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biograh an icon representing the triumph of the human spirit. Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela became known and respected all over the world as a symbol of the struggle against apartheid and all forms of racism; the icon and the hero of African liberation. Mandela or Madiba, as he was affectionately known, has been called a freedom fighter, a great man, South Africa's Favourite Son, a global icon and a living legend, among countless other names. Military? He has been an activist, a political prisoner, South Africa's first democratically elected president, an international peacemaker and statesman, and essay on the, a Nobel Peace Prize winner. As a husband and a father, Mandela sacrificed the joys of family life and of seeing his children grow up. As a young man, he missed out on a normal life spent with family and friends and pursuing a career of military essays, his choice, to fight for essay on gulmarg the cause he unshakably stood for. Most ordinary South Africans knew little about Mandela during his prison years, as the apartheid government suppressed information, and what was released was biased. Limited information about Mandela was available from the international press, anti-apartheid activist groups and the Free Nelson Mandela campaign.
But prison bars could not prevent him from continuing to inspire his people to struggle and bearing, sacrifice for their liberation. Public opinion polls repeatedly showed that he was the most popular leader the country has ever had. As the on gulmarg, Commonwealth Eminent Persons Group observed in 1986, he had become a living legend, galvanising the resistance in his country. He is the most honoured political prisoner in history. He has received prestigious international awards, the freedom of many cities and honorary degrees from several universities. Army Bearing? Musicians have been inspired to mba project and dissertation, compose songs and military, music in his honour. Major international art exhibits have been dedicated to him and some of the catcher, most prominent writers have contributed to books for military bearing essays him and about him. Even an essay on gulmarg, atomic particle has been named after him. Mandela is a universal symbol of freedom and reconciliation, an icon representing the triumph of the human spirit. During his lifetime he not only dedicated himself to the struggle of the African people, but with his humility, and his spirit of forgiveness, he captured hearts and inspired people all over military bearing essays the world.
As South Africans, we owe it to this great champion of our nation to continue to live by his example. Living Dormitory? Rolihlahla Nelson Mandela was born in Mvezo, a village near Mthatha in the Transkei, on 18 July 1918, to Nongaphi Nosekeni and Gadla Henry Mandela. His father was the key counsellor/adviser to the Thembu royal house. His Xhosa name Rolihlahla literally means pulling the branch of a tree. After his father's death in 1927, the military essays, young Rolihlahla became the ward of essay on populations, Chief Jongintaba Dalindyebo, the acting regent of the Thembu nation. Army? It was at the Thembu royal homestead that his personality, values and political views were shaped. Hearing the elders' stories of his ancestors' valour during the wars of resistance to colonialism, he dreamed also of making his own contribution to the freedom struggle of his people. On Populations? After receiving his primary education at military a local mission school, where he was given the name Nelson, he was sent to the Clarkebury Boarding Institute for his Junior Certificate and then to essay on the in the, Healdtown, a reputable Wesleyan secondary school, where he matriculated. He then enrolled at army bearing essays the University College of essay on populations, Fort Hare for army military a Bachelor of Arts (BA) Degree where he was elected onto the Students' Representative Council.
He was suspended from college for joining a protest boycott, along with Oliver Tambo. Shortly after his return to in a dormitory essay, the royal homestead, he and his cousin, Justice, ran away to Johannesburg to avoid arranged marriages and for a short period he worked as a mine policeman. Mandela was introduced to Walter Sisulu in army military 1941 and daily, it was Sisulu who arranged for him to serve his articles at Lazar Sidelsky's law firm. Completing his BA through the University of South Africa (Unisa) in 1942, he commenced study for his Bachelor of Laws Degree shortly afterwards (though he left the University of the Witwatersrand without graduating in 1948). He entered politics in earnest while studying, and joined the African National Congress (ANC) in 1943. At the height of the army military essays, Second World War in 1944, a small group of young Africans who were members of the ANC, banded together under the leadership of Anton Lembede. Among them were William Nkomo, Sisulu, Oliver R Tambo, Ashby P Mda and essay, Mandela.
Starting out with 60 members, all of whom were residing around the military, Witwatersrand, these young people set themselves the formidable task of transforming the ANC into a more radical mass movement. In September 1944, they came together to found the African National Congress Youth League (ANCYL). Mandela soon impressed his peers by his disciplined work and consistent effort and was elected as the league's national secretary in 1948. Through painstaking work, campaigning at the grass-roots and living in a essay, through its mouthpiece Inyaniso (Truth), the ANCYL was able to canvass support for its policies among the ANC membership. Spurred on by the victory of the National Party, which won the 1948 all-white elections on the platform of apartheid, at the 1949 Annual Conference, the Programme of Action, inspired by the Youth League, which advocated the weapons of boycott, strike, civil disobedience and non-cooperation, was accepted as official ANC policy. Army? In December, Mandela was elected to the National Executive Committee at the National Conference. When the ANC launched its Campaign for essay the Defiance of essays, Unjust Laws in 1952, Mandela, by then president of the use citations, Youth League, was elected national volunteer-in-chief. The Defiance Campaign was conceived as a mass civil disobedience campaign that would snowball from a core of military bearing, selected volunteers to involve more and more ordinary people, culminating in mass defiance.
Fulfilling his responsibility as volunteer-in-chief, Mandela travelled the country, organising resistance to discriminatory legislation. Charged, with Moroka, Sisulu and 17 others, and brought to trial for living in a his role in the campaign, the court found that Mandela and army military, his co-accused had consistently advised their followers to adopt a peaceful course of action and to avoid all violence. For his part in the Defiance Campaign, Mandela was convicted of contravening the Suppression of Communism Act and given a suspended prison sentence. Shortly after the campaign ended, he was also prohibited from attending gatherings and confined to Johannesburg for six months. In December 1952, in partnership with Tambo, Mandela opened South Africa's first black law firm in central Johannesburg. In 1953, Mandela was given the responsibility to prepare a plan that would enable the leadership of the movement to maintain dynamic contact with its membership without recourse to public meetings. The objective was to warwick, prepare for the possibility that the ANC would, like the Communist Party, be declared illegal and to ensure that the organisation would be able to operate from army underground.
This was the M-Plan, named after him. Essay On Computers In Our Life? During the early 1950s, Mandela played an army bearing, important part in leading the resistance to the Western Areas removals, and to the introduction of Bantu Education. He also played a significant role in popularising the Freedom Charter, adopted by the Congress of the People in 1955. During the whole of the 1950s, Mandela was the victim of various forms of repression. He was banned, arrested and alienation essay on the catcher rye, imprisoned. A five-year banning order was enforced against him in military March 1956. For much of the latter half of the 1950s, Mandela was one of the 156 accused in the mammoth Treason Trial. After the Sharpeville Massacre on 21 March 1960, the ANC was outlawed, and Mandela, still on trial, was detained, along with hundreds of others. The Treason Trial collapsed in 1961 as South Africa was being steered towards the adoption of warwick mba project, a republic. With the ANC now illegal, the leadership picked up the threads from its underground headquarters and Nelson Mandela emerged as the leading figure in this new phase of struggle.
Forced to live apart from army bearing essays his family, moving from place to place to essay on populations, evade detection by the Government's ubiquitous informers and police spies, Mandela had to adopt a number of disguises. Military Bearing Essays? Sometimes dressed as a labourer, Politicsat other times as a chauffeur, his successful evasion of the police earned him the title of the Black Pimpernel. It was during this time that he, together with other leaders of the ANC, constituted a new section of the liberation movement, Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK), as an armed nucleus with a view to preparing for armed struggle, with Mandela as its commander-in-chief. In 1962, Mandela left the country as David Motsamayi, and travelled abroad for on computers in our daily life several months. In Ethiopia, he addressed the Conference of the Pan-African Freedom Movement of East and bearing essays, Central Africa, and was warmly received by senior political leaders in several countries, including the then Tanganyika, Senegal, Ghana and Sierra Leone.
He also spent time in London. During this trip, Mandela met with the first group of 21 MK recruits on their way to Addis Ababa for guerrilla training. Not long after his return to South Africa, Mandela was arrested, on 5 August, and when do i in a research paper, charged with illegal exit from the country, and incitement to strike. Mandela was convicted and sentenced to five years imprisonment. He was transferred to military, Robben Island in May 1963 only to be brought back to Pretoria again in July. Not long afterwards, he encountered Thomas Mashifane, the foreman from Liliesleaf Farm in Rivonia where MK had set up their headquarters. He knew then that their hide-out had been discovered. A few days later, he and 10 others were charged with sabotage. The Rivonia Trial, as it came to essay, be known, lasted eight months. Mandela's statement in court during the trial is a classic in the history of the resistance to apartheid, and has been an inspiration to army military bearing essays, all who have opposed it. He ended with these words: I have fought against white domination, and I have fought against black domination.
I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an and dissertation, ideal which I hope to live for and to army military bearing essays, achieve. But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to in a dormitory essay, die. All but two of the accused were found guilty and sentenced to life imprisonment on 12 June 1964. Army Bearing? The black prisoners were flown secretly to on the catcher rye, Robben Island immediately after the trial was over to begin serving their sentences.
In March 1982, after 18 years, he was transferred to Pollsmoor Prison in Cape Town (with Sisulu, Raymond Mhlaba and Andrew Mlangeni) and in army essays December 1988, he was moved to the Victor Verster Prison near Paarl, from where he was eventually released. Essay? While in prison, Mandela flatly rejected offers made by army military, his jailers for remission of sentence in exchange for essay on gulmarg accepting the bantustan policy by recognising the independence of the Transkei and agreeing to settle there. Again in the 1980s, Mandela and others rejected an offer of release on condition that he renounce violence. Nevertheless, Mandela did initiate talks with the apartheid regime in 1985, when he wrote to then Minister of Justice, Kobie Coetsee. They first met later that year when Mandela was hospitalised for prostate surgery. Shortly after this, he was moved to a single cell at Pollsmoor and this gave Mandela the chance to start a dialogue with the Government which took the form of talks about army military essays talks. Throughout this process, he was adamant that negotiations could only be carried out by use citations in a research paper, the full ANC leadership.
Released on military bearing essays 11 February 1990, Mandela plunged wholeheartedly into his life's work, striving to attain the goals he and others had set out almost four decades earlier. In 1991, at the first national conference of the ANC held inside South Africa after being banned for essay on gulmarg decades, Nelson Mandela was elected president of the army military, ANC while his lifelong friend and colleague, Oliver Tambo, became the organisation's national chairperson. In a life that symbolises the triumph of the human spirit, Nelson Mandela accepted the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize (along with FW de Klerk) on behalf of essay on gulmarg, all South Africans who suffered and sacrificed so much to bring peace to our land. The era of apartheid formally came to an end on 27 April 1994, when Nelson Mandela voted for the first time in his life along with his people. Army Military Bearing? However, long before that date, it had become clear, even before the start of the Convention for a Democratic South Africa (Codesa) negotiations at the World Trade Centre in Kempton Park, that the ANC was increasingly charting the future of South Africa. On Populations? Rolihlahla Nelson Dalibunga Mandela was inaugurated as President of military essays, a democratic South Africa on 10 May 1994. In his inauguration speech, he said: We dedicate this day to all the heroes and heroines in this country and the rest of the world who sacrificed in many ways and living dormitory essay, surrendered their lives so that we could be free. Their dreams have become reality. Freedom is their reward. We are both humbled and elevated by the honour and privilege that you, the people of South Africa, have bestowed on us, as the first President of a united, democratic, non-racial and non-sexist government. In June 1999, Nelson Mandela retired from the Presidency of South Africa.
But although he retired as President of military essays, South Africa, he worked tirelessly, campaigning globally for peace, children and the fight against HIV/Aids in essay on gulmarg particular. Shortly before his 86th birthday in bearing essays June 2004, Mandela officially retired from public life. However, he did not retreat from working for the good of the world as a testimony to his sharp political intellect, wisdom and unrelenting commitment to make the on populations, world a better place, Mandela formed the prestigious group of Elders, an independent group of eminent global leaders, who offer their collective influence and experience to support peace-building, help address major causes oh human suffering and promote the shared interest of humanity.
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nyu essay 3 mailing Although the city of Dayton is small and has been hit hard by the decline of industry, in Xenia and Yellow Springs the land is green, fecund, and alive, even in the relentless heat of summer. Xenia is army military bearing essays three miles from where the first private black college, Wilberforce, opened, in 1856, to meet the educational needs of the on the rye, growing population of freed blacks that crossed the Ohio River. Yellow Springs, a stop on the Underground Railroad, was initially established as a utopian community in 1825. In 1852, Horace Mann founded Antioch College and served as its president. Army Military Essays? During the alienation essay catcher, ’50s and ’60s, Antioch and bearing essays Yellow Springs were hamlets of anti-McCarthyism and antiwar and civil rights activism. Today there are a lot of hippies and there’s even more tie-dye. Between the villages, you can drive over rolling hills and pastures and in our life not see another car for military bearing essays, miles, and only far off on mba project and dissertation the horizon will you be able to army spot a farmhouse. I spent a week in this part of Ohio, and during my stay I was invited to do all sorts of essay things with people of all kinds—rich and poor, white and black. Army Essays? I was invited to go flying, dig for living in a dormitory, worms at midnight, and military plant raspberry bushes.
My request to drive a tractor was turned down, not because I don’t know how to drive but because the essay, tractor had been put away. In Ohio, there is army military space for people to do what they want. Do I Use Citations In A Research? There is a lot of land, plenty of it. This is where enslaved people ran to, certain that they had finally evaded capture. This is where America’s first prominent black poet, Paul Laurence Dunbar, wrote “We Wear the Mask.” And somewhere in the midst of it all is Dave Chappelle’s home. From above, everything seems smaller and less complicated—or at the very least things are put into bearing essays, perspective. From a plane at thirty-five thousand feet it was much easier for me to mba project and dissertation understand why Dave Chappelle quit his hit TV show, Chappelle’s Show , and army military bearing essays said goodbye to all that, and didn’t stop until he got home to Yellow Springs, Ohio. Essay In Our Life? When news of his decision to cease filming the third season of the show first made headlines, there were many spectacular rumors.
He had quit the army, show without any warning. He had unceremoniously ditched its cocreator, his good friend Neal Brennan, leaving him stranded. Chappelle was now addicted to crack. He had lost his mind. The most insane speculation I saw was posted on a friend’s Facebook page at 3 a.m.
A website had alleged that a powerful cabal of black leaders—Oprah Winfrey, Bill Cosby, and others—were so offended by Chappelle’s use of the n -word that they had him intimidated and banned. The controversial “Niggar Family” sketch, where viewers were introduced to an Ozzie and when do i use citations in a paper Harriet–like 1950s suburban, white, upper-class family named “the Niggars,” was said to army have set them off. The weirdest thing was that people actually went for such stories. Chappelle’s brief moment in television had been that incendiary. Essay? It didn’t matter that Chappelle himself had told Oprah on national television that he had quit wholly of his own accord. Chappelle didn’t seem to army military bearing understand that these rumors of drugs and insanity, though paternalistic, were just the in our life, result of disbelief and curiosity. Like Salinger’s retreat from fame, Chappelle’s departure demanded an explanation: how could any human being have the willpower, the chutzpah, the determination to refuse the bearing essays, amount of money rumored to be Chappelle’s next paycheck: fifty million dollars. Say it with me now. Fifty.
Million. Dollars. When the dust settled, and Chappelle had done interviews with Oprah and James Lipton in an attempt to recover his image and tell his story, two things became immediately apparent: Dave Chappelle is without a doubt his generation’s smartest comic, and on gulmarg the hole he left in comedy is so great that even ten years later very few people can accept the reason he later gave for bearing essays, leaving fame and fortune behind: he wanted to find a simpler way of life. You know you must be doing something right if old people like you. Dave Chappelle was in his teens when he first appeared on the comedy-club circuit. He was twenty-three when he and his friend Neal Brennan wrote Half Baked , a now-classic stoner flick about four hapless friends who try to enter the drug-dealing game so they can get bail money for their friend Kenny, who has landed in jail after inadvertently killing a cop’s horse. They were young and in a essay had no expectations except to have fun and be funny. They certainly had no idea Chappelle’s Show , another collaboration, would become the most talked-about show on television.
But early into the show’s first season, critics at the New York Times would take notice of Chappelle’s “kind of army laid-back indignation” and his “refusal to believe that ignoring racial differences will make anyone’s life better.” What Brennan and Chappelle were doing every week was so unusual that the Times declared that “it almost looks like a renaissance for African-American humor on television.” Chappelle’s comedy found fans in many worlds. At a recent barbecue in Philadelphia, a friend of the host dutifully but disinterestedly interrogated me about my life, and got excited only when my mother let it slip that I was working on a piece about living in a essay Dave Chappelle. “Aw, man. I miss that guy,” he said. “He was my friend. I really felt like he was my friend.” I hear this a lot, usually from white people, and essays usually from white people without many black friends—like this seventy-year-old comparative literature professor in Birkenstocks. Part of what made the essay on gulmarg, show so ingenious was that Chappelle’s racial invective found friends in strange places. Army Bearing? With a regularly broadcasted television show, Chappelle was finally able to display what writer and activist Kevin Powell described in an Esquire profile as a “unique capacity to stand out and blend in, to cross boundaries and warwick mba project and dissertation set up roadblocks.” Almost overnight, Chappelle became America’s black friend. Army Military Bearing Essays? He was a polyglot.
He told Powell that, growing up, h e used to “hang out essay on gulmarg, with the military, Jewish kids, black kids, and Vietnamese immigrants,” and it was apparent that Chappelle had used these experiences to essay in the rye become America’s consul and translator for army military bearing, all things racial. More than any comic of his generation, he lanced the boil of essay how race works and also prodded at how nuanced race had become. “Sometimes convention and army military bearing what’s funny butt heads,” Chappelle confessed to when do i in a paper Entertainment Weekly in 2004, “and when [they do], we just err on the side of army essays what’s funny.” Besides race, three things make Dave Chappelle’s comedy innovative and universal: wit, self-deprecation, and essay toilet humor. This is the army military bearing, same triumvirate that makes Philip Roth’s writing so original. Living? Woody Allen’s movies, too. Chappelle had a keen sense of the army military essays, archetypal nature of race, and understood just as acutely how people work on a very basic level. In a Chappelle’s Show sketch about the reality show Trading Spouses , a black man sits on a toilet in a white family’s house and flips through a copy of on computers daily People magazine while taking a dump. He looks up: “Who the military bearing, fuck is Renee Zellwedger?” In another sketch, a stodgy, Waspy white man (Chappelle in on populations whiteface) lies in bed with an attractive black woman in classy lingerie. He wants her. But he wants to make love with his pajamas on. Chappelle did such a good job of truth-telling, on every subject, that nobody knew what to do when he just stopped talking.
In no way did his quitting conform to our understanding of the comic’s one obligation: to be funny. To talk to us. Bearing Essays? To entertain us. To make us laugh. We aren’t used to taking no for essay on populations, an answer, to being rejected, especially not by the people who are supposed to make us smile. Especially not by military bearing essays black men who are supposed to make us smile. And yet Chappelle did just that. And so, like everyone, I wondered what had happened.
What had happened, and, more so, what had brought Chappelle to—and kept him in—Yellow Springs?At a stand-up appearance in Sacramento in 2004, a frustrated Chappelle lashed out at his hecklers from the stage, yelling, “You people are stupid!” So what was it about this small college town—where hippies slipped me bags of Girl Scout cookies, where Tibetan jewelry stores and fair-trade coffee shops dotted the main street, and where kindly white ladies crossed the essay on gulmarg, street to tell me my wild hair was giving them life—that made it more satisfying than celebrity or fame? Even before Chappelle himself, politely but firmly, turned down my interview request, I had begun to suspect that the keys to army essays everything he was doing politically and culturally—block parties with Erykah Badu, videos with Mos Def and De La Soul, and campaigning for young black candidates like Kevin Powell, who stressed social responsibility—were interests deeply informed by living in a his parents. His mother is army bearing a historian and his father was a dean of community services and a professor of music. Essay Life? Edward Countryman, the army military essays, American historian, has pointed out some worthwhile context: “Until John Hope Franklin joined the University of on gulmarg Chicago in 1964, no black person held a senior rank in a major history department that encouraged research and trained doctoral students.” But Chappelle, like Kanye West, grew up in a home where black activism and black leftist thought were the languages of the household. No wonder, then, that both Chappelle and West have wrestled so bitterly and publicly with their sense of responsibility to and also their failure to meet those same obligations. “It’s a dilemma,” Chappelle told Kevin Powell. “It’s something that is unique to us.
White people, white artists, are allowed to army military bearing essays be individuals. But we always have this greater struggle that we at least have to essay in our daily keep in mind somewhere.” Chappelle’s throwback kind of celebrity and his many concerns about military bearing essays “social responsibility” are faintly reminiscent of the essay, work that his mother, Professor Yvonne Seon, did in bearing the ’60s and ’70s as a scholar of the Negritude movement. In 1939, the essay on gulmarg, poet Aime Cesaire would return to his island homeland of Martinique, in the Caribbean, after spending years in Europe. The move would prompt his book-length piece of prose poetry, which Andre Breton would call a masterpiece: Cahier d’un retour au pays natal (Notebook of a Return to the Native Land) . Cesaire, a gifted writer, was sent to Europe as a young man to study in military essays the center of the French-speaking world. Once there, he reunited with his childhood friend Leon Damas and essay a young Senegalese poet and future president named Leopold Sedar Senghor. Together, as black men in France, they attempted to military bearing essays educate themselves in a culture where the word negre was inherently a pejorative. To cope while living under the double bind of colonialism and racism, they created “Negritude,” literally a “Blackness” movement. Sometime after my first few interviews with Seon, she mailed me an essay that she wrote in 1975 that had been published in a magazine called Black World . On Computers In Our Daily? The issue features Muhammad Ali on army bearing the cover, and in living her essay Seon describes Negritude as being more of a sensibility than a literary movement that is fixed in the past. To me, more than anything, it voices the dilemma her son would experience decades later: When one speaks of Negritude, one may be speaking of either of two quite different things.
In its narrow definition, Negritude is army essays a literary movement of the late 1930’s. In this restricted sense, it represents the essay on populations, use by Black French-speaking poets, of the techniques of French Impressionism to break away from French culture and to give creative expression to an inner, African self that had been hidden away. But the broader, more important meaning of Negritude has to do with a process isolated and identified by these poets. It is the process by which Black people, who have been cut off from and essays made to learn to know themselves again, come to accept themselves, and begin to believe in (i.e. to value) themselves. Seon was born in Washington, DC. Her father was a fair-skinned man who was adopted by a black woman. On Computers Life? Although he self-identified as black, by army essays all accounts he looked Greek. He was also blind.
On the day Martin Luther King Jr. was shot, Chappelle’s grandfather was on essay on computers daily a city bus and military bearing overheard rumblings of a beat-down about to happen to a white fellow on his bus. That guy’s gonna be in living in a essay trouble, he thought. He did not realize that he was the army military bearing essays, white man being threatened. This anecdote about his grandfather would inspire Chappelle’s “Clayton Bigsby” sketch—the unforgettable short mockumentary about essay on gulmarg a blind white supremacist who does not know he is black. Beginning in 1944, Seon’s mother worked as an administrative assistant for the NAACP. Seon tells me about early memories of sitting outside of NAACP meetings and waving hello to the organization’s chief counsel, Thurgood Marshall, who was working on the cases that would dismantle the Jim Crow laws. Army Military Bearing? In the ’50s, when Africa began to hammer off its colonial shackles, her family found itself in alienation the front lines as black American allies. “My mother was very much one of the people who was paying attention to what was going on in Africa; she knew the ambassadors, we went to the celebrations of army military independence.
So we were following Africa and that part of the involvement, just watching what they were doing. We were aware of the avant-garde, the people who were questing for liberation in Africa.” Seon was twenty-two when she met Patrice Lumumba, the young, energetic prime minister of the Congo, at essay, a society mixer. That same afternoon, he offered her a job. She went home and asked her parents for permission, and they came back and military essays talked with Lumumba. It was agreed she would fly to the Congo and help Lumumba, who, unlike Ghana’s President Kwame Nkrumah, didn’t have a college degree or much of a background in government. Instead, Lumumba was a beer-selling postmaster who had crushed one of the most dehumanizing, despotic colonial regimes with pure rhetoric and was now learning how to establish a new nation. She made plans to living in a essay leave in army military essays the winter, but on December 1, Patrice Lumumba was arrested. “The hardest part was not knowing,” she says. In the weeks to essay on gulmarg come they found out: Lumumba had been murdered, most likely by American and army essays Belgian operatives; Lumumba’s pan-Africanism, his vision of a unified Congo, and his utter lack of patience had alarmed the mba project and dissertation, West so much they had had him killed. Military Bearing Essays? (Belgium apologized in in a dormitory essay 2002 for military essays, its “moral responsibility” in the murder.) But here is the part you should remember if you want to understand Dave Chappelle’s unbridled wit and warwick mba project compulsion to be free: a young Yvonne Seon still decided to take off for the Congo, not knowing what to expect, but knowing that her contact there—a man who was being mourned by Malcolm X and Che Guevara, whose death incited outraged protests all around the world— had been murdered.
She needed to fulfill her promise to the dead man and essays his hope for alienation catcher, a “history of dignity” for African people. Army Military? “We were very much aware that if America was going to have its independence, our independence was tied to the independence of the African countries. And I personally believed at the time that African Americans would not be able to get civil rights until Africa had won its independence, that the two things were interrelated.” Before she left, her father told her that if he hadn’t been blind, he would have gone to Africa with her. When she returned to warwick the States two years later, Seon attended graduate school and met her husband, William David Chappelle (who died in 1998), in those times of army military bearing great hope and unrest. In the late ’60s, they came to essay on populations Yellow Springs to visit friends for the weekend, and, besotted with the town’s counterculture, diversity, and leftist vibe, her husband didn’t want to leave. When Chappelle was two, his parents divorced, and army bearing his father returned to Yellow Springs to teach at Antioch while his mother stayed in Washington, DC, with the children. Essay On The Catcher In The? Dave Chappelle has said of his childhood, “We were like the broke Huxtables. There were books around the army, house; everybody was educated to a college level. We used to have a picture of Malcolm X in Ghana. Last Poets records. Essay? We were poor but we were cultured.”
When they reached the age where he and military his siblings could start “running the streets,” his mother sent them to mba project and dissertation Yellow Springs to live with their father. Chappelle returned when he was fourteen. He later told Kevin Powell, “I left in pre-crack Washington and came back inpost-crack Washington, so I got the before-and-after picture. It was literally jolting, like, what the fuck happened? My freshman year of high school, over five hundred kids my age were murdered.” In addition to military bearing the typical growing pains that accompany adolescence, Chappelle found himself having to navigate what he described to alienation on the catcher James Lipton as being “a very segregated city, especially at that time. Statistically speaking to military this day—statistically speaking—there’s not one poor white person in Washington.” DC was a far cry from Yellow Springs, and he struggled to adjust to the culture shock. Essay? It was his mother who gave him a copy of a magazine with Bill Cosby on the cover. Chappelle felt instantaneously connected to the comic. When he finished reading, he says, “I put it down. And it was like: I’mma be a comedian.
And, man, I’m telling you, I could see it so clearly, so clearly, man—this is it. I was so excited I told my family, ‘I have an announcement to make: I’m gonna be a comedian.’” Because he was fourteen and army his mother took him to gigs around the city, other comics called him “the kid .” He remembers telling his grandmother once before he went onstage, “You might hear me say some things that you might not want to hear your grandson say… And she said, ‘Just relax and do that shit.’ I was like, Wow. I had never heard her curse!” Over lunch in Ohio, Seon tells me, with the same optimism as every other time we’ve talked, about the years she spent in Kinshasa. Her stories are populated with dangers she still seems impervious to: Evariste Kimba, a prime minister who soon succeeded Lumumba, was also executed, and the Congo was at the start of a long period of war. But her memories also retain a sense of hope I have trouble even imagining. “You know,” she says, “I’ve never gone back to the Congo, because it is difficult, you know, to look back at essay in our life, a place that was so full of possibilities and see what has happened.
That is always hard to see, isn’t it?” There is a strange moment in army military bearing James Lipton’s interview with Chappelle where the on the catcher in the, comedian discusses his decision not to army essays attend college. “I was the first person in essay my family not to go to college, that had not been a slave.” The audience laughs. I can never tell if they realize that he is serious. In his fantastic profile of Muhammad Ali, Hunter S. Thompson writes that “the Champ, after all, had once hurled his Olympic gold medal into the Ohio River, in military bearing a fit of pique at some alleged racial insult in Louisville.” The medal was a symbol of essay on gulmarg a white world that Ali “was already learning to treat with a very calculated measure of public disrespect.” Like most people of the post–civil rights generation, I think that Chappelle, whose family had long been free, educated, leftist, and radical, had hoped that his success would not need to follow that same militant path. Despite the fact that four in essays ten white Americans do not have any black friends, and more pressingly, that all too many workplaces are integrated only in essay on gulmarg theory, I think Chappelle hoped that he could bring Yellow Springs’ open-mindedness to the world. For a while he did, but then he became aware that his brand of humor was not without a history and military bearing essays was forced to acknowledge its context.
Next came conferences with suits at Comedy Central about mba project his use of the n-word and military bearing essays his being chastised in the press, and finally he was humiliated and when do i paper called insane. Bearing? Like Thompson once wrote of Ali, Chappelle was put through “one of the meanest and on the most shameful ordeals any prominent American has ever endured.” Without knowing his history, Dave Chappelle’s decision to figuratively toss his gold medal into the Ohio River does seem like a bizarre, illogical act that abbreviated a successful career on its ascent. But was it illogical? Hardly. Revolutionary? Possibly.
To turn his back on Hollywood, to walk away from the spotlight because it was turning him into army military, a man he didn’t want to be—a man without dignity—was a move that was, in a way, Chappelle’s birthright, his own unwieldy kind of Negritude. There’s no friends like the old friends. “I wasn’t crazy but it is incredibly stressful,” Dave Chappelle explained to use citations paper Oprah on The Oprah Winfrey Show in army military bearing essays 2006. With his mother sitting in the front row, he was trying to explain why ten months years earlier—without explanation to on computers daily his wife, to Brennan, or to essays his bosses at Comedy Central—he had quit his show. “I would go to work on the show and on computers I felt awful every day,” he said. “I felt like some kind of prostitute or something. If I feel so bad, why keep on showing up to this place? I’m going to Africa.” Five years have passed since that interview, and Brennan has gone on to write for President Obama at the White House Correspondents’ Dinner and to army work with comedians like Amy Schumer and Chris Rock.
Brennan repeats to me how much he respects Dave, but he tells me that being “trashed” by when research Chappelle on Oprah still bothers him. Military? In 2011, he told a reporter: “You know, for a black artist that’s beloved to go on warwick mba project and dissertation TV and say he was victimized by a white corporate structure, that is like white-people nectar, it’s like white liberal nectar, like, ‘Oh my god, this young black man has been victimized.’ Dave did real well from the show, you know. There was a huge benefit to Dave. Essays? So the idea that somehow he was victimized . . On Computers In Our Daily Life? . My experience was he wasn’t victimized and that it was a matter of pressure and needing to eject from the pressure.” Over salads at a cafeteria-style table that we share with a tall, thin, tan European family at a luncheonette in Midtown Manhattan, Neal Brennan tells me his nigga jokes (or rather his jokes where he says the word nigga ). Two weeks earlier, in New Orleans, I had hung out in the whitewashed wings of the army military essays, Civic Theatre and watched Brennan direct his first Comedy Central one-hour special. There I’d heard some PAs discussing what they called his n-word jokes , but because I had to catch a cab to the airport, I never got a chance to see the show.
In New York, sitting a few feet from essay on computers in our, each other, I tried to army bearing essays prepare myself for use citations research paper, the inevitable, but each time I thought about it my hands had instinctively cocked and curled into fists under the table. Brennan says Chappelle’s Show told two stories: “What it was like to be a dude, and what it was like to be a black dude.” He grew up in the Philadelphia suburbs and is a former altar boy, the youngest of ten kids in a large Irish Catholic family. He is army very thin and on the catcher rye he has what he himself calls a “roguish charm.” Brennan is really, really funny and bearing quick. He wears a uniform of jeans, sneakers, and a T-shirt. He has large ears and wide eyes and spiky hair that is often gelled to a point, cockatoo-style. As we talk, I realize that I recognize many of his expressions from the show.
Brennan tells me that as a writer he knows how to do i use citations paper shape and structure a joke. Army Military Bearing Essays? He directs the jab. “My job and essay on the catcher in the rye life are basically just saying, ‘Hey, say this.’ Say, ‘Doctor says I needs a backiotomy.’” Brennan met Chappelle when they were both eighteen. Everyone else in the New York comedy scene was in their late twenties. “Comedy,” he shrugs and sighs deeply, “is incredibly racially integrated. Army Military Bearing Essays? Probably the most diverse workplace there is, and do i paper it’s not clannish—there is a table at the Comedy Cellar where we all go, and army military bearing you can look around some nights and it is Mexican, white, Jewish, black. You are friends based on essay on gulmarg your comedy ability, not based on military bearing essays your age or something. Like race is essay almost irrelevant.”Brennan studied film at NYU during the day, and at night he stood outside and worked as the annoying guy who yells, “Hey! Come inside and check out the essays, comedy show!” Chappelle had moved to on populations New York to army military do stand-up and was working in do i in a research paper Washington Square Park, learning from a street comic named Charlie Barnett. Neal and army essays Dave had similar sensibilities: they liked the same movies (Spike Lee Joints), the same music (hip-hop), the same TV shows ( Family Ties ). It was kismet. “Chappelle had been on all of these pilots and had been paired with all of the in a dormitory essay, wrong writers, wrong actors; like no thought to chemistry. Just: ‘He’s a hot writer and you’re a hot stand-up,’” Brennan says.
Entertainment Weekly would say of Chappelle’s first sitcom: “The worst thing about army military essays Buddies is dormitory essay that it makes racism boring.” Years passed, and Brennan left New York to live in Los Angeles and write comedy for Nickelodeon, but he stayed in touch with Chappelle. Their film, Half Baked , was totally unexpected and army essays came about quickly. In fact, they had only a month to outline it. “We pitched it. Universal sold it in, like, March, and essay on computers in our daily we were shooting it in July. Which is crazy. Military Essays? Really crazy. But we didn’t know anything because we were, like, twenty-three.” From the moment they arrived on the set, Brennan says he knew that something was off about the production. “First of all, it should have looked more like Kids and Trainspotting . Living? So we get there and Dave turns to me and asks, ‘Is this how you pictured the set?’ And I go, ‘Nope.’ And he goes, ‘Me neither.’” Neal shrugs again. “But again, twenty-three. And there is just nothing you can do.
I’m not a fan of the movie. Dave’s not a fan of the movie.”Directed by Tamra Davis, Half Baked was released in 1998, the same weekend as Titanic , and military essays flopped. Brennan and Chappelle stopped talking for a while. Essay On Gulmarg? These silences are themes in their friendship. I ask him why. “I guess not wanting to acknowledge responsibility, negative association, you want to leave the scene of the army bearing, crime. Like having a child die and warwick and dissertation the parents want to army bearing essays get a divorce.” It would be the first defeat in a series of many. On Computers In Our? After Half Baked , Dave bought his “Fuck you, Hollywood” farm, sixty-five acres of army bearing land in Ohio.
He was living there and having a tough time professionally. Killin’ Them Softly , his one-hour special, came out in 1999. Brennan is in our blunt about it: “No one cared. But Killin’ Them Softy is military bearing a great one-hour special. “Dave called his manager the Monday after it aired,” Brennan says, “and [his manager] goes, ‘Sorry, man, the phone’s not ringing.’” That is how it was. Essay Daily? It cemented a sense within Brennan and Chappelle that show business is built upon what’s hot and what’s not, and, worse, that show business is random, anti-intellectual, and often pretty far behind. “We were the army military, underdogs.
We were left for dead and came from behind and did CPR on ourselves.” He pauses and living essay peers over army military bearing essays the heads of the towheaded European family sitting next to us. In A Paper? “To give you a sense of army military things, this is how little respect Dave was getting: we pitched Chappelle’s Show to dormitory essay one station and they literally looked at us like we were lepers. Like, because Chris Rock had just gone off the army military bearing essays, air, they were like, ‘Chris Rock is essay on computers in our daily life everything and you’re nothing, Dave.’ Then we walk up Fifth Avenue and army essays pitch it to Comedy Central. They buy it. When Do I In A Research Paper? And it becomes the army military, show. And now Chappelle’s Show has sold three million copies on DVD.” (It remains the world’s top-selling TV-to-DVD series.)
In Brennan’s mind, he and Dave Chappelle had literally beaten the Philistines and had finally made it in television. But, as Chappelle told Oprah, this was not at all true. When Brennan discusses the demise of the show, he discusses it as a conflict about renegotiating the terms of the essay, third season. Essays? Or, as he told fellow comedian Joe Rogan in an interview where Brennan looks visibly pained, “It became an use citations in a paper, ego thing, once the negotiations started. It was the worst period of my life… but as Lorne Michaels once said, ‘Comedians don’t like admitting they have help.’” Brennan says that at the height of the military essays, contretemps, they both said awful things to each other. When Chappelle discusses his exit, he does not deny that things went haywire, but he attributes it mostly to his discomfort with the material, the politics of the show, and the climate on the set.
He told Oprah, “ I was doing sketches that were funny but socially irresponsible. It was encouraged. I felt I was deliberately being encouraged and I was overwhelmed.” I ask an older friend who is black and on computers in our daily a theorist of sorts what he thinks about Chappelle’s Show . I get an army, answer that surprises me with its vitriol: “Chappelle was at use citations in a research, the end of the one-hundred-and-fifty-year minstrel cycle and fifty years after the height of the civil rights movement and ten years after the beginning of Southern hip-hop and in the midst of the army, most coonish aspects of dirty South hip-hop. And Dissertation? He wrung the military, last bits of potential energy out of taboos that had been in guarded reserve that show niggas as violent, unintelligent, unlettered beasts. And he portrayed niggas that way (while maintaining an ironic distance from those caricatures). The thing was, many took his shit literally, which is why he ultimately quit.” I go back and essay on gulmarg watch “The Mad Real World” sketch, a spoof of the army bearing, MTV reality show.
In the sketch a white man moves into a house full of black roommates and, in the ensuing weeks, his father is stabbed while visiting, his blond girlfriend is turned out by on populations two guys, and the living room is regularly transformed into military bearing essays, a makeshift nightclub. The black characters are indeed portrayed as “violent, unintelligent, unlettered beasts,” but the whole skit is pitched on a high register of on computers in our irony. When I ask Brennan how he dealt with backlash about the show’s use of the n -word and its edgy racial humor, he objects. Bearing Essays? “As much as people say that about Chappelle’s Show , no one ever got pissed. People ask, ‘Were you worried?’ and it’s like, no, because it was all founded on living essay real, empirical observations and lived lives. Like, that ‘Real World’ sketch was a discussion we had been having for a decade about black people on The Real World . The guy who pulled the blanket off the girl was Dave’s best friend. So we knew what that shit was like. “Look,” he says, appearing exhausted, “I think I have a fairly decent gauge of what the line is. It is not perfect, but, like, I say the n -word eight times in my stand-up. Army Military Essays? And it works. People can tell if you mean it. And the other thing is I never say it, I’m always paraphrasing someone.
And… I open up by warwick mba project shitting on military white people. And pedigree. I think people know that I’m known for on populations, being friends with black dudes, especially Dave. And I talk about that, I talk about being called it. Army Bearing Essays? I talk about the first time I was called the n -word. I get called the n -word every day. I can show you texts.” Scrolling through his phone without looking up, he tells me, “So it is a weird thing where you expect me to inhale something and not exhale. And people are like, ‘You can’t say that.’ But I get called it every day. Constantly, for twenty years.” Later on, Brennan brings up an idea first posited by do i paper the psychologist Beverly Tatum about the bearing essays, ways we tend to warwick and dissertation segregate ourselves as we get older and grow apart from our friends of military bearing essays different races.
Neal tells me, “It’s like when black kids sit at dormitory essay, the lunch table with only black kids, and the white kids sit with white kids. Bearing Essays? I think it is just like, ‘Well, they look like family.’ It is just some animal shit. It is safety.” When I read Tatum’s book, she says something that sticks with me: that so often the difficultly in discussing race is about working around the essay, divide of army that which we do not know. As I listen to Brennan talk, I think about how he is essay on populations right, that comedy is different. Comedians live for the joke and the joke alone. Army Military? White writers have long written jokes for black comics with great success (my favorites being Ed. Catcher In The? Weinberger for Bill Cosby and Louis C.K. for army military, Chris Rock), but at the same time none of this goodwill can negate the catcher, possibility that Chappelle experienced what his mother had written about twenty years before: the army military bearing essays, desire to “learn to know himself again.” And that for all the post–civil rights progress we have made, it is possible that you could be best friends with someone of a different race without being able to on computers enter worlds and spaces that they can, or in the way that they do. After two hours of remarkably easy conversation, I can tell it is time for the moment I’ve been clenching my fist about. Maybe he had needed to feel me out.
Neal Brennan, who definitely embodies the best of the easy wit of army Chappelle’s Show , goes for when in a research, it. “The joke in army military my act is: ‘It is so bad I call myself it when no one’s around.’ It will be lunchtime and I’m like, Nigga, you need to eat. Essay On Gulmarg? And I’m like, Who are you talking to?” My hand unclenches. His n- word joke reminded me of the weird moments when I’ve been around young white men who identify with hip-hop culture and army bearing who, for some strange reason, despite their stated best intentions, need to access that word as proof that they are accepted or acknowledged by the community they are involved with. They do not realize the and dissertation, hubris and army bearing essays dominance inherent in on populations the act of wanting to use that word.
Brennan’s joke is military a joke on those guys, but it is also, inadvertently, a joke on himself. I think he knows this. Neal Brennan inhabits a strange place as a white man whose closest friends are mostly black. But what, if anything, does that mean? I ask him what I think is the only logical next question: “So do you think you are black?” “No!” he says emphatically, like I had missed the point, because that would be absurd. “I also think that is a silly thing. Like I’ve never spoken Ebonics.” “Do you think that you’re a racist?” I ask, but not because I think Brennan is any more racist than any other white person, especially if racism is viewed as a system of white privilege and unearned benefits. I ask this because part of knowing where the line is is knowing where you situate yourself along it or against when do i use citations in a research paper, it.
“Uh, I think that everybody is racist. It is a natural human condition. It’s tribal.” Another evening, Brennan and I talk about what the ride of army essays success felt like. He remembers hanging out at a club in do i use citations Arizona where he and Chappelle were approached by a white fan who was loose with his use of the army military essays, word nigger and who praised Chappelle for making it so funny. “It was awful,” Brennan recalls. The thing is, I like Neal Brennan. And I got the joke, I think. But when he first told it to essay on populations me, there was an military essays, awkward silence that I think both Brennan and mba project I noticed.
The cafeteria seemed to swell with noise. And for a brief moment, my head clouded, and there was nothing I could think of to essays say, so to get out of the silence, I did what was expected: I laughed. When I got home, this troubled me deeply. You can’t say anything real when it comes to race. That’s why Bill Cosby’s in such trouble for saying black folks have got to take responsibility for their own lives. I spoke at my high school last week and essay on populations I told them, ‘You’ve got to focus. Stop blaming white people for your problems … Learn to play basketball, tell jokes, or sell crack. That’s the only way I’ve seen people get out.’ Last time I was down South I walked into this restaurant, and this white waitress came up to me and said: “We don’t serve colored people here.” I said: “That’s all right, I don’t eat colored people. Bring me a whole fried chicken.” —Dick Gregory, Nigger.
You cannot really discuss Chappelle’s Show without discussing the n -word. Army Military Bearing Essays? One also cannot discuss the n -word without discussing Dick Gregory. Neal Brennan and Dave Chappelle weren’t even born yet when Dick Gregory bounded onto the American comedy scene and asked to stand flat-footed or to on computers life sit down and be spoken to army bearing essays like a man. Yvonne Seon tells me that when Dick Gregory campaigned for president in 1968, “we all had our eyes on do i use citations in a him.” Dick Gregory is a larger-than-life sort of man. To reach him, you have to get past his wife of fifty years, Miss Lillian. “You were lucky,” Gregory tells me. Army Military Bearing? “She is tough. On Gulmarg? She once told the president I’d have to call him back.” Although things have slowed down from the military essays, days when he commanded a weekly rate of something just shy of fifteen thousand bucks, when the only peers in his earning bracket were Woody Allen, Mort Sahl, and Lenny Bruce, Dick Gregory is still on the move.
All of essay in our his activity is army military bearing essays made even more remarkable by the fact that he is now eighty. He still runs and living does regular juice fasts, and his long white beard makes him look like a Methuselah among men. And maybe he is. Richard Pryor once said: “Dick was the greatest, and army he was the first. Daily Life? Somebody had to break down that door. He was the one.” Before Dick Gregory, there were no elegant black men in comedy.
The generation before Dick Gregory’s grew up on bearing Stepin Fetchit, the alienation on the in the, stage name of a black actor named Lincoln Perry and one of America’s most famous black personalities for more than twenty years. These days it is army essays difficult to find clips of Stepin Fetchit and the existing films are rarely shown. Essay? Stepin Fetchit acts like a shuffling, befuddled fool, and because of bearing essays this many of Perry’s films have been deemed offensive. Little remains to show his enormous influence on- and off-camera: he was the first black A-list actor, a millionaire during the Great Depression; he owned a fleet of limos and sports cars and he employed a retinue of essay on gulmarg Asian maids and butlers. He carried guns, he wrote essays for black newspapers, he was handsome, he was a Hollywood outlaw—but none of that mattered on-screen. On-screen he stooped his neck, and military dropped his bottom lip, and acted as shiftless and stupid as possible. Stepin Fetchit is the id figure, in characterization only, that sits on Chappelle’s shoulder in one of alienation essay rye his skits and essays demands that Chappelle make himself happy and order chicken during a flight. Alienation Catcher? It is not the chicken that is the problem, it is the bearing, familiarity of the essay in our life, characterization. That whether Chappelle liked it or not, whether Dick Gregory liked it or not, this was the precedent. “When the Playboy Club brought me in,” Dick Gregory recalls, “up until then you could sing, you could dance, but you could not stand flat-footed and talk and just tell jokes, because the military, people upstairs didn’t want folks to know just how intelligent black folks were. [The Playboy Club] brought me in, though, and it opened up the floodgates. Mba Project? Now,” he says, “Will Smith’s movies alone have made three billion dollars.” Dick Gregory’s gig at military bearing, the Playboy Club started in 1961, and three years later he would write his memoir, entitled Nigger . This is the part of his dedication to on computers in our daily life his mother that is often quoted: “Dear Momma—Wherever you are, if you ever hear the word ‘nigger’ again, remember they are advertising my book.”
When I suggest to Gregory that he used his comedy as a weapon, he shouts, “What?” so loud I get scared. Army Bearing Essays? “How could comedy be a weapon? Comedy has got to be funny. Comedy can’t be no damn weapon. Comedy is when do i use citations in a research just disappointment within a friendly relation.” Chappelle, he says, was very good at it. When Gregory’s son showed him a few episodes of Chappelle’s Show , he told me that he kept thinking, “Damn, I wish I could have thought of that.” Then Gregory volunteers to tell me the military essays, names of the three greatest comedians of all time, and in when use citations research paper a proud and awesomely fraternal way, he says, in army military bearing essays order: “Lenny Bruce, Richard Pryor, and Mark Twain.” “Yes,” I say. “But isn’t it difficult to be that profane and that profound, in droves, especially as Twain in Pudd’nhead Wilson ?” “Did you say Pudd’nhead Wilson ?” Gregory shouts.
“Yes,” I say, scared again that I’ve said the wrong thing. “ Pudd’nhead Wilson ! Brilliant stuff! I could kiss you! Mmhm,” he says. “And Twain could last and come up with that stuff because he wasn’t onstage having to come up with material. But listen,” he says, waiting a beat. “Nobody said comedy was easy.” Dick Gregory admires Mark Twain’s audacity as a white man to discuss race in living in a dormitory America. He hates the military, idea of concealing the word nigger behind euphemisms like the on computers life, n -word, and he seems to think it should be a shared burden. “Before Twain, no white people would ever write about lynchings.
So his column was ‘There were two people lynched last weekend and then we found out they were just “niggers.”’ And then he did the whole article about how the good Christian church people were there. And the white women brought their babies and children were selling Kool-Aid and lemonade, like, ‘So what? They were just niggers!’ That was the first time that anyone in history wrote anything like that, nothing about those gatherings had ever been written about lynching! That had never been done before! And like that, that is comedy!” When I ask Estee Adoram, the lovely, legendary, no-nonsense booker at New York’s best comedy club, the Comedy Cellar, what sort of person becomes a stand-up comic, the first thing she says is “A very brave person. A person willing to be laughed at.” When I read about army military bearing Twain saying the word nigger , in the exact same way Neal Brennan did, it does not raise the hairs on my neck. I do not think we want censored comics. But I’m given pause. Estee tells me she can sense when there is “an unfunny bitterness behind the essay, joke.” The fun of humor is the way it pushes at the boundaries. The joke is indeed a tricky thing.
But if I’ve learned anything over these past months, it’s that the best jokes should deliver a hard truth easily. Military? It is the when research paper, difference between asking girls in army essays the crowd how their butt-holes look—a roast my sister and I endured one night at a comedy club—and mastering the subtlety of the uniquely American art form of stand-up comedy. Essay? Dick Gregory has a joke for me: So I’m standing at the airport and I see this white lady talking to her daughter. Might be five years old, and you know how honest kids are, so she walked up to me and said, “Is your name Dick Gregory?” And I said, “Yes.” And she said, “My mamma says you have a tail.” And I said, “Yes, and you tell her my tail is in my front.” Another book you should buy if you can spare twenty bucks is Pryor Convictions and Other Life Sentences , Richard Pryor’s autobiography.
In it, he tells of army a dinner party thrown in his honor by Bobby Darin. Pryor is seated across from Groucho Marx, who told him “that he’d seen me on The Merv Griffin Show a few weeks earlier, when I’d guested with Jerry Lewis.” It hadn’t been one of essay in our daily my better moments—Jerry and I had gotten laughs by army military bearing spitting on each other, and Groucho, it turned out, had a few things to say about on gulmarg that. “Young man, you’re a comic?” he asked. “Yes,” I nodded. “Yes, I am.” “So how do you want to end up? Have you thought about army essays that?
Do you want a career you’re proud of? Or do you want to end up a spitting wad like Jerry Lewis?” The man was right… I could feel the mba project, stirrings of an identity crisis. It was coming on like the beginning of an acid trip. Army Military Bearing? Groucho’s comments spoke to me. “Wake up, Richard. Yes, you are an ignorant jerk, pimping your talent like a cheap whore. Use Citations Research Paper? But you don’t have to military bearing stay that way. Living In A? You have a brain. Use it.” The next sentence? “The thing was, I didn’t have to.”
The thing about Chappelle is that he wanted to use it, and he knew how. There is no doubt that Chappelle’s Show is his finest work, but the block party that he put on and filmed in Bed-Stuy in bearing 2004 is also a revealing production in the sense that we get to see the comedian almost at rest, listening to the music he enjoys with his celebrity friends. I was there, both in the crowd and backstage, and there was a remarkable amount of solidarity, love, and exuberance even in the drizzly September rain. The kind that I can’t forget. Watching a triumphant Lauryn Hill resplendent in cream slacks and on the catcher in the a Yankees cap, reunited with her bandmates from the Fugees. Looking down from a nearby roof, I believed anything was possible—for them, for us.
Chappelle was the kind of celebrity who wanted to reach out to fans who looked like him, and it was clear that as much as he aspired to universality, he realized that “the bottom line was, white people own everything, and where can a black person go and be himself or say something that’s familiar to him and not have to explain or apologize?” So sometimes it was very nice to have, as the comic himself said, “Five thousand black people chillin’ in the rain,” like a Pan-African Congress right off of Putnam Avenue. When I ask Yvonne Seon what she thinks about the essays, n -word and how easily it is used these days in hip-hop culture, she says, “There has always been a tendency to try and warwick mba project and dissertation rehab a word that has been used as an epithet for you. It’s a way of claiming something that hurt you, hoping that you can say, ‘Now this word won’t hurt me anymore.’ It’s a part of the attempted healing. Bearing Essays? When James Brown sang, ‘I’m black and I’m proud,’ that is an example of warwick and dissertation how he tried to rehabilitate that word. Essays? Because there was a time when I was growing up when you didn’t call anybody black unless you wanted to get knocked into next week. There was too much shame involved.” “Do you think—” I start. And she laughs and living in a cuts me off with a question. “Do I think, like, ‘I’m black and I’m proud,’ ‘I’m a nigga and I am proud!’ could exist?” We both laugh at bearing essays, the absurdity, and also the very real possibility, of that song. “Hm,” she says. “I have trouble with the word nigga . I associate that word with lynching, violence, and hate, and I don’t associate the word black with that. On Populations? But I do associate the military, word nigga with that history. So it’s not a term that I could ever use easily or encourage the use of. There have been articles written about teaching this history, and we’ve discussed them in my black studies class, but what usually happens is that the class eventually decides that they’re going to essay on gulmarg be part of the movement against the word nigger . Essays? Once they understand what the history is and what the do i use citations research paper, word means, they stop using it and they encourage their friends to military essays stop using it.” “It is about choices,” I say, feeling guilty for on computers daily life, a lot of reasons before she demurely stops me.
“Yes, it always is,” she says, “about choices.” Just being a Negro doesn’t qualify you to understand the race situation any more than being sick makes you an expert on army military bearing medicine. Tamra Davis, the director of on populations Half Baked , is feeding her children, so she can’t say out loud the last lines of the army military, movie she directed. These are lines she had to on the in the fight for, and, along with Brennan and army military Chappelle, she had to try to when do i use citations in a research paper convince fifteen studio executives that they deserved to be in the movie. She tries to talk around the lines, but finally she whispers, “I love weed, love it ! Probably always will! But not as much as I love pussy!” She giggles. There are probably worse things than hearing your mom talk about the movie she directed with Dave Chappelle. Army Essays? Tamra Davis is nonchalantly cool, despite having the distinction of mba project and dissertation having directed the early movies of army military essays Adam Sandler ( Happy Gilmore ) and Chris Rock ( CB4 ). On Gulmarg? She grew up in California and has been around comedy all her life. Her grandfather was a comedy writer for Redd Foxx, Sammy Davis Jr., and Slappy White.
She understands comedy instinctually, and knows that the difference between a writer and essays a comic is the energy and love a comic must bring to the stage, to the audience. Like everyone I speak to, Davis thinks exceedingly wonderful things about Dave Chappelle. The man has a hagiography; I hear it from everyone: from Neal Brennan to warwick and dissertation a former executive of Comedy Central, who tells me, “I have so, so much respect for army bearing, Dave. He is mba project and dissertation a great guy.” For all the essays, bridges he has supposedly burned, Dave Chappelle is essay on computers in our life beloved. Tamra Davis is the most direct. “I just really think his voice is an important voice to be heard. Bearing? I’ve spent my life working with young people who all of a sudden get launched into essay, an incredible position of celebrity and fame and it’s very, very difficult to handle. And people handle it in different ways. And so I’m glad that he is around, you know, because many other people would be crushed by military bearing essays that. Having to have that inner dialogue in your head, knowing that everybody is talking about you.
It’s a very difficult thing to have to navigate.” What separated Dave Chappelle not just from Neal Brennan but also his fans is that he was suddenly vaulted into the awkward position of being the world’s most famous interlocutor in when do i in a paper a conversation about race—the one conversation no one likes having. Yes, it is hard to look back. But it’s easy to understand why Chappelle was done with being misread, tired of army military essays explaining, finished talking. As Brennan, and then everyone else, told me: the man turned down fifty million dollars.
You will never get him to warwick speak with you. “Beware, my body and my soul, beware above all of crossing your arms and assuming the sterile attitude of the spectator, for life is not a spectacle, a sea of griefs is not a proscenium, and a man who wails is military bearing not a dancing bear.” —Aime Cesaire, Notebook of a Return to essay the Native Land. When a chance came to military bearing visit Yellow Springs, I had no expectation that Chappelle would be there. But I wanted to essay on gulmarg see it. In Yellow Springs, I met Yvonne Seon. We had a good time. Essays? We discussed my wedding, we discussed Michelle Alexander’s The New Jim Crow , and she introduced me to living in a dormitory her family.
It was a lovely day. Idyllic, even. On my way out of town, I felt tired, so I stopped for some coffee at a local coffee shop. As I was paying, I saw a few guys out army military, back in the garden, talking, and then I saw Dave Chappelle, in a weird white tank top that strained to contain his muscles. When Use Citations Research Paper? No longer lean. Well-defended. So at a cash register in Yellow Springs I stood and watched as the person I had so badly wanted to talk to walked toward me.
But when he said hello, I made a decision that—until my plane ride home—I kicked myself for. Moving on pure instinct, I simply said hello, turned and finished paying my bill, and left. Did I mention that the light is beautiful at dusk in Yellow Springs? The people walk the streets, going to the grocery store or looking at the theater listings. There is a cafe that was once a house on the Underground Railroad that now serves delicious Reuben sandwiches and plays disco music. People say hello in passing, kids with Afros zip by on military bearing scooters. It is small-town America, but with hemp stores. Essay On Populations? I didn’t want to leave, because it seems like an easy place to live. Not without its problems, but a place with a quiet understanding that conversation is the minimum for living in essays a better world.
You know, simple things. At a memorial for his father a few years back, standing next to his mother at the podium at living in a dormitory essay, Antioch College, Dave Chappelle ended his speech by thanking the army military essays, community of Yellow Springs. “So,” he said, “thank you to you all for warwick mba project and dissertation, giving my father a context where he could just exist and be a good dude, because to be a good dude, as many good dudes have shown you before, is just not a comfortable thing to be. It’s a very hard thing to aspire to. And so thanks for army bearing, honoring him, because sometimes it is a lonely, quiet road when you make a decision to try to transcend your own demons or be good or whatever he was trying to on gulmarg do here.” In my car’s rearview mirror, it doesn’t seem strange to me at all that I am watching America’s funniest comic standing in a small town, smoking cigarettes and shooting the shit with his friends. Like everyone else on the street, one friend is army bearing essays white, the other is black—the only alienation catcher, difference being that they are with Dave. But here Dave is just Dave.
Totally uninterrupted, unheckled, free to be himself, free to military bearing have a family, and land, and time to recover. Time to be complicated, time to be a confessed fan of fame who one day decided that it was important to warwick learn to be himself again. Essays? Chappelle took a drag on his cigarette, and laughed, and it was apparent that he was doing what he said he wanted most in life: having fun and being funny. And Dissertation? So, for army bearing essays, better or for worse, I took this to be my answer.
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The Odyssey Summary and army military bearing essays, Analysis of Books 9-12. Odysseus reveals his name and homeland to Alcinous, and living, says Calypso held him against his will prior to his arrival. He traces his route after Troy. After his crew plundered Ismaros, a coastal town of the Kikones, they fought the army military essays, army of the Kikones. They lost many men by the time his twelve ships sailed away, and suffered a great storm the next few days at mba project and dissertation sea.
On their tenth day, they reach the island of the Lotos Eaters, a peaceful people who eat the sweet, pleasure-producing plant, the Lotus. Three of Odysseus' men eat the Lotus and wish to remain there, but Odysseus forces them back on to the ship and sails off again. They next reach the land of the Cyclopes, a race of lawless, hermit-like, one-eyed giants. The next day, Odysseus' men feast on the plentiful goats on the deserted, fertile island across from the mainland of the Cyclopes. Army. The day after, Odysseus and his crew cross to the mainland to meet the essay on gulmarg, Cyclopes. Army Bearing Essays. They spot a huge brute of a man in a field, and when do i use citations research, Odysseus brings a goatskin full of sweet liquor as a gift. Army Bearing. They reach his cave - he is still in the pasture - and Odysseus' men want to steal his cheeses and livestock. Odysseus refuses, wanting to meet the owner. They wait for him, then hide when he comes in and does his chores. The Cyclops, named Polyphemus, notices them and living, asks who they are, and Odysseus introduces themselves and asks for any help he can provide, warning him not to offend Zeus, the god of hospitality.
Polyphemus ridicules this idea; he does not care about the army military essays, gods. Instead, he asks where Odysseus' ship is; the crafty leader lies and says it was wrecked and that they are the only survivors. In A Dormitory. Polyphemus grabs two of Odysseus' men, beats them dead, and eats them whole while the other men watch, powerless. Army. Polyphemus then goes to sleep in his doorway, preventing Odysseus from killing him, as they would not be able to essay move aside his huge dead body to escape. In the army military essays, morning, Polyphemus eats some more men, then leaves and blocks the cave's entrance with a large stone. Odysseus hatches a plan to defeat Polyphemus. He chops a six-foot section out of the essay on populations, Polyphemus' large club, then hews it to make a sharp, pointed end, and finally holds it in the fire to essays toughen it. Alienation Essay. At night, Polyphemus returns and eats two more men. Essays. Odysseus offers him some of his wine; Polyphemus asks for more and for his name, promising him a gift. Odysseus says his name is essay on gulmarg Nobody, and Polyphemus says his gift will be eating him next. Military. But Polyphemus falls asleep, drunk, and Odysseus and four men reheat their spike in the fire and ram it in Polyphemus' one eye.
They blind him and he howls for use citations in a, his fellow Cyclopes, who come to the outside of his cave and ask him if a man has tricked him. Nobody, says Polyphemus, has ruined him. The other Cyclopes believe he means nobody has ruined him, and they leave him, telling him to pray to his father, Poseidon. Polyphemus opens the military essays, cave door, hoping to essay on the catcher rye catch anyone who tries to escape. Odysseus comes up with another idea. He ties the army essays, rams in the cave together and creates a sling under each ram in which the men can ride. They stay in their ram-carriages until morning, when Polyphemus lets the rams pass through the entrance. Odysseus' ram, the leader, goes last, and Polyphemus asks why it is not in its customary leading position.
Once they are in the clear, the men drop out of their slings and drive the rams to when do i use citations in a paper their ship. Army Military. Safely on the sea again, Odysseus shouts insults Polyphemus. Polyphemus breaks off a hilltop and on gulmarg, throws it near the ship, tossing it off balance with a giant wave. Despite the pleas of his crew not to army military bearing give away their position by again taunting Polyphemus, Odysseus gives the Cyclops the name and homeland of the man who blinded him. Polyphemus says he was once given a prophecy that someone named Odysseus, presumably a giant, would blind him; now he asks Odysseus to come back, as he will treat him well and pray for him to catcher in the his father, Poseidon. Odysseus rejects his offer, and Polyphemus prays to Poseidon that Odysseus lose his companions and essays, never return home. Mba Project And Dissertation. Immediately, Poseidon sends a huge stone that nearly hits the army essays, ship. The crew rushes to on gulmarg meet its waiting fleet, and the men make a sacrificial offering of the rams to Zeus. However, Zeus has destruction and death in mind for military, the unwitting men. When Do I. They feast that day, and army, the next morning they continue their journey home. Nearly halfway through the story we get the full backstory (the background story) about why Poseidon has a grudge against Odysseus.
But the Polyphemus episode is mba project important beyond serving as a plot point; we learn much about army bearing, Odysseus as a leader - both his strengths and his flaws. As we saw in Book VIII, in which Odysseus angrily reacted to an athletic challenge, he is prone to rash decisions. First, he makes the mistake of wanting to warwick meet Polyphemus even as his men warn him against it. This action we can chalk up to Odysseus' faith in the goodwill of men (and even Cyclopes). Army Military Bearing Essays. But he makes a far more egregious error when he taunts Polyphemus not once but twice. This second mistake is what creates his problem with Poseidon, as he foolishly reveals his name and invites the essay, wrath of the bearing essays, god of earthquake - and when do i use citations research, subsequently dooms his shipmates. But for army military essays, every lapse in essay in our daily judgment on his part, Odysseus devises an army bearing essays equally ingenious plan to escape trouble.
Prior to the Polyphemus episode, he wisely steers his crew away from the land of the hedonistic, drug-addled Lotus Eaters, knowing that succumbing to temptation there will prevent them from the more authentic pleasures of home. With Polyphemus, he comes up with three brilliant ideas: crafting a spike to essay on gulmarg blind Polyphemus in his one vulnerable spot; calling himself Nohbdy so that the other Cyclopes will not know who blinded Polyphemus; and fashioning the military essays, slings under the rams for escape. In each instance, a man of lesser tactical ability would have gone for essay on the catcher in the, the simpler solution (killing Polyphemus when he was sleeping by the doorway; revealing his name right away; trying to run by Polyphemus) with destructive consequences. Homer's recounting of Polyphemus' blinding is startling in its descriptive and poetic powers. The imagery is vivid and specific: we bored that great eye socket / while blood ran out army military, around the red hot bar. / Eyelid and lash were seared; the pierced ball / hissed broiling, and the roots popped (420-423). Note that this entire chapter is in Odysseus' narrative voice as he recounts his tale to Alcinous, and is the most we have heard him speak so far. He (and Homer, of course) uses several occupational similes while describing the blinding: I leaned on it / turning it as a shipwright turns a drill / in planking, having men below to swing / the two-handled strap (416-419) and warwick mba project and dissertation, In a smithy / one sees a white-hot axehead or an adze / plunged and wrung in a cold tub, screeching steam? / just so that eyeball hissed around the spike (425-427, 429). Both similes remind us of the nearly mechanical work the military bearing essays, men are engaged in - creating a weapon, hardening it through fire, and blinding Polyphemus - and of the collaborative effort required to mount such a task: only together, as a virtual shipwright and his workers, can they defeat the powerful Cyclops. Odysseus continues his story for Alcinous.
After the encounter with Polyphemus, Odysseus and his crew reach the island of the wind god Aiolos. On Populations. Aiolos hosts them for a month, and then provides Odysseus with a bag containing storm winds to help them sail. They sail off with his westerly wind at their backs, and after ten days come within sight of military bearing essays, Ithaca. But while Odysseus sleeps, his crew, mistakenly believing Aiolos' bag is full of silver and gold, greedily open it. In A Dormitory Essay. All the winds rush out and the ship is sent off course in a hurricane. They are sent back to Aiolos' island, and Odysseus explains to him what happened. Bearing. Aiolos believes Odysseus' journey is cursed by the gods and refuses to help him further.
Odysseus and his crew sail on without any wind and reach Lamos, land of the dormitory, giant Laistrygonians. The king, Antiphates, and the queen eat one of Odysseus' envoys, and essays, the crew barely escapes as the other Laistrygonians shoot boulders at the retreating ship. The men arrive at the island of the goddess Circe. Odysseus kills a buck and boosts his crew's morale with a great feast. He tells his crew that he saw smoke rising from the forest, but his men, thinking back on essay on populations, the their last few encounters with strangers, are afraid to army military bearing meet any new ones. But Odysseus, after a random selection, sends half of the weeping men under command of Eurylokhos off to investigate. Outside Circe's house lie subdued and spellbound wolves and mountain lions. Inside, Circe sings while weaving on essay catcher in the rye, her loom. Army Bearing Essays. All the daily life, men - except for bearing, Eurylokhos, who suspects deceit - are reassured by when do i use citations in a research paper this gentle behavior and enter.
Circe fixes them a feast and adds something to their drinks; once they drink it, they are turned into pigs. She shuts them in a pigsty while Eurylokhos runs back to alert the crew. Odysseus goes alone to her house despite Eurylokhos' protestations. The god Hermes stops him on his way and gives him a plant that will preserve him against Circe's own pig-poison. Then Odysseus should threaten her with death, at which point Circe will offer to sleep with him. Odysseus must accept, as it will break her spell over his crew. Odysseus visits Circe, and the plant works its magic against her poison. He goes through with Hermes' plan, and by his fortitude she takes him to be the great Odysseus.
As Hermes predicted, she asks him to sleep with her; he first makes her promise not to use any more enchantments. Army Military. They retire to living in a her opulent bedchamber, but Odysseus is concerned about his companions. Circe turns them back into men, now looking better than ever. Army Military Essays. She tells Odysseus to have his men bring their ships and gear ashore and come back with everyone. He does, and they all return but the still suspicious Eurylokhos. The men are bathed by living in a essay Circe's maids and given a dinner. Military Bearing. Circe invites Odysseus to stay with her on her island. Essay On Gulmarg. The men end up staying for a year in the paradise until they finally remind Odysseus of their mission.
Odysseus asks Circe to help them sail home, but she says he must go to Hades, the land of Death, and speak to the blind seer Tiresias. She gives the dejected Odysseus detailed instructions for sailing to army essays Hades and preparing rites to summon Tiresias. Odysseus tells his crew it is time to leave, but the youngest, Elpenor, having drunkenly slept on the roof, falls and kills himself. Temptation hurts the men three times in this book. First, the crew greedily opens the bag of winds, even disloyally suspecting Odysseus of keeping his treasure from them.
Next, the men foolhardily accept Circe's hospitality and drinks. On Gulmarg. Finally, everyone, Odysseus most of all, gladly spends a year basking in the luxury of Circe's domain, thoughts of home far from their minds. Indeed, despite his usual levelheaded decision-making, Odysseus' great character flaw is his occasional rash, emotional behavior - witness his unwise taunting of Polyphemus in Book IX, or, as Eurylokhos notes, his choice merely to see Polyphemus. Circe, in some ways, is a double of the goddess Calypso. Army Military Bearing. Whereas Calypso critiqued the gender double standard among gods, arguing against the unfairness of a system in which male gods can take mortal lovers as they please while goddesses cannot - and, by extension, it seems, applying this critique to Greek society - Circe turns the tables on the usual male/female power dynamic. She exploits the weakness and dormitory, desperation of the men, turning them into the pigs she most likely thinks they resemble in behavior. Interestingly, Circe is first paired up with another woman in the poem - Penelope.
She is first shown weaving at her loom, the activity Penelope uses to ward off her suitors. Bearing. Since Circe is another of the poem's examples of a symbolically castrating woman, and in a dormitory essay, since Penelope has raised some doubts about the sincerity of army military bearing, her fidelity, further parallels are drawn with Penelope emerging as the lesser woman. Penelope, too, has a household of men who have turned her place into a sty, but she is use citations in a paper not strong enough to shoo them away as Circe can do. Perhaps it is Circe's strength, not to mention her divine beauty, which attracts Odysseus. As with Calypso, he does not seem to have any misgivings about committing an act of infidelity with her. Rather than think guiltily about his wife at home, he instead worries about the army military bearing essays, well-being of his shipmates.
Odysseus and his crew sail to the region of the Men of Winter and, per do i use citations research Circe's instructions, make a ritual sacrifice for Tiresias. While waiting for Tiresias, Odysseus cuts down the other phantoms that emerge, including Elpenor, who had fallen from military essays, Circe's roof. Dormitory Essay. Odysseus promises him a proper sailor's burial back on Circe's island. He also sees his dead mother, Antikleia. Finally, Tiresias appears and warns him that Poseidon seeks vengeance for the blinding of his son, Polyphemus.
He warns Odysseus not to touch the flocks of military essays, Helios when he lands on Thrinakia, predicting doom for his crew if they do. He further predicts that Odysseus will make it alone to his house and slay Penelope's destructive suitors. Then he will take an oar to a place where men do not know of the sea, and when someone asks him about the fan on essay on computers in our, his shoulder, he should make a sacrifice to Poseidon; the sacrifice will ensure a rich life for him thereafter. Tiresias leaves, and Odysseus allows Antikleia to sip the blood he has prepared and thus talk. He briefly tells her about the purpose of his journey, then asks what killed her, and then asks after the rest of his family.
She relates Penelope's and Telemachus' lives, and says his father stays at home, pining for his son's return. Army Bearing. She was like this, too, and essay on gulmarg, her loneliness and army bearing essays, longing for essay on the in the rye, Odysseus is what killed her. Odysseus tries to hug her, but his hands pass through the air. Bearing. After they finish talking, more shadows come and tell their stories to Odysseus. Odysseus stops his story. The Phaeacian king, Alcinous, asks him to spend another day with them so they can furnish him with gifts, then asks if he met any of when paper, his fellow warriors among the shadows.
Odysseus relates how he saw Agamemnon, who tells him how Aigisthos and his wife Klytaimnestra killed him, and warns him about the wickedness of women; he should return home secretly, without warning to his wife. Odysseus talks with other shadows, including Achilles, about whose son, Neoptolemos, he tells him. He sees Tantalos, tortured by food and drink always just out of reach, and Sisyphus, perpetually pushing a boulder up a hill. Army Bearing. The shadows mass in the thousands and frighten away Odysseus, who sails away with his crew. It is on gulmarg appropriate that the army bearing, cause of death for Odysseus' mother is loneliness and longing - the central emotions in living in a a poem about a relentless search for home and its attendant isolation.
This book also casts light on army military bearing essays, four other defining themes in the poem: fidelity, obeisance to the gods, temptation, and essay on the catcher, endurance. We finally hear directly from army bearing essays, Agamemnon after hearing his story so many times through other retellings. The story of his death at the hands of his wife and living in a dormitory essay, her lover has continually reinforced Odysseus' parallel story, and Agamemnon explicitly spells out the story's underlying message: The day of faithful wives is gone forever (535). Odysseus is also reminded not to touch the military bearing, oxen of Helios and to when do i use citations paper make a sacrifice to Poseidon once he is safely installed in Ithaca - in other words, to pay his due respects to the gods. Army Military Bearing. The temptation of raiding the oxen will prove too great for his crew, and temptation is, indeed, the continuing blind spot of both Odysseus and his sailors. The punishment of Tantalos epitomizes temptation; his temptation is essay all the worse since it can never be satisfied. Sisyphus, too, recalls an important and also unrewarding character trait for Odysseus: persistence. Forever pushing a heavy boulder up a hill, Sisyphus slogs along much like Odysseus does in military his seemingly never-ending journey home. Odysseus and when do i research paper, his crew sail back to army Circe's island, where they make a funeral pyre for Elpenor. Warwick. Circe gives them a feast, and at night warns Odysseus of the dangers his ship will face tomorrow.
The next day, the crew follows her instructions, plugging their ears so the song of the Sirens will not tempt them away from their course; Odysseus listens to it but has his men lash him to army essays the mast. Next, the men must sail between Scylla, a six-headed sea monster that devours sailors, and the treacherous whirlpools of living dormitory, Charybdis. Odysseus does not tell them of the imminent death, as they would panic. Indeed, Scylla seizes and eats six men. The crew passes by the dangers and reaches the army military bearing essays, island of Helios, the Sun. Odysseus passes on Tiresias' and Circe’s counsel not to eat the oxen or even land on the island. Tired and essay, hungry, they want to sleep on the island, but Odysseus makes them promise not to military essays touch the oxen. They moor, eat, and mourn their dead mates. Winds prevent them from leaving for daily, a month, and their store of food thins. Army Military Bearing. While Odysseus prays to the gods in isolation one day, Eurylokhos incites the others to sacrifice the oxen. Odysseus returns and sees what has happened, and quickly Lord Helios asks Zeus to punish them.
After the crew feasts for six days, they set sail. Zeus whips up a storm for punishment and on the catcher in the, shoots a thunderbolt at the ship, wrecking it. The men fall in the water, and Odysseus grabs on to floating pieces of the ship. He drifts back to Charybdis, from which he barely escapes. With protection from above, he squeaks by Scylla and drifts to Calypso’s island.
Odysseus reminds his audience that he has already told them of this. Temptation again takes center stage in this book. Bearing Essays. Odysseus' crew falls victim to temptation, sacrificing and feasting on the oxen of Helios, and earning the wrath of the do i in a paper, gods in return. The song of the Sirens tempts Odysseus too. However, by lashing himself to the mast, he exercises self-control when he knows he would otherwise have none. In this regard, he indulges in a fantasy of temptation: he can enjoy the beauty of the Sirens' song without any attendant punishment.
This unscathed brand of temptation is similar to his infidelities, in that he is able to sleep with other women under the guise of army military bearing, his mission's necessity. The opposite of temptation, one might argue, is fear; instead of dormitory essay, looking forward to melting temptingly in guilty pleasures, the fearful person has anxiety about future punishments. Army Military Bearing. Odysseus wisely withholds information about Scylla from his crew, who have shown themselves to be vulnerable to both temptation and fear. Were he to tell them about Scylla, they might have panicked and lost more than six men. Yet Odysseus is far from heartless, and he mourns the on populations, men's deaths along with his surviving mates. His crew has slowly been losing men here and there (and, finally, everyone but Odysseus at the end of this book) and a certain indifference to death seems to have been built up, but Odysseus refers to military essays the sight of Scylla eating his men as far the worst I ever suffered (334).
How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/the-odyssey/study-guide/summary-books-9-12 in when use citations paper MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About The Odyssey The Odyssey Summary Character List Glossary Themes Quotes and Analysis Summary And Analysis Books 1-4 Books 5-8 Books 9-12 Books 13-16 Books 17-20 Books 21-24 Symbols, Allegory and Motifs Metaphors and Similes Irony Imagery The Fractal Structure of Epics Literary Elements Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A Lesson Plan E-Text Mini-Store Homer Biography. The Odyssey Questions and Answers. The Question and Answer section for The Odyssey is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. The speaker of army military, this passage is in our daily life Calypso. I'm sorry, this is a short-answer literature forum designed for text specific questions. We are unable to assist students with essays or other writing projects. Circe's wolves and mountain lions are actually men that have been turned into animals. The Odyssey study guide contains a biography of Homer, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis.
The Odyssey essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of The Odyssey by Homer. The Odyssey e-text contains the full text of The Odyssey by Homer.
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kristallnacht essay The Historical Background. Kristallnacht was a nationwide, state-sponsored pogrom (a spree of violence directed against Jews) conducted throughout Germany and military Austria (which had been annexed by Germany in March 1938) from the evening and night of November 9 through the following afternoon. It was presented by the Nazi regime as a spontaneous public outburst provoked by the assassination of essay a minor German diplomat in Paris, Ernst vom Rath, by a seventeen-year-old Polish Jew, Herschel Grynszpan. The pogrom's name comes from the German word for beveled plate glass ( Kristallglas ) and army bearing refers to the broken shop windows of the Jewish stores, hence Kristallnacht , or Night of the Broken Glass. The pogrom took place after five years of increasing assaults on Jewish property, citizenship rights, and their physical persons by on gulmarg, the Nazis in order to segregate German Jews from the general public and encourage their emigration.
Grynszpan shot vom Rath, who was the only person available at essays the time of warwick mba project his impromptu visit to the German embassy in Paris where he went to protest that his parents (who were Polish and had been living in bearing Germany but who were unable to become citizens of Germany because it was not allowed) had been rounded up by the Germans, brutally deported, and cruelly stranded in use citations research a no-man's land between Poland and Germany. Neither country would take responsibility for them. Grynszpan's timing for the shooting could hardly have been worse. Army Bearing Essays? November 8 and 9 were two of the holiest days in the Nazi calendar. They were the twentieth anniversary of what Hitler called the infamous stab in on computers daily life the back by the November criminals (i.e. Jews) who had forced the Kaiser to abdicate, declare Germany a republic, and signed the debilitating armistice that ended World War I-an event that Hitler used to great advantage in his rise to power. It was also the fifteenth anniversary of the Beer Hall Putsch in military Munich in 1923, which-although it had failed to bring Hitler to power-had catapulted him to national prominence.
Hitler created a glorious myth around the essay failed event (it was essentially a poorly planned and badly executed street brawl) which by bearing essays, 1938 had coalesced into an annual two-day event extolling the living in a dormitory myth of fallen Nazi heroes dying for a noble cause. On November 8 of each year Hitler gave a speech at the Bürgerbrukeller, where the putsch had begun in 1923 and then led a parade through the streets - complete with bloodstained flags and singing - to the site of the graves of the dead where he laid memorial wreaths to the heroic fallen. It was against this background on November 8 that the news arrived in Munich about the military essays shooting of vom Rath by a Jew. Joseph Goebbels saw it as a heaven-sent opportunity to inflame anti-Jewish feeling and ordered all German newspapers to cover it prominently on their front pages. The first promising results came that evening with reports that some synagogues had been set afire, Jewish businesses were being attacked, and Jews were being assaulted in the provinces of Magdeburg-Anhalt and Hesse.
Vom Rath did not die until November 9. Essay In The Rye? News of his death was brought to army military bearing essays, Hitler and Goebbels shortly before 9:00 P.M. while they were at dinner in Munich. According to Goebbels himself in his diary, he and Hitler spoke quietly together and they agreed to do nothing to and dissertation, stop any future activity along the same lines. Military? Hitler was reported to have said “The SA should be allowed to have a fling.” 1 Hitler then left the dinner without giving his usual speech to the Gauleiters (district leaders), probably so as to when use citations in a paper, be unaccountable for any of what was to come. Goebbels took his place and made the most of the opportunity. He allegedly spoke inspirationally to the “old fighters” (those who had been loyal to Hitler and military bearing essays the NSDAP since the inception of the in our party) and bearing essays informed them that this was the time for action against the Jews. Although there is essay, no official record of his remarks other than the army military bearing personal post-war (and self-exculpatory) recollections of when use citations in a research paper those present, it is undeniable that after Goebbels’ speech initial instructions were telephoned all over the country by the Gauleiters to begin the action.
The SA (Stormtroopers) was to participate and incite the outrage of the crowds and regular policemen and firemen were ordered to military essays, stand down unless German property or life was at issue. Mass destruction broke out do i use citations in a across Germany: synagogues were destroyed and burned, shop windows were broken and stores looted, Jewish homes were invaded and household furnishing stolen or destroyed, and Jewish people were physically assaulted, sometimes even raped and murdered, and arrested en masse . Testifying against the “spontaneous” nature of the action, the concentration camps of Dachau, Buchenwald, and Sachsenhausen had already been prepared weeks before for the influx of thousands of German Jews, especially those were influential or wealthy, who were to be arrested from previously prepared lists. 2. What Hitler Knew and When He Knew It. The timeline of events that night supports the centrality of the Nazi regime’s and bearing essays Hitler’s active role in the pogrom. Hitler’s actual role in alienation essay on the the events is shrouded in shadows, lack of military bearing primary documentation, and on populations the contradictory self-serving statements made later by army, those who had been around him. However, some things can be safely asserted. After slipping out of the dinner meeting and foregoing his usual speech, Hitler returned to his hotel room, where he was most likely kept informed of the events as they progressed. Reinhard Heydrich 3 received first reports about 11:15 P.M. and his close associate SS-Gruppenführer Karl Wolff 4 found out about 11:20 P.M. Friedrich Karl von Oberstein, the chief of alienation essay catcher in the rye police in Munich and an SS-Obergruppenführer , appears to have found out about the burning of synagogues in Munich about 11:45 P.M. . 5. It appears that Julius Schaub, an “old fighter” and apologist for Hitler after the war, informed Hitler by phone or in person before midnight about the events of the evening.
Karl Wolff probably also visited Hitler’s apartment at or around 11:30 P.M. 6 At this time Heinrich Himmler 7 was also present in Hitler’s apartment. Hitler and Himmler then officiated at the swearing-in of new SS-troops on the Odeonsplatz at midnight, after which both returned to their respective apartments. There Himmler was briefed by Heydrich on the progress of the pogrom. After this conference, Heydrich sent a telex to police forces in essays the rest of Germany at 1:20 A.M.
Hitler’s adjutant (aide), von Below, reports that Hitler received a phone call from Goebbels after midnight which he took in private, the details of which no one, including von Below, actually overheard. Goebbels’ diaries indicate that he was reveling in the violence and destruction: “In Berlin 5, then 15 synagogues burn down. Now the people’s anger rages. Nothing more can be done against it for the night. And I don’t want to do anything either. Should be given free rein … As I drive to the hotel, windows shatter. Bravo! The synagogues burn in all the essay on populations big cities.
German property is not endangered.” 8. At 11:55 P.M. Heinrich Müller 9 sent a telex from Berlin to army military bearing, the SD (Security Police) and German police officials with instructions about the pogrom. In the telex, Müller warned that actions against the Jews were to begin and were not to be interrupted. Looting was to be prevented (presumably because the property would shortly thereafter be seized by the Nazis). It further stated that up to 30,000 Jews, preferably those who were wealthy or influential, should be arrested. Living? (“Propertied Jews above all are to be chosen.”) He promised that more detailed instructions would be issued later. At 1:20 A.M. on November 10, 1938 Reinhard Heydrich transmitted by telex an amplification of the orders given to him by army military bearing, Heinrich Himmler that in living dormitory essay turn expanded on the ones sent earlier by Heinrich Müller. The telex instructed the police not to prevent the destruction of Jewish property and instructed the SD (Gestapo) not to army essays, get in the way of in a research paper violent acts committed against German Jews.
However, there were some restrictions: German life and property was not to be endangered. Jewish shops and military dwellings could be damaged but their contents were not to be looted (for later seizure by the Nazis) and Jewish foreign nationals were not to be assaulted or arrested. At 2:56 A.M. Rudolf Hess, the Deputy Führer to Hitler and Head of the National Socialist party, sent out a circular to local party officials. This memorandum forbade any ‘setting of essay fire to Jewish shops’ as many Jews rented their premises from non-Jewish Germans and military bearing essays the property of the shops was to be protected for future seizure. It is unthinkable that these men would have transmitted these instructions without authorization from living in a dormitory Hitler.
The Aftermath of the Pogrom. Most of the violence in Germany ended on army bearing, November 10, but in Austria it only began on that day and was especially fierce. In Vienna the pogrom raged fiercely: Jews were attacked (at least eight were beaten to death), 5,000 Jewish shops were wrecked, and all but one of the essay city’s 21 synagogues were burnt down. 10. After the pogrom, the Nazis began a concerted effort to complete the process of ‘Aryanization’ 11 and renewed their attempts to pressure German Jews to emigrate. They weakened and destroyed the Jewish self-governing bodies and replaced them with one of military bearing their own to essay on gulmarg, act as a puppet organization for their emigration policies. In addition, Hermann Göring, who was in charge of the economic Four Year Plan of the Third Reich, imposed a fine of one billion Reichsmark (about $400 million) on the Jews of Germany. 12. Although most of the army essays Jewish men who had been arrested during the pogrom were released after a couple of on gulmarg weeks, many hundreds more died or committed suicide in army military essays the camps. They were generally released upon the promise of the prisoner that they and their family would leave the country for good, hence the emphasis on arresting wealthy Jews. In the months following Kristallnacht more than 115,000 German Jews emigrated from the Reich.
Tens of thousands went to mba project and dissertation, western European countries and Palestine, and at army least 14,000 made it to Shanghai, China. In 1939, the combined German-Austrian annual immigration quota (27,370) for the United States was filled for the first time during the Nazi era. 13. The Nazis put the number of and dissertation synagogues burned at 267 and announced that 815 shops, 29 department stores, and 171 dwellings of Jews had been burned or destroyed. The exact number of synagogues burned is unknown, but it is certainly in the hundreds. Richard Evans cites a minimum of 91 known deaths, not including those who died in the camps or who committed suicide. In addition, hundreds of other Jews were brutally beaten and even raped. In Austria alone there were at least 680 suicides during or in the wake of the pogrom. Historian Avraham Barkai, an military bearing essays, expert in the economic life of Jews under the Nazis, notes that there were only about 9,000 Jewish shops remaining in Germany in essay 1938, of which Reinhard Heydrich estimated that 7,500 were destroyed or damaged.
The figures on synagogues that were burned are debated by responsible historians and range from 520 to 1,200 out of a total of some 1,200 to about 2,000. 14. The significance of Kristallnacht lay in the reaction of the Nazi regime to military bearing, intense and vocal criticism from abroad, which reacted to in a, the pogrom with horror and condemnation. Essays? Thereafter the Germans chose to conduct mass physical violence against Jews in secret. In a sense then, Kristallnacht was the harbinger of the ‘Final Solution.’ Anthony Read and in our David Fisher, Kristallnacht: The Unleashing of the Holocaust (New York: Peter Bedrick Books, 1989): p. 62. Head of the German Security Police including the criminal and political police.
Gruppenführer in the SS and in 1938 Himmler’s chief of staff. Richard Evans, Expert Witness Report , Section 4.3 Historical method: case studies, Subsection (c) ‘Reichskristallnacht’ November 1938: (D) Invention and manipulation of evidence: the Eberstein testimony, parts 1-7. Himmler’s visit was substantiated independently by two top Nazis and also by the British Consul to Germany in his report to the English government after the army bearing pogrom. Richard Evans, Expert Witness Report , Section 4.3 Historical method: case studies, Subsection (c) ‘ Reichskristallnacht ’ November 1938: (E) Use of unreliable evidence, suppression of essay reliable testimony, and invention: von Below and Schaub, part 10. Müller was the bearing essays head of Section II of the Security Police, which dealt with internal political policing (secret police). He was a direct subordinate of Reinhard Heydrich, who was in in a dormitory turn subordinate to Heinrich Himmler.
Read and Fisher, Kristallnacht : p.109. The forced transferal of Jewish shops, businesses, assets, and army bearing homes into on the catcher in the rye German hands, usually for a mere pittance of their value but sometimes for no compensation at all. Insurance was an international business and insurance companies were worried about their loss of bearing essays reputation if they did not keep their contracts to indemnify the losses. Essay? In a meeting after Kristallnacht , Göring compromised with the army military bearing essays nervous insurance industry by allowing them to pay out the damages, even to on gulmarg, Jews. To offset those losses, Göring then imposed a huge fine on army essays, the Jewish communities in order to offset the losses of the essay insurance companies. Army Bearing Essays? Thus, the Jews themselves ended up paying for the damages in an indirect way. The website of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: Kristallnacht , Special Exhibition.(www.ushmm.org). Richard Evans, Expert Witness Report , Part 4. Alienation Essay In The Rye? Irving’s writings on Hitler, Section 4.3 Historical method: case studies, Subsection (c) ‘Reichskristallnacht ’ November 1938: Conclusion: parts 3-9. Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. Army Military Bearing? Volume 2: Kristallnacht (Leni Yahil): pp.
836-840. Evans,Richard. Expert Witness Report , Part 4. Essay In Our? Irving’s writings on Hitler, Section 4.3 Historical method: case studies, Subsection (c) ‘ Reichskristallnacht ’, November 1938. Read, Anthony and army bearing essays David Fisher. Kristallnacht: The Unleashing of the Holocaust. New York: Peter Bedrick Books, 1989. Schwab, Gerald. The Day the essay on populations Holocaust Began: The Odyssey of Herschel Grynszpan New York: Praeger, 1990.
Thalmann, Rita and Emmanuel Feinermann. Crystal Night: A Gripping Documentary of the Nazi Night of army bearing Terror that was Prelude to alienation on the, the Holocaust. London: Thames and Hudson, 1974. Previous questions and answers on Kristallnacht are at military bearing essays our Questions and Answers page.