, hackers, online communities, and about groups in essays, which members pledge to preserve their sexual virginity. Subcultural approaches assume there is a common value system to deviate from, don’t explain. Counterculture , Gender , Goth subculture 922 Words | 4 Pages. The Book Of Negroes - The Abolitionist Movement Essay. ? The Abolitionist Movement Essay Essay Author G. Ondi The novel The Book of . Negroes, written by Lawrence Hill depicts the life of a female African named Aminata, and her rough journey while having to endure slavery. From childhood to adulthood, Aminata faces many tragedies and has many horrifying experiences. Aminata is chosen by members of the essay about space, abolitionist movement to help their movement and she possesses unique features.
Aminata however, does not believe that. Abolitionism , Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War 1196 Words | 4 Pages. ?Wajih Shah ENG3U0-D Ms. Ventresca December 8th, 2013 The Book of Negroes – Racism Writing, reading and literature in reality vs illusion essay, all its shapes and . forms is an efficient way to confine the struggles and hardships that come while fighting for equality. The novel, The Book of Negroes, written by Lawrence Hill deals with the essay about, struggles of make conclusion, African Americans and how they deal with prejudice and discrimination within their society. About Space. Racism has a negative effect on the life of Aminata which results in her loss of. Abuse , Africa , African American 990 Words | 2 Pages. W.M.
Thackeray and good ways to start analysis Vanity Fair William Makepeace Thackeray (1811 - 1863) was born to a prosperous middle-class family in essay about, India His father . Essays Seperations. was an English official in Calcutta. After his father's death, when the essay about, boy was 3 years old, he was brought to tungkol ingles, England to be educated at space school and reality essay later at Cambridge University. Being a student, William devoted much time to drawing cartoons and essay about writing verses, chiefly parodies. He couldn't bear the scholastic atmosphere of the essays on family, University, and as his ambition. Snob , Vanity Fair , William Makepeace Thackeray 1279 Words | 3 Pages. Descriptive Essay on about space a County Fair as a Child. The Fair As a younger child, my family would make annual trips to the County Fair in to start analysis, Albany. My parents would go to see all the . neat exhibits and other “grown up things”, as I as a child called them. My main enjoyment of the about space, fair when I was younger was the vs illusion, fair rides and junk food. My view of the fair when I was little was one filled with wonderment and awe.
The screams fading in and out as people shot up in the air on rickety fair rides and the greasy sweet smell that filled the air and about space made. 2008 singles , Carnival , Fair 1008 Words | 3 Pages. Team and Small Group Experience Essay. Team and Small Group Experience Recalling my early days of being athletically gifted, I was a member of my high school basketball team. The . team consisted of make conclusion, ten members. To acknowledge taking part in a group, I will have to essay about space, recall working in the Army as Flight Operations Specialist. The intent of this essay , I will examine the relationship of communication among the members as taking part in a group or team, and to analyze the collaboration factors of how information is processed between each. Basketball , Communication , High school 1278 Words | 4 Pages.
?Is Capitalism Fair ? Capitalism is an to start analysis economic system that is essay about, based on private ownership of the means of production and the creation of literature, . goods or services for profit. It is considered to have been applied in a variety of historical cases, varying in time, geography, politics, and about space culture. Ap World Essays. There is general agreement that Capitalism became dominant in the Western world following the demise of feudalism until nowadays. There are people in favour of this system, who claim that Capitalism has fostered. Adam Smith , Capitalism , Economic system 947 Words | 3 Pages. of only space one purpose on to why he has taken Gemma and it is make conclusion, not what people may think it would be. It is the essay about, simplicity of wanting company, the simplicity of . Essays. wanting another individual to share all the amazing things he has seen in the wild. In the book Stolen by Lucy Christopher, the author portrays a human’s misguided sense of first impression without knowing the full clarity of a situation. Upon seeing Ty at the airport Gemma was very attracted to Ty. Although he was a stranger she thought she.
2002 singles , Debut albums , Eye color 947 Words | 3 Pages.
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2017 MBA Essay Questions: Dartmouth Tuck. 2017 Tuck MBA Essay Questions Class of essay 2020. What are your short and long-term goals? Why is an MBA a critical next step toward achieving those goals? Why are you interested in Tuck specifically? up to 500 words Tuck’s mission is to educate wise leaders to good ways to start essay, better the world of essay space business. Wisdom encompasses the essential aptitudes of confident humility, about what one does and does not know; empathy, towards the diverse ideas and experiences of others; and judgment, about when and tungkol ingles, how to take risks for the better. With Tuck’s mission in mind, and essay about, with a focus on confident humility, tell us about a time you: received tough feedback experienced failure, or disappointed yourself or others.
How did you respond, and what did you learn about yourself as a result? (500 words) Super cool! Lots of make conclusion awesome possibilities here. Talking about where something did not go well is essay space one of the BEST opportunities to show who you are. The hardest part will be the #8220;lessons learned#8221; angle. Tuck has always cared about essays on family seperations career goals as an about space important element of your application, and we#8217;re gratified to see them go back to the basics this year (last year#8217;s version was a bit of a trainwreck). Make Conclusion. The best way to write Essay 1 is to show how you#8217;ve done something in the past, that you can build on through the Tuck MBA. That#8217;s what they are looking for with the space, #8220;next step#8221; language. Try not to overhype it though! We definitely are pleased that Tuck changed them from what they asked last year!
Tuck has now restored itself to a position in EssaySnark#8217;s Most Loved Adcoms list based on essays seperations these awesome questions. They#8217;re going to give you enough room to talk about about stuff that#8217;s important, and you#8217;ll be able to truly share yourself in make conclusion, this app. Great stuff! And we just have to call attention to essay about space, something: Instead of publishing an 80% range on GMAT score, this year Tuck posted the reality essay, full range of their Class of 2019 , which is 620 to 780. Why does that matter?
Well, only about four years ago, their full range was 530 to essay about space, 780 #8212; so as you can see, the low end is almost 100 points HIGHER than it used to be. Shocking stuff, these GMAT trends. Tuck 2017 MBA App Dates and Deadlines. Tuck Admissions is kind, giving you lots of breathing room before you have to have your Early Action app in! Early Action Round: October 4, 2017 This round is most advantageous if you#8217;re serious about reality vs illusion essay Tuck then you#8217;re encouraged to apply then if possible! (non-binding) Despite the about, fact that this is named the literature in research, #8220;early action#8221; round, you won#8217;t get your final decision back from them any earlier than you will with your Round 1 schools. The main difference? Your deposit to essay, secure your place in the class will be due sooner than many other schools require for a standard Round 1 app. November Round: November 1, 2017 a smart option for ap world history those for whom Tuck is near the top of their list but perhaps not their #1 choice. January Round: January 3, 2018 this round is still viable, just like most other schools#8217; Round 2 but Tuck sure hasn#8217;t done you any favors based on space how that date comes smack dab after the holiday break. official school pages: Remember: Tuck has applicant-initiated on-campus interviews.
They are technically optional, but STRONGLY recommended! Class of essays seperations 2018 profile. other useful stuff: For Reference: Tuck#8217;s Past-Season Questions. Included in case you want to see what Dartmouth asked before (and what we said about it). Space. Click to tungkol, view 2016 questions. What are your short and long-term goals? Why do you need an essay space MBA to achieve those goals? Why are you interested in Tuck specifically? oh they switched it! HERE IS THE **ACTUAL** CLASS OF 2019 ESSAY 1! Tuck educates wise leaders who better the world of literature in research business. What are your short- and long-term goals? How will a Tuck MBA enable you to become a wise leader with global impact? up to 700 words. Essay About. Tuck has always cared about career goals as an important element of your application, yet this year they#8217;ve thrown a twist into the works.
The best way to write this is to show how you#8217;ve done something in the past, that you can build on good to start off an analysis through the Tuck MBA. Try not to overhype it though! As a diverse and global community, our students arrive at the same place from essay about space, many different paths. Tell us about an experience in tungkol sa wikang ingles, which you have had to live, learn and/or work with other people very different from yourself. What challenges and/or opportunities did you experience, how did you respond, and what did you learn about yourself as a result? interesting this is somewhat similar to essay space, what INSEAD tends to good ways to start off an, ask (some overlap there if you#8217;re targeting both schools) it#8217;s also very flexible in that the #8220;different from yourself#8221; angle could be applied in myriad ways (just be sure to notice the #8220;very#8221; part; this is space asking for a story where you had to good ways to start off an essay, deal with things in a new way because of about your differences!) We can tell you, Brave Supplicant, that these essays will take work, but you#8217;re going to have a real opportunity to share something significant through both of them. There#8217;s also an optional essay (which is truly optional), and a separate reapplicant essay if you#8217;re trying again.
The 2016 Tuck MBA Application Guide is going to be pretty valuable if you#8217;re trying to good to start, deal with the about, complexity of the questions that Tuck is seperations asking this year. Talks in depth about about space a variety of strategies to show #8220;global impact#8221; with your goals, and also the essay, second question about dealing with people who are different from you. Tuck did not pull the punch on the questions for about the Class of 2019 application! [end discussion of last year#8217;s questions] Click to history, view 2015 questions. About Space. As we expected, the 2015 essays are nearly identical to what was asked in 2014, except now they#8217;re making the #8220;school fit#8221; angles more explicit. Ap World History. Lucky you because these are great questions to show the strengths of your profile!
You can see this year#8217;s version and what#8217;s changed here: Why is an MBA a critical next step toward your short- and long-term career goals? Why is Tuck the best MBA fit for you and your goals and why are you the best fit for Tuck? What are your short- and long-term goals? Why do you need an MBA to achieve those goals? Why are you interested in Tuck specifically? Tell us about about space your most meaningful leadership experience and what role you played. What did you learn about your own individual strengths and weaknesses through this experience? How will that experience contribute to the learning environment at ways essay, Tuck? Tuck has always cared about career goals as an important element of your application, and essay, they changed the wording this year from what they had previously – and now this is a great career goals question! one of the best of all the schools that ask about goals these days.
There#8217;s also two other essays available for ap world history essays certain circumstances: one, if you#8217;re a reapplicant, and about, two, if you have other things you must share with the essays, adcom in explanation of details on your app. Essay About. The optional essay is only to be used if you really need it. Don#8217;t feel compelled to submit one simply because it#8217;s there. Essays Seperations. That would be a strategic misstep. The career goals question is really asking for the same thing as they have always wanted to space, know about. They#8217;ve simplified the way they#8217;re asking for it, in ways which we feel are very applicant-friendly. It#8217;s going to be easier for tungkol sa wikang ingles you to about, handle this based on ap world those subparts than it was for some BSers last year. In 2014, Tuck stuck to about space, its guns and kept its own recommendations; this school did NOT have standardized recommendation questions last year. This was, frankly, an advantage to applicants, in our opinion. We don#8217;t yet have word on make conclusion what they will do in 2015 though we hope they#8217;ll keep that status quo. [end discussion of about 2015 questions]
Click to view 2014 questions. 2014 Essays EssaySnark#8217;s Analysis. The 2014 essays are the same as 2013, just fewer! Why is an MBA a critical next step toward your short- and long-term career goals? Why is Tuck the best MBA fit for you and your goals and why are you the good ways to start off an analysis, best fit for Tuck? Tell us about your most meaningful leadership experience and what role you played. What did you learn about your own individual strengths and essay about space, weaknesses through this experience? There#8217;s also an optional essay, and a separate reapplicant essay if you#8217;re trying again. Essay. In question #1, they added the phrase #8220;and your goals#8221; to the #8220;fit#8221; part of the question. The other key change from last year?
Besides the fact that they lopped off one entire essay from the about, set? They deleted the word #8220;collaborative#8221; from the good off an essay, second essay question. Essay About Space. This was a one-year addition (only asked in 2013; see below) where they wanted an example of a #8220;collaborative leadership experience.#8221; Now it#8217;s just your #8220;most meaningful#8221; one without the teamwork element. This distinction is important. Survey In Research. We go into detail on about space this in our 2014 Tuck MBA essay guide . Ap World Essays. The only other change seems to be that they#8217;ve standardized with other schools in ditching the #8220;Confidential Statement of Qualifications#8221; moniker and instead are now calling recs what they are: #8220;Letters of Recommendation.#8221; They#8217;re still confidential, unless you opt otherwise, and it would still help you to keep that focus on #8220;qualifications#8221; throughout your application. Again, this is discussed in the new Tuck strategy guide . Thankfully Tuck hasn#8217;t #8220;standardized#8221; the rest of their recommendations process the way many of their peers have. Tip: Tuck has a separate application process for their scholarships, with an additional essay and deadlines shortly after the standard round deadline. We have a QuickSnark Guide for the Tuck Scholarship Essay that you can pick up when you#8217;re ready to tackle that.
9/17/14: They ditched the separate scholarship essay! In terms of deadlines: 2014 was essentially the same as they had in 2013 except that they moved the January 2015 due date to essay, the first Monday after the New Year, which is a relief; in January 2014, they had apps due on the Friday when everyone was still in holiday vacation-mode. [end discussion of 2014 questions] Click to view 2013 questions. 2013 Essays EssaySnark#8217;s Analysis. These are REALLY OLD. Survey In Research. They give you 500 words each woo-hoo! Three essays plus an about space optional (don#8217;t do the optional unless you have a very good reason): Why is an reality essay MBA a critical next step toward your short- and long-term career goals? Why is Tuck the best MBA fit for you and your goals and why are you the essay, best fit for good ways Tuck? Tell us about your most meaningful collaborative leadership experience and what role you played.
What did you learn about your own individual strengths and weaknesses through this experience? Describe a circumstance in your life in which you faced adversity, failure, or setback. What actions did you take as a result and what did you learn from this experience? Great questions! Not too different! Classic Tuck! And they give you some room to about space, actually answer them.
These should be easy for you. You may even want to seperations, do your Tuck application FIRST of all your schools; this will be a good way to learn the ropes on what it takes to write a strong pitch. Space. (We had heard rumors that Tuck was doing a video essay this year#8230; doesn#8217;t seem to be the case.) [end discussion of 2013 questions] 2012 Essays these are SERIOUSLY REALLY OLD. Why is an MBA a critical next step toward your short- and make conclusion, long-term career goals? Why is Tuck the best MBA program for you, and what will you uniquely contribute to essay about, the community? (We#8217;re betting they keep this question again this year.) Discuss your most meaningful leadership experience. Essays Seperations. What did you learn about your own individual strengths and weaknesses through this experience? Describe a circumstance in your life in which you faced adversity, failure, or setback. Essay About. What actions did you take as a result and what did you learn from this experience? [end discussion of 2012 questions] Tuck Essay Reviews School Info by EssaySnark. ($) essay critique: a #8220;significant leadership#8221; story for Tuck or Kellogg (September 2016) ($) If this is your Rd 1 list – Tuck, Duke, Kellogg – read on. (July 2016) Firsthand experiences on literature Tuck, Kellogg and Duke, from a military candidate (July 2016) essay critique! Tuck career goals (December 2013) The Applicant-Friendliest Place on Earth (February 2012) essay critique: Tuck essay 4, new perspectives and life experiences (September 2011) essay critique: Tuck #8220;overcoming an obstacle#8221; essay (December 2010) adcoms that we trust (October 2010) and the one less traveled by (December 2010) The standard career goals advice we#8217;ve offered for schools like Columbia and others may also be helpful for you in essay about space, tackling Tuck essays.
2017 MBA Application Strategy Guides. The 2017 Darden MBA Application Guide - rewritten almost from scratch to help you with the make conclusion, 2017 app! The 2017 Michigan Ross Essay Guide - totally new to essay space, help you with the nine short-answer options and your career goals! The 2017 MIT Essay Guide with brand-new material on the cover letter and the 'introduce yourself' video. The 2017 Duke Essay Guide - covers the 25 Random Things essay and all the on family seperations, rest too! The 2017 Harvard MBA Application Guide - refreshed with new details and strategies for your Class of 2020 app. Brave Supplicants' latest reviews on essay space The 'Snark. I think that the reviewer raised a lot of essays on family seperations good points, but a) three pages of feedback on a 250 word . As a re-applicant, I knew I needed considerable improvement to essay, my pitch in order to make conclusion, maximize my . What were we snarking about at this time in past years? 2016 : ($) If you get fired, do you need to tell the adcom? 2016 : Good luck for HBS applicants! 2016 : No, you don't have to actually do the thing you say you will do in the career goals essay.
2014 : Did you just discover EssaySnark? 2013 : Success Story! A Journey to the Center of America: A Saga (Part 2: The First Year) 2013 : More on visiting schools 2012 : ($) What about essay a lower-ranked program? (No, lower than that) 2012 : ($) Duke's main essay: What do you tell your family, friends, and colleagues? 2011 : essay critique: Columbia essay 2 life experience 2011 : Battle of the thesis tungkol sa wikang, Blogs! EssaySnark® is a registered trademark.
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Free Information Technology essays. 1.1 Problem Statement. Volume, variety and essay about, velocity of ap world essays data is increasing day by day, it leads to the generation of big data and by using existing techniques it is not easy to process such big volume of data and mine frequent patterns that exist in data . Perform Association Rule Mining and FP Growth on Big Data of E-Commerce Market to find frequent patterns and association rules among item sets present in database by using reduced Apriori Algorithm and reduced FP Growth Algorithm on essay about top of Mahout (an open source library or java API) built on Hadoop Map Reduce Framework. Big Data refers to datasets whose amount is away from the ability of characteristic database software tools to thesis sa wikang ingles analyze, store, manage and capture. This explanation is deliberately incorporates and subjective, a good definition of how large a dataset needs to be in order to be considered as big data i.e. we cannot define big data in terms of being big than a certain number of terabytes or thousands of gigabytes. Essay About Space! We suppose that as technology advances with time the volume of datasets that would be eligible as big data will also rise. The definition can differ from sector to sector; it is depending up on on family seperations which kind of essay about space software tools are normally present and what size of datasets are general in a particular industry. According to good off an essay study, today big data in many sectors will range from a few dozen terabytes to thousands of terabytes. ' Velocity, Variety and about, Volume of data is make conclusion growing day by day that is why it is not easy to manage large amount of essay data.
' According to survey in research study, 30 billion data or content shared on face book every month. Issues/Problems while analysing Big Data: ' According to analysis, every day more than one billion shares are traded on the New York Stock Exchange. ' According to analysis, every day Facebook saves two billion comments and likes. ' According to space analysis, every minute Foursquare manages more than two thousand Check-ins. ' According to analysis, every minute Trans Union makes nearly 70,000 update to credit files. ' According to on family seperations analysis, every second Banks process more than ten thousand credit card transactions. We are producing data more rapidly than ever: ' According to study processes are more and essay, more automated.
' According to reality study people are more and more interacting online. ' According to study systems are more and more interconnected. We are producing a variety of data including: ' Social network connections. ' Product rating comments. Big data is the term for a collection of data sets so large and complex that it becomes difficult to process using on-hand database management tools or traditional data processing applications. Gartner, and essay space, now much of the industry, continue to use this 3Vs model for describing big data . In 2012, Gartner updated its definition as follows: Big data is the make conclusion, term that can be defined as high velocity, volume and variety of information assets that require new forms of processing to enable enhanced result building, nearby discovery and process optimization . Additionally, a new V Veracity is added by some organizations to about describe it. Big data has evolved like a very important factor in the economic and technology field, as Similar to other important factors of invention like hard-assets human-capital, high in survey in research methodology, numbers the present economic activity merely could n't take position exclusive of it.
We can say that by looking at current position of the departments in the US economic companies have minimum of 200TB data storage on about an average if considered(as double as the size of Wal-Mart's data warehouse of US-retailer in ap world history, 1999) having one thousand workers approximately. In fact many departments have 1peta-byte 'PB' (in mean) data storage per about space organization. The growth of the big data will be continue to make conclusion reach to an high extent, due to the modern technologies, platforms and their logical units and capabilities for handling large amount of data and also its large no. of upcoming users. Utilization of Big Data will turn Out to Be a Key base of Competition and Growth for Individual Firms: Usage of big-data has become an important medium for the leading firms to get better in their data handling. If we consider an example of about a retail company, the company can increase its operating margin by 60% approximately by embracing their big data. The chief retailers like UK's TESCO and many more use big-data to keep market revenue-share in their pocket against from their local competitors. The emergence of big-data also has capability to evolutes new growth opportunities for those companies who have both combine and industry analyzing data. Even the companies who have their data at the mid-point of large info data about the objectives and demands of their users, services, buyers, products suppliers can be easily analyzed and literature survey in research, captured using big-data.
The big-data usage in any firm or company can facilitate the healthy and about space, more enhanced analyzing of data and its outcome, by deploying the big-data in the firm there will be lower prices of product, higher quality and healthy match between the history essays, company and essay, customer's need. We can say that the step forward towards the acceptance of big data can improve customer surplus and acceleration of performance along all the companies. Figure1.1: Types of data generated. Significance of Big Data: ' The administrator of the Obama has announced the idea of big-data Rd which is very useful to handle the several obstacles and problem which government is facing now a days. Their idea comprised of literature in research 84 big-data programs with 6 different departments. ' Big data study played a big role for Obama's successful 2012 re-election campaign. ' Ebay.com uses two data warehouse that consists of 7.5 petabytes and 40 petabytes as well as 40 petabytes Hadoop cluster for merchandising, recommendations and search. ' Everyday, Amazon.com also handles large amount of data (in millions) and its related back-end operations as well as requested queries from third part sellers on space an average of more than half million. ' More than 1Million consumer-transactions processes every hour in Walmart, that is put into databases and estimation is done on analysis essay data. ' Facebook also has 50 billion pictures of its user and process it very well.
' F.I.C.O. that is 'Falcon Credit Card Fraud Detection System' handles and about space, secure 2.1-billion active a/c worlds widely. ' According to estimation, the size of the data stored of business and reality, companies is essay space increasing to the double in every 1.2 years. ' Windermere Real Estate uses various 'GPS signals' from make conclusion nearly 100 million drivers which help new home seekers to determine their critical times to from work around the about, times. ' Hadoop is an open source that is called free software framework or technology for processing the reality, huge datasets for certain kinds of problems on the distributed system. ' Hadoop is an open source piece of essay software that mines or extracts the sequential and to start off an analysis essay, non-sequential big-data for a company and then integrates that big-data with your present business intelligence ecosystem. ' Hadoop works on the most important principle called Map-Reduce (map task reduce task), the about, main work of the map-reduce is to ap world history essays divide the input dataset into number of independent pieces which are then processed in the parallel-manner by the map tasks.
' The output generated by the map task will become input to the reduce task after performed sorting on about the output by reality, framework. ' A file system is used to store the input and the output of the jobs. ' Some tasks failed during execution so framework takes care of monitoring the tasks, 're-executes' the essay, failed tasks and scheduling the tasks. History of Hadoop: ' The main or the very important organization from where the history of Hadoop began is none other than best company of the world 'Google'. ' Google published two academic research papers on the technology called 'Google File-System' (GFS) and 'Map-Reduce' in the year 2003 and 2004.
' After some time these two technologies combined together and provided a good plat-form for ap world history, processing huge amount of data in about, well-organized or effective manner. ' Doug Cutting also played a very important role to develop Hadoop an open source framework that provides the 'implementations' of 'Map-Reduce' and good off an essay, 'Google File System'. ' Doug Cutting had been working on the elements of essay space open source web search engine called 'Nutch' that completely resembles with the technologies 'Map-Reduce' and 'Google File System' published in the Google's research paper. ' In this way Hadoop was born but when it was developed first time, it was named as the 'subproject of Lucene'. ' After that Apache open source foundation did some changes in reality essay, it and named as 'Apache's open source framework Hadoop' that can be used for essay, processing Big Data in less time. ' Later Doug Cutting was hired by history, another big company that is about yahoo. He and other employees of yahoo contributed a lot to Hadoop but after some time Doug Cutting moved to 'Cloudera' and his other teams was hired by an organization called 'Hortonworks'. ' Still we can say that yahoo has the essays on family, biggest contribution to develop Hadoop. What is Apache Mahout? ' Mahout is an API or we can say that it is the essay space, library of essays scalable 'machine-learning' or 'collective-intelligence' algorithms like (classification, clustering, collaborative-filtering and frequent-pattern-mining) that is mailnly used for mining frequent item sets, it takes a group of item sets and identifies that which individual items usually or mainly appear together.
' When the size of data is too large then in essay space, such kind of circumstances Mahout is used as the best 'machine-learning' tool because number of algorithms like clustering, pattern mining and collaborative-filtering has been implemented in mahout, it can produce the outputs fast when used on top of make conclusion Hadoop. History of Mahout: ' The life of Mahout was started in the year 2008, at this time it was treated as the 'sub-project' of one of the major project of Apache named as 'Apache's Lucene Project'. ' The techniques like search, text-mining and 'information-retrievel' were implemented by Apache's Lucene project. ' Some of the members of the project Lucene were working on space the same technology that is 'machine-learning' areas, so these members also contributed to mahout and a separate project named 'Mahout' was generated which works on essays the principle to predicts future on the basis of past.. ' The algorithms implemented in Mahout were not only implemented in the conventional way but also implemented in such a way that Mahout Framework and algorithms could easily process the large amount of data while working on essay space top of Hadoop using Mahout. Now in the next section I will present the brief introduction of each algorithm that has been implemented on Mahout. ' Collaborative-Filtering is the technique of filter out some important data from the seperations, large amount of data which user browse, preference and essay about, rate, in other words we can say that collaborative filtering is the process of generating predictions on the basis of users past behavior or history and suggest or recommend users the sa wikang, top most predicted data or top 'N' recommendations so that it might be helpful for user in his/her future decisions. ' Collaborative-Filtering can be performed in two ways, item-based collaborative filtering and user-based collaborative filtering. ' User-based collaborative filtering is the technique that find neighbors having similar taste like user from the large amount of user preferences database then suggest or generates the essay about, recommendations for user but like and dislike of user is make conclusion not static so the recommendations generated using this technique is essay space not so effective and bottleneck problem also occurs so Item-based collaborative filtering algorithm is used these days to generate recommendations for a user because it removes the reality vs illusion, problem of bottleneck and it first finds the items having similar relationship that user has liked from large pool of essay items and then generate the recommendations. ' Item based collaborative filtering works on the principle that similarity among item remains static but user likes and good ways to start off an analysis essay, dislikes may change so this technique generates good quality of recommendations as compared to user-based collaborative filtering algorithm. ' Association-rule-mining is the technique used to find some rules on the basis of which the growth of an organization can be increased.
' There are number of algorithms on essay about the basis of which we can find frequent patterns from the vs illusion, large of dataset, on the basis of frequent patterns we can generate some rules that would be really helpful to increase the essay about, turnover of an ap world organization. Architecture of Map-Reduce: A paper on the idea named 'Map-reduce' was published by essay about space, 'Google' in 2004 that was used as architecture. Map-reduce  named architectural framework is able to model the survey methodology, parallel processing and its implementation used to process the large amount of data stored. Using this technology, the requested query is splitted into sub queries and then distributed among several parallel sites and processed parallel which is about called the to start off an analysis, 'Map-step'. Then the results obtained are combined and delivered that is the reduce step.
This 'frame-work' was extremely successful; in fact the others wanted to make its replica. Therefore, Map Reduce framework's implementation named 'HADOOP' was adopted by an Apache open source project. Figure1.3: MAP-Reduce Flow. Existing Techniques and Technologies: The several technologies have been adapted and developed to manipulate, analyse, visualize and aggregate huge quantity of data. These technologies and techniques describe from numerous areas including computer science, applied mathematics, economics and statistics. A number of technologies and space, techniques were developed in the world having access to smaller variety and volumes in data but they have been effectively adapted so that they could be valid to make conclusion very big sets or more dissimilar data. Big data needs outstanding technologies to resourcefully process large amount of data within sufficient intervened times. A 2011 report on big data suggests suitable Big Data techniques include:
A/B Testing: It is a technique in space, which the comparison between control group and essays, different test groups is done to obtain the answer that what changes can improve the aim of about space it. Association Rules: A set of survey methodology these techniques is used find significant relationships that are association rules between identifiers of huge data storage. Essay About Space! Numbers of algorithms are present inside this technology to survey in research methodology produce and test feasible rules. Classification: A technique which is mainly used to classify the space, items present in survey methodology, the dataset and usually used to predict the nature of a class using other attributes. For Example: Prediction of weather on the basis of previous day's weather. Cluster Analysis: It is the technique used to group the number of objects having similar properties into one cluster and about, other objects having similar properties with each other but dissimilar to other cluster group into one cluster. Literature Survey In Research! It is a type of 'unsupervised-learning' because training data are not used. This technique is in dissimilarity to classify a data mining technology called as 'supervised learning'.
Data combination and Data Integration: These are the space, techniques that gather the data from several locations then analyze the data for producing good understandings in such a way that is much effective and essay, possibly more precise. Machine Learning: A branch or part of computer_science generally called artificial intelligence that is related with the design and improvement of algorithms, which allow computer systems to develop activities on the basis of essay space realistic data. Natural language processing: NLP is the technique to process natural language using collection of techniques from the field of computer science which is named as AI linguistics also consists of number of make conclusion algorithms to analyze human or natural language. Sentiment Analysis: This is an application of natural-language-processing that is (NLP) and other critical techniques to recognize and mine the knowledge from inputs. Some important aspects of essay its examination comprises of literature survey in research methodology identifying the product, aspect and feature. Big Data Technologies: There are emergent techniques that can be applicable to modify, analyze, aggregate read the big data. Big Table: Big table is the PDDS i.e. proprietary distributed-database-system built on the GFS i.e. 'Google-File-System' Encouragement for HBase. Business Intelligence (BI): A sort of application software builds to analyze, present and report data. Business Intelligence tools normally analyze data which is earlier stored in space, 'data_mart' or 'data_warehouse'.
Cassandra: An open-source DBMS (database management system) specially aimed to handle large quantity of data on a distributed system. Dynamo: Amazon developed a private DDSS that is distributed data storage system developed called 'Dynamo'. Google File System: This is a private distributed file system developed by Google as a part of the motivation for Hadoop. HBASE: This is an open-source non-relational DDB that is distributed data base based on Big Table product of Google. This project was initially developed by reality, Power set but now it is managed by the Apache Software Foundation as part of the about space, Hadoop. Map Reduce: This is a software framework developed by the best company of the world that is 'Google' for handing out large datasets for make conclusion, specific kinds of requested queries on data stored at distributed sites. R: This is a software environment and an open source programming language for graphics and statistical computing.
Relational Database: This is a database formed up through a collection of tuples columns collectively stored in tabular form. RDBMS i.e. Relational Database Management Systems is the essay about, database system consists of structured-data and stored in form of tuples and columns. SQL is the best language for managing or maintaining relational databases. 1] A.Pradeepa, A.S.Thanamani. 'Hadoop File System And Fundamental Concept of make conclusion Map Reduce Interior And Closure Rough Set Approximations '. In this paper authors described that big data-mining and essay about space, knowledge-discovery is the huge challenges because the volume or size of data is growing at an unprecented approximation scale. Map-Reduce have been implemented to achieve many large-scale computations.
Recently introduced or presented Map-Reduce proficiency has received or gained much more consideration and attention from both the sides that is the industry for its applicability and the scientific-community in big-data analysis .According to the authors of this paper, for reality vs illusion, mining and finding some knowledge from big data, they presented an algorithm corresponding to the Map-Reduce based on abrasive theory, that are put forward to essay space deal with the massive or large amount of data and ap world history, also measured the performances on the large or big data sets to show that the proposed work can effectively or accurately processes the big data and find the results in less time. 2] Md.R.Karim1, A.Hossain, Md.M.Rashid. 'An Efficient Market Basket Analysis Technique with Improved Map Reduce Framework on Hadoop '. In this paper, authors described that market-basket analysis techniques are considerably important to space every day's business decision because of its capability of good ways off an analysis mining customer's purchase rules by discovering that which items they are buying so frequently and together. The traditional single processor and main memory based computing is not proficient of handling ever growing huge transactional data. In this paper an effort has been taken to remove these limitations. First author will eliminate null transactions and rare items from the essay about, segmented dataset before applying their proposed HMBA algorithm using the ComMap-Reduce framework on Hadoop to generate the absolute set of in research methodology maximal frequent item-sets. 3] J.W. Essay About Space! Woo, Yuhang Xu. 'Market Basket Analysis Algorithm with Map/Reduce of Cloud Computing '.
In this paper, authors explained the Map-Reduce approach that has been very popular or effective, in order to compute or calculate enormous volumes of thesis ingles data, since google implemented its platform on google distributed file systems that is called (G.D.F.S) and Amazon web service that is called (A.W.S), provides its services with a platform called Apache Hadoop. 4] J.W. Woo, S.Basopia, Yuhang Xu. Essay Space! 'Market Basket Analysis Algorithm with no-SQL DB HBase and Hadoop '. In this paper authors presented a new schema that is called H-Base which is used to vs illusion essay process transaction data for market basket analysis algorithm. Market basket analysis algorithm runs on apache Hadoop Map-Reduce and read data from HBase and HDFS, then the transaction data is converted and sorted into data set having (key and value pair) and after the completion of whole process, it stores the whole data to the H-Base or Hadoop distributed file system that is HDFS. 5] D.V.S.Shalini, M.Shashi and A.M.Sowjanya. 'Mining Frequent Patterns of Stock Data Using Hybrid Clustering'. In this paper, authors described that the classification and patterns in the stock market or inventory data is really significant or important for business-support and decision-making. They also proposed a new algo that is algorithm for mining patterns from large amount of about space stock market data for guessing factors that are affecting or decreasing the make conclusion, product's sale. To improve the execution time, the proposed system uses two efficient methods for clustering which includes PAM that is Partitioning Around Medoids and (BIRCH) that is Balanced Iterative Reducing and Clustering using Hierarchies along with (M.F.P). The best well-organized iterative clustering approach that is called as PAM.
PAM is used initially or to start the essay about space, clustering and after that PAM was combined with frequent pattern mining algorithm that is called FPM algorithm. 6] W.Wei, S.Yu, Q.Guo, W.Ding and L.Bian. 'An Effective Algorithm for make conclusion, Simultaneously Mining Frequent Patterns and Association Rules'. According to the authors of about this paper algorithms like Apriori and FP -Growth break the problem of mining association rules into two different sub problems then find frequent pattern and literature in research methodology, generate the required rules. To solve the problem we catch a deep insight of FP-Growth algorithm and propose an effective algorithm by using the about, FP-tree called AR-Growth Association Rule Growth which can concurrently discover frequent item sets and association rules (AR) in a large database. 7] J.W.Woo. 'Apriori-Map/Reduce Algorithm '.
In this paper, authors presented number of methods or techniques for off an, converting many sequential algorithms to the corresponding or related Map-Reduce algorithms. They also described that Map-Reduce algorithm of the legacy Apriori algorithm which has been common or same to collect the about, item sets frequently, arose to ap world history compose association rules in data mining. Theoretically it shows that the proposed algorithm provides the high performance computing depending upon the number of Map-Reduce nodes. 8] L.Hualei, L.Shukuan, Q.Jianzhong, Y.Ge, L.Kaifu. 'An Efficient Frequent Pattern Mining Algorithm for Data Stream '. In this paper authors proposed or we can say presented a novel structure NC-Tree (New Compact Tree), which can re-code and filter original data to compress dataset. At the same time, a new frequent pattern mining algorithm is also introduced on the bases of it, which can update and adjust the essay about space, tree more efficiently. There are mostly two kinds of thesis sa wikang ingles algorithms that is basically used to mine frequent item sets using frequent pattern mining approach. One is Apriori algorithm that is based on generating and testing and the other one is FP-growth that is based on dividing and conquering, which has been widely used in static data mining. For data stream, the frequent pattern mining algorithms must have strong ability of about space updating and adjusting to further improve its efficiency. 9] S.K Vijayakumar, A. Bhargavi, U. Praseeda and S. A. Ap World Essays! Ahamed. Essay About! 'Optimizing Sequence Alignment in reality, Cloud using Hadoop and MPP Database'[Sequence Alignment].
In this paper authors discussed about sequential-alignment of bio-informatics big data. The size of data is growing day by day in the field of bio-informatics so it is not easy to process and find important sequences that are present in bio-informatics data using existing techniques. About! Authors of this paper basically discussed about the new technologies to store and process large amount of data that is 'Hadoop' and 'Green-plum'. Make Conclusion! Green-plum is the massively parallel processing technique used to store petabytes of data. Hadoop is also used to process huge amount of data because it is also based on parallel processing and generates results in very less time as compared to existing technologies to process the huge amount of data. Space! Authors also mentioned about the thesis tungkol ingles, proposed algorithm for sequential-alignment that is 'FAST-A'.
10] S.Mishra, D.Mishra and about, S.K.Satapathy. On Family Seperations! 'Fuzzy Pattern Tree Approach for essay about space, Mining Frequent Patterns from Gene Expression Data'[paper4]. In this paper the main focus of the authors on the 'frequent pattern mining of gene- expression data'. As we know that frequent pattern mining has become a more debatable and focused area in last few years. There are number of algorithms exist which can be used to frequent pattern from the data set. But in this paper authors applied the literature survey in research, fuzzification technique on the data set and after that applied number of techniques to find more meaningful frequent patterns from data set. 11] L.Chen, W.Liu. Essay Space! 'An Algorithm for Mining Frequent Patterns in Biological Sequence' [paper7]. In this paper authors describe that the existing techniques used to mine frequent patterns from large amount of vs illusion biological data is not efficient and time consuming. About Space! They proposed a new technique called 'Frequent Biological Pattern Mining' or 'FBPM' to seperations mine frequent patterns from large amount of biological data.
They also compared the essay space, results of both the techniques that are existing techniques and proposed techniques on the basis of execution time to find frequent patterns and thesis tungkol ingles, number of patterns mined. 12] B.Sarwar, G.Karypis, J.Konstan, and J.Riedl. 'ItemBased Collaborative Filtering Recommendation Algorithms'. In this paper authors talked about the recommendation systems and described various techniques to develop a good recommendation system that can be used to generate best recommendations for the users. About Space! Recommendation systems are the system with the help of which we can predict the vs illusion essay, future after applying some collaborative-filtering algorithms, on the basis of users past activities. Two most famous collaborative-filtering techniques that we generally use to predict the future data that would be helpful for user on about his/her next purchase are Item-based-collaborative-filtering algorithm and User- based-collaborative-filtering algorithm. Item-based- collaborative-filtering algorithm works on the principle of comparing the similarities between items and suggests those items to the users which are quite similar to his/her taste. On the other hand user-based-collaborative-filtering algorithm works on the principle of finding nearest-neighbours of target user which agrees on the similar item in thesis, terms of essay about rating or having some similarity in items, find nearest users having similar taste to the target user and suggest those items to the target user which are liked by his/her nearest-neighbours. Design and Implementation. 3.1 Proposed Methodology: According to our dissertation title we are working to find frequent patterns and on sa wikang ingles the basis of the frequent patterns some recommendations would be suggested to the user using frequent pattern mining algorithm, Hadoop and Mahout. 1. First of all my main work is to essay collect the real time data set of E-commerce website.
2. Essays! Once the data set has been collected, next step is to clean the data set. Cleaning of about space dataset means remove the unwanted fields and convert the format of dataset into desired format. 3. After converting the dataset into a meaningful format, make a java program that can read the dataset and ways off an analysis, generate frequent patterns and about space, association rules from the data. 4. For finding the frequent patterns from the dataset apply the reduced apriori algorithm and create a map-reduce program that will implement reduced apriori algorithm. 5. Combine the program with Hadoop to tungkol sa wikang find the frequent patterns in less time as compared to find the frequent patterns by executing program in eclipse. 6. Essay! Apply the dataset using mahout on top of Hadoop in distributed environment to find recommendations by using collaborative filtering approach.
7. Compare the execution time of finding frequent patterns and association rules using (Hadoop, Mahout) and literature in research methodology, simple java program. 3.2 Proposed Architecture: 'Hadoop is an open source that is called free software framework or technology for processing the huge datasets for certain kinds of problems on the distributed system. 'Hadoop is an open source piece of software that mines or extracts the sequential and non-sequential big-data for a company and essay about, then integrates that big-data with your present business intelligence ecosystem. 'Hadoop works on make conclusion the most important principle called Map-Reduce (map task reduce task), the main work of the map-reduce is to divide the input dataset into number of independent pieces which are then processed in the parallel-manner by the map tasks. 'The output generated by the map task will become input to the reduce task after performed sorting on the output by framework. 'A file system is used to store the input and about space, the output of the to start analysis essay, jobs. 'Some tasks failed during execution so framework takes care of monitoring the tasks, 're-executes' the failed tasks and scheduling the tasks. ' There are numbers of sub-components in the Hadoop but two core or main components of Hadoop are 'Map-Reduce' (Used for processing) and 'Google File System (GFS)' or 'Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS)' (Used for storage). ' 'Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS)' and 'Map-Reduce' are designed to keep this thing in mind that they both could be deployed on the single cluster and so that both processing system and storage system could work together.
Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS): ' HDFS stands for 'Hadoop Distribute File System', this is a file system basically used by Hadoop having distributed nature and produce high output per unit time. ' HDFS is the distributed file system because it distributes the data across number of nodes so that in case of failure data could be easily recovered. ' HDFS stores the space, data on thesis sa wikang ingles number of data nodes after dividing the whole data into number of data blocks. ' The default block size is 64 MB but it is space configurable according to the size of data is going to process using Hadoop. ' HDFS maintains the replicas of data block across multiple data nodes so that in case of any failure data can be recovered and essays seperations, functioning or processing would not stop. Benefits of essay about space HDFS Data Block Replication: ' Availability: There are very less chances of the loss of data if a particular data node fails. ' Reliability: There are number of replicas of data so if in any case data at particular node corrupts then it can be corrected easily. ' Performance: Data is history essays always available for about, reducer for processing because multiple copies exist so this is the main reason it also increases the performance. ' Name node is the master node among all the nodes and maintains or allocates the name of all the data blocks created by HDFS.
' Name node is make conclusion also very helpful to manage the number of data blocks present on essay about the data node. ' Name node also monitors all the other nodes present in the whole processing of data from HDFS to Map-Reduce and output generation. ' Name node also maintains the information about the location of each file stores in HDFS. ' In different sense we can say that name node maintains the data about data that is 'meta-data' in HDFS. File A is thesis tungkol sa wikang ingles present on essay about space Data Node 1, Data Node 2, and Data Node 4.
File B is present on Data Node 3, Data Node 4, and Data Node 5. File C present on Data Node 1, Data Node 4, and reality vs illusion essay, Data Node 3. ' Name node is only point of disappointment for the Hadoop Cluster. ' Data nodes are the slave nodes of the master node i.e. name node and is generally used by HDFS for storing the data blocks. ' Data nodes are basically responsible to read the requests from essay about space client's file system and to write the tungkol, requests from the client's file system. ' Data nodes also perform a very important function of creating the essay, data blocks, replicated the data blocks on the basis of instructions provided by name node. ' Secondary Name Node: ' Secondary name node generally performs the functions of throwing out the non-important things present inside the Name node regularly to prevent it from failure. ' Secondary name node enables the 'check-points' of the 'file-system' inside name node.
' Secondary node is the backup for name node rather than it is a saying that it is a point of failure for name node. ' Map-Reduce are the kind of framework or we can say it is a programming concept used by Apache organization in its product Hadoop, for processing large amount of make conclusion data. ' Map and Reduce functions have almost created in essay about space, every programming language having the ap world history essays, same functionality Java language. ' Map-Reduce was implemented to process large amount of data by dividing it into two parts that is Map part and Reduce part. ' Map function is used to 'transform', 'parse', 'filter' data and produce some output that will be treated as input for about, the Reducer. ' Reduce function takes the output generated from the Map function as its input and sorts or combine the data for decreasing the complexity. ' Map and Reduce functions both works on the principle of (Key and Value).
' Map function takes the input from data node and with help of mapper divide the data into keys and values like (key1, value11), (key2, value12) and (key1, value21), (key2, value22). ' Combiner then summarizes the data and combine the literature survey in research methodology, values relate to about a particular key (key1, value11, value21) and (key2, value12, value22). ' Reduce function then reduce the good ways to start analysis essay, output generated by combiner and generates the final output (key1, value1), (key2, value2). Nodes in Map-Reduce: The complete Map-Reduce operation comprises of two important jobs that are 'Job-Tracker' which is known as the 'Master Node' and 'Task-Tracker' which is known as the about space, 'Slave Node'. ' Job-Tracker usually takes the sa wikang, request or tasks from the client and forward or assign these requests or tasks to the Task-Tracker on top of data node, then Task-Tracker performed the tasks with the help of data node. ' Job-Tracker always assigns the tasks to the Task-Tracker on essay about space top of data node because data is always available there in the local repository.
' Sometimes it might not be possible for Job-Tracker to assign the tasks for literature in research, Task-Tracker on data node then Job-Tracker tries to assign the tasks to Task-Tracker in the same rack. ' If in essay space, any case a node failure occurs or the ap world, Task-Tracker which was processing the task fails then Job-Tracker assigns the about space, same task to other Task-Tracker where 'replica' or copy of same data exists because data blocks are 'replicated' across multiple data nodes. ' In such a way Job-Tracker guarantees that if Task-Tracker stops working then it does not mean that the make conclusion, job fails. ' Task-Tracker is the slave node of the master node i.e. 'Job-Tracker' which takes the request of processing the tasks from Job-Tracker and processes the task ('Map', 'Reduce' and space, 'Shuffle') using data present in sa wikang ingles, data block of data nodes. ' Every 'Task-Tracker' is composed of number of slots that it means it can process number of tasks at essay space the same time. ' Job-Tracker always checks that an empty slot is present on the same server whenever some task should be scheduled, if empty slots exist that can hosts the data node having data then Job-Tracker give the task to that slot of reality Task-Tracker otherwise Job-Tracker looks for the empty slot on the same rack of the machine. ' Each Task-Tracker sends some message in every second to inform the about, Job-tracker that it is alive and processing the ways off an essay, task. ' Each Task-Tracker has its own JVM to process the task if in any case one Task-Tracker stops working it would be informed to Job-Tracker and Job-Tracker allocates some other Task-Tracker for that task and all other Task-Tracker would be working simultaneously without any kind of intervention. ' After the task has been completed the 'Task-Tracker' informs the Job-Tracker. What is Apache Mahout?
' Mahout is an space API or we can say that it is the essay, library of essay about space scalable 'machine-learning' or 'collective-intelligence' algorithms like (classification, clustering, collaborative-filtering and frequent-pattern-mining) that is mailnly used for mining frequent item sets, it takes a group of item sets and identifies that which individual items usually or mainly appear together. ' When the size of data is too large then in such kind of to start off an analysis essay circumstances Mahout is used as the best 'machine-learning' tool because number of algorithms like clustering, pattern mining and collaborative-filtering has been implemented in mahout, it can produce the about, outputs fast when used on top of Hadoop. ' Collaborative-Filtering is the technique of filter out some important data from the large amount of reality vs illusion data which user browse, preference and essay space, rate, in other words we can say that collaborative filtering is the make conclusion, process of space generating predictions on the basis of users past behavior or history and suggest or recommend users the top most predicted data or top 'N' recommendations so that it might be helpful for make conclusion, user in his/her future decisions. ' All the preferences about different set of essay about space items from users can come from explicit ratings or from good ways to start analysis implicit ratings. ' Explicit Rating: It is the kind of technique in which user suggest his/her preference by giving rating to essay about space a particular product or item on a certain scale. ' Implicit Rating: It is the kind of essays technique in which user's preferences are generated on the basis user's interaction for products. ' With the help of collaborative-filtering we can predict or forecast the future on the basis of user's past activities or pattern. ' To predict the future on the basis of past activities of about users we firstly make or create the database of the ways to start off an, user's preferences for items and then apply some algorithms like nearest neighborhood to predict the future preferences of a user on essay the basis of his/her neighbors having the same perception or taste.
' As the size of data is increasing on daily basis so that is the main challenge that we require such kind of algorithms that can process millions of data and match a user preference with all other neighbors present in database to get better prediction in less time. ' Second challenge that we usually notice while implement collaborative filtering is that the items or the recommendations preferred to a user should be of better quality so that he/she could have like the recommending products. ' Two issues that we mentioned above are the biggest challenges that should keep in mind while performing collaborative filtering and should concentrate on recommendations suggest to user of good quality. ' Collaborative-Filtering can be performed in two ways, item-based collaborative filtering and user-based collaborative filtering. ' User-based collaborative filtering is the technique that find neighbors having similar taste like user from the large amount of user preferences database then suggest or generates the recommendations for user but like and dislike of user is not static so the recommendations generated using this technique is sa wikang ingles not so effective and essay space, bottleneck problem also occurs so Item-based collaborative filtering algorithm is used these days to generate recommendations for a user because it removes the history essays, problem of bottleneck and it first finds the items having similar relationship that user has liked from space large pool of items and then generate the recommendations. ' Item based collaborative filtering works on make conclusion the principle that similarity among item remains static but user likes and dislikes may change so this technique generates good quality of recommendations as compared to user-based collaborative filtering algorithm. ' Item-based collaborative-filtering algorithm is one of the best algorithms used by recommendation systems, to generate recommendations using this algorithm firstly we make the set of items that user has rated earlier, after that find a set of about (n) most similar items from this set having same similarities to the target item (i) then similarity of each item present inside the set of (n) most similar items is calculated. After the computation of similarities, calculate the reality, weighted average sum of user ratings on set of similar items to find the best recommendations for the target user.
' Prediction computation and similarity computation are the two techniques used to find the future predictions and essay about space, similarities among numbers of items. Similarity Computation for Items: ' Similarity computation is the technique used to 'find or compute' the value of similarity among items from large number of items and select the set of ap world history essays items having same similarity. ' Similarity between two items a and b is computed after isolated the users who have rated the items a and b, then use some similarity finding techniques to find the similarity Sa,b. ' There are number of techniques that can be used for computing similarity between items are 'Cosine-based' similarity, 'Correlation-based' similarity, 'Adjusted-cosine' similarity. Let's we discuss all three techniques to find similarities between items are: ' Cosine-based similarity is the technique used to space find the similarity between two items; this technique considers both the history, items for about space, which similarity would be determined as the two vectors in the n-dimensional user space. ' Similarity is measured as the make conclusion, cosine of the angle between both the vectors.
' Similarity between the two items a and b can be denoted as: Here '.' denotes the dot product of both the vectors. ' Correlation-Based Similarity is the other technique used to essay about find the essay, similarity between two items a and b. ' To find the essay, similarity between two items using this technique we use the pearson co-relation method and survey in research methodology, find the pearson co-relation between two items that is Corr(a,b). ' To find the value of pearson co-relation more accurate, we removed the essay about, over-rated ratings of the two items that is the ratings for essays, which users rated both items (a and b) and set of users who rated both items (a and essay about, b) are denoted by U. Pearson correlation formula: ' Adjusted-cosine-similarity is the other technique to calculate the similarity between items so that it could be used for literature in research, prediction.
' Similarity between two items generated using correlation-based similarity technique does not consider difference between corresponding user's ratings and over-rated rating of related pair. So the results generated are not so accurate. ' Adjusted-Cosine Similarity generates more accurate results as compared to correlation based similarity because it removes the drawback by- 'subtracting' the average ratings of related user's from each extra rated pair. ' User-Based Collaborative filtering is the essay space, technique or we can say that it is an algorithm that is basically used to generate future predictions for tungkol ingles, a user on the basis of his/her past history or by using his/her neighbors having similar kind of essay about taste. ' User-Based Collaborative filtering is the algorithm which works on the principle of generating recommendations for the user after finding his/her neighbor users from database of items and on family seperations, users, having similar kind of item ratings assigned and similar type of purchase history. ' After generating the nearest neighbors having same taste for the target user using user-based collaborative filtering algorithm then some techniques are applied to find the top recommendations for the target user. ' In this way user based collaborative filtering generates recommendations and it is also known as memory based or nearest neighbor based algorithm to find or suggest best recommendations for the user. User-Based Collaborative-Filtering challenges:
1. 'Scalability': As the essay about space, number of users and items are increasing the size of make conclusion 'user-item' database is also growing so it takes lot of time to find nearest neighbor of essay space a particular user form large database having millions of users and items exists. So scalability has become a big challenge for generating recommendations. 2. 'Sparsity': Recommendation system which is on family seperations working on the principle of nearest neighbor fails in certain circumstances, when the number of active users who is purchasing some product is very large, so in such cases to find nearest neighbors for each active user is very difficult because of the sparsity. ' Association-rule-mining is the technique used to find some rules on the basis of which the growth of an essay space organization can be increased. ' There are number of essays seperations algorithms on the basis of which we can find frequent patterns from the large of essay dataset, on the basis of frequent patterns we can generate some rules that would be really helpful to increase the turnover of an organization. ' Algorithms like Apriori and FP-growth are mostly used to find the frequent patterns and generate association rules but if the thesis tungkol sa wikang, size of about data is ap world so huge then these two algorithm would take more time to generate rules thus decrease the efficiency of the algorithm. ' So we implemented both the essay about, algorithms using map-reduce technique and then implemented them on top of hadoop to find frequent patterns and association rules. ' So Apriori and vs illusion essay, FP-growth  algorithms find the frequent patterns from a set of transactional dataset having transaction id and item set(i.e., ), where TID is a transaction-id and essay about space, item set is the set of items bought in transaction TId.
On the other hand, mining can also be performed on data presented in data format like . ' Apriori algorithm significantly reduces the size of candidate sets using the literature survey, Apriori standard but still it suffers from two problems: (1) generates a huge number of candidate sets, and (2) repeatedly scan the database and checking the candidates by pattern matching. ' FP-growth algorithm mines the about space, complete set of literature frequent item sets without generating candidate set. ' FP-growth works on the divide and essay space, conquers principle. ' The first search of the database derives a list of frequent items in which the items are ordered into descending order by frequency. ' According to essay the descending list by frequency, the database is reduced into a frequent-pattern tree or fp-tree, which retains the item set and their association information. ' The fp-tree is mined or formed by initializing from about each one (frequent length-1) pattern as an first suffix prototype, constructing its conditional pattern base and sub database which consists of the ap world essays, set of prefix paths in the fp-tree co-occurring with the suffix pattern then constructing its conditional fp-tree and performing mining recursively on such a tree.
' The pattern growth is achieved by the combination or concatenation of the suffix pattern with the essay about space, frequent patterns generated from in research a conditional FP-tree. How Association Rule Mining Works. Consider the following small dataset having three transactions to know about how association rules mining works: T1: laptop, pen drive, speakers. T2: laptop, pen drive.
T3: mobile, screen guard, mobile cover. T4: laptop, speakers, pen drive. T5: mobile, mobile cover, screen guard. T6: mobile, screen guard. From this small data set we can find the frequent patterns and on essay about the basis of frequent patterns we can generate some association rules using FP Growth algorithm. A frequent pattern is a group of some items that occur frequently in the transactions or data set. While we find frequent patterns, we also record the support along with each pattern.
Support is simply a count that tells us how many times a particular pattern appears in the whole dataset. Mobile cover = 2. Screen guard = 2. Laptop, pen drive = 3. Laptop, speakers = 2. Mobile, screen guard = 3. Mobile, mobile cover = 2. Laptop, pen drive, speakers = 2.
Mobile, mobile cover, screen guard = 2. Here we assume that support is 2 it means all the patterns with support equal to or greater than 2, will considered as frequent patterns. On the basis of above frequent patterns we can construct some association rules which follow the minimum support and confidence = 60%. Mobile ' Screen guard (support = 3, confidence = (3/3) =100%) Mobile ' Mobile cover (support = 2, confidence = (2/3) = 66.66%) Mobile, Mobile cover ' Screen guard (support = 2, confidence = (2/2) = 100%) Laptop ' Pen drive (support = 3, confidence = (3/3) =100%) Laptop 'Speakers (support = 2, confidence= (2/3) = 66.66%) Laptop, Pen drive ' Speakers (support = 2, confidence = (2/3) = 66.66%)
On the basis of above small data set we are able to find some association rules that tells us that (screen guard, mobile cover are always buy with mobile phone) and (pen drive, speakers are always buy with laptop. Approach to Design. 4.1 Flow of reality essay Implementation: 5.1 Installation of Hadoop: If you have already installed Ubuntu 12.04 or any other version then please follow the steps that mentioned below to install hadoop on Single node pseudo distribute that is space called installation of hadoop on your local machine. Step 1: Java Installation. To work on on family seperations Hadoop, first of all we require to install java on your local machine. So install the latest version of java that is Oracle JAVA 1.7 which is highly recommended to run Hadoop. Here I am also using oracle java 1.7 for working on hadoop because it is more stable, fast and have several new APIs. Following commands are used for Installing JAVA in Ubuntu:
Open the about space, terminal using (ctrl+alt+t) then enter the following commands to install java: 1) Sudo apt-get install 'python-software-properties' 2) Sudo add-apt-repository 'ppa:webupd8team/java' 3) Sudo apt-get update. 4) Sudo apt-get install oracle-java7-installer. 5) Sudo update-java-alternatives -s java-7-oracle. The whole or complete Java Development Kit presents inside the (/usr/lib/jvm/java-7-oracle). When the essays, installation has come to an end then do a check whether java or JDK has correctly set up by using command that is essay mentioned below. Figure5.1: Java Installed Successfully. Step 2: After successfully installed java, add a separate or personal user for hadoop that is literature methodology hduser . Commmands for create 'hadoop- user' and 'hadoop- group':
1)sudo 'addgroup hadoop' 2)sudo ' adduser --ingroup hadoop' hduser. After the about space, successful completion of above steps, we will have a separate user and group for hadoop. Step 3: How to configure ssh. To work with hadoop on make conclusion remote machines or at your local machine, hadoop requires ssh access to deal with its nodes. Therefore we required to configure ssh access on localhost for the hadoop user i.e. Essay Space! hduser that we created in the last step.
Commands to configure ssh access: 1)sudo apt-get install 'openssh-server' 2)sudo ssh-keygen -t 'rsa 'P' cat $HOME/.ssh/id_rsa.pub $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys. Figure5.3: Configure ssh localhost. Step 4: Disabling IPv6. To work with hadoop on local or in distributed system we required to tungkol sa wikang ingles disable ipv6 on Ubuntu 12.04. First of about all open the'/etc/sysctl.conf'file in any editor of your choice in ubuntu then add the reality, below mentioned lines at the end of this file. Now it is the time to restart your system so that the changes that we have done could be reflected. After restarting the system we can confirm that whether ipv6 has disabled on your local machine by using the command that is mentioned below: 'Cat/proc/sys/net/ipv6/conf/all/disable_ipv6' (If return value = '1' it shows that ipv6 has disabled)
Step 5: After performing the initial steps it is the time to install Hadoop version 1.0.4 on essay about space your machine. First of all download hadoop-1.0.4 tar file that is the stable or good release from apache download mirrors, then extract or untar the hadoop downloaded file to thesis ingles a folder named hadoop at usr/local/hadoop . A folder which is common to about space all the users, it is mostly chosen that we should install or set-up the hadoop into that folder. Use the below mentioned commands to untar the hadoop 1.0.4 tar file into sa wikang ingles hadoop folder: Move to local folder using cd/usr/local then use command mentioned below to untar hadoop 1.0.4: 1) sudo tar xzf 'hadoop-1.0.4.tar.gz'
2) sudo mv hadoop-1.0.4hadoop. Change the owner of all the files to hadoop group and the hduser user using the command: 1)sudo 'chown -R hduser:hadoop hadoop' Now it is the time to update the bash file which is present inside home directory $HOME/.bashrc : To update the bash file i.e.'.bachrc' for the'hduser'. To open'.bachrc'file, you should be a root user then open it using the following command: 1)sudo 'gedit /home/hduser/.bashrc' Figure5.5: Open .bashrc file. Once the '.bashrc' will open then at the end of essay about '.bachrc' file, add the following lines or settings: # set hadoop-related environment variables.
unalias fs-- /dev/null. Alias fs 'hadoop fs' Unalias- hls /dev/null. hadoop fs -cat $1 | lzop -dc | head -1000 | less. # Add hadoop 'bin/ directory'to PATH. Figure5.6: Update .bashrc file.
To verify whether it has been saved correctly or not, please reopen the bash profile by using following commands: 2) echo $hadoop_home. 3) echo $java_home. Step 6: Changes in history essays, Hadoop Configuration. An XML file is used to configure each component inside Hadoop. 'Common properties' go in core-site.xml', 'HDFS properties' go in space, hdfs-site.xml', and 'Map-Reduce properties' go in mapred-site.xml'. A conf directory is present inside hadoop folder where all the XML files are located. 1) Changes in 'hadoop-env.sh' First of all open the literature, 'conf/hadoop-env.sh'file and set the 'JAVA_HOME'as: 2) Changes in 'conf/core-site.xml' Open the essay about space, 'core-site.xml'file and reality essay, add the following lines or code between the 'configuration ' /configuration' tags. A directory named as'tmp'is created where 'hdfs'will stores its temporary data.
The configurations that we mentioned above, we have used 'hadoop.tmp.dir' property to indicate this temporary directory but on our local machine we are using as'$hadoop_home/tmp'. Commands to 'create tmp directory' and 'change ownership and permissions': 1) sudo mkdir -p $hadoop_home/tmp. 2) sudo chown hduser:hadoop $hadoop_home /tmp. 3) sudo chmod 750 $hadoop_home /tmp. 3) Changes in 'conf/mapred-site.xml' Open the 'mapred-site.xml'file and add the following lines or code between the 'configuration ' /configuration' tags. Figure5.10: Changes in 'conf/mapred-site.xml' 4) Changes in 'conf/hdfs-site.xml'
Open the 'hdfs-site.xml'file and add the following lines or code between the'configuration ' /configuration' tags. Step 7: creating Name Node Directory. mkdir -p $hadoop_home/tmp/dfs/name. chown hduser:hadoop /usr/local/hadoop/tmp/dfs/name. Step 8: Format the name node. Hadoop Distributed file system i.e. hdfs is implemented on top of the local file system of your 'cluster'. So the initial step to starting up your hadoop installation is to format the.
hadoop file system or name node. $hadoop_home/bin/hadoop 'namenode 'format' Step 9: Starting single node hadoop cluster. Open Terminal then goto /bin directory inside hadoop folder and start hadoop using command mentioned below: Now after successfully performed each step that we mentioned above, it is the time to essay space find whether. all nodes are running properly inside hadoop.
We can use the following command to good analysis check it. Output must be like mentioned below, if we are getting such kind of output it means hadoop is running successfully. 4841 task tracker. 4512 secondary name-node. 4596 job tracker. It means hadoop has installed successfully and working fine. 5.2 Installation of Maven: Open the about, terminal then enter the below command to download and essays seperations, install maven. sudo apt-get install maven2. Open the '.bashrc' file and essay about space, add the lines mentioned below at the end of good to start analysis essay bash file.
Set the 'java_home' in '.bashrc' file. Export java_home= '/usr/lib/jvm/java-7-oracle' Add Java jre/ 'PATH' of directory. Run mvn --version to verify that it is correctly installed. If the message as shown below displays. It shows maven installed successfully. Figure5.15: Maven Installed Successfully.
5.3 Installation of about Mahout: Download the mahout source package in .zip format from the following link: http://www.apache.org/dyn/closer.cgi/lucene/mahout/ Extract the folder into usr/local/mahout directory and check that pom.xml file exists inside it or not. Open the terminal and moved to usr/local/mahout directory then enter the thesis tungkol ingles, following command: mvn install (to install mahout on top of hadoop) If the message as shown below displays then mahout installed successfully. 5.4 How to Run a Simple Job on Hadoop: 1. About Space! Move to tungkol ingles /usr/local/hadoop/bin directory and about, start the all nodes of hadoop using command. 2. Create a Word count text file inside local tmp directory using command. 3. Copy the text file from local tmp directory to hadoop distributed file system using following command: fs -copyFromLocal /tmp/Wordcount.txt /user/hduser/wordcountexample/Wordcount.txt.
Figure5.19: Copy text file from make conclusion tmp to essay about hdfs. 4. Find list of items present inside word count example directory using command: fs -ls /user/hduser/wordcountexample/Wordcount.txt. Figure5.20: List of items present inside wordcount. 5. Run the ap world history essays, Word count file present inside word count example directory using following command: hadoop jar hadoop-examples-1.0.4.jar wordcount /user/hduser/wordcountexample /user/hduser/wordcountexample-output. Figure5.21: Run the essay space, word-count map-reduce job. 6. Ap World History Essays! Find the list of items present inside word count example-output directory using following command: fs -ls /user/hduser/wordcountexample-output. 7. Run the output file generated to essay about space show the output on console using command: fs -cat /user/hduser/wordcountexample-output/part-r-00000. Figure5.23: Run the output file. Discussion of Results. 6.1 Find Frequent Patterns and Recommendations from Big Data: 1. Open terminal and start Hadoop using command ./start-all.sh.
Figure6.1: Start the ap world, hadoop nodes. 2. Convert the space, data set into .dat format which is required by shell script. 3. Literature! Add the essay, path of history essays dataset into shell script. 4. Run the dataset on top of about Hadoop using Map Reduce to find frequent patterns. Figure6.3: Start Mahout. ' To Run Mahout on top of Hadoop Set MAHOUT_LOCAL=True. ' After Setting MAHOUT_LOCAL=true, go to the bin directory where shell script is kept to find recommendations from dataset. ' Run the ap world essays, shell script by providing path of dataset. Presentation of Results. After successfully running the script on mahout and space, performing number of map reduce jobs by reality vs illusion, hadoop, it generates recommendations in very less time as compared to apply same data set using simple java program in eclipse . 1. When the about, size of data was just 100 MB then Hadoop took 0.18705 minutes to process the data and generate recommendations.
Figure7.1: Data set is running and Map-Reduce took place. Figure7.3: Map-Reduce Job completed. 2. When the size of data was 200 MB then Hadoop took 0.24005 minutes to process the data and generates recommendations. 3. When the size of data was 1 GB then Hadoop took 4.689 minutes to process the data and generate recommendations. When I started the survey in research, dissertation work I mentioned that size of data is growing day by about, day in essay, gigabytes or in terabytes volume, so it is not easy for an organization to handle such big amount of data and could do predictions, find patterns and recommendations from such large amount of data using existing technologies in less time. But we use Hadoop and Mahout both together then the space, overhead of an thesis sa wikang organisation to analyse the big data will become very less and execution time required to find patterns and recommendations will also be so less. We took around 500 GB of space e-commerce website data then performed frequent pattern mining and collaborative filtering using Mahout and Hadoop. At the same time we performed the essays, same work using simple java programs in eclipse then compared the execution time of getting outputs. Essay About! We found that execution time to find patterns and recommendations using Mahout and Hadoop were very less.
In future we have lot of scope to good ways to start do because now days the essay, data generated on essays seperations the e-commerce sites, first of essay about all we collect the data and store it in form of desired form then remove the survey in research, unwanted columns that are not required in the analysis process then apply the techniques to find patterns and products that can be recommended to the users. Essay Space! But in future we can predict the recommendation on the real time environment like we don't need to store data in database, we can directly apply some techniques on real time data that is generated frequently in daily and hourly basis, reduce the to start, overhead and increase the efficiency. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Information Technology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. About Space! Each of us is qualified to a high level in reality vs illusion, our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Information Technology work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Information Technology essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words.
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