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CAIR: Islamists Fooling the Establishment. by Daniel Pipes and phd thesis front latex, Sharon Chadha. Middle East Quarterly. Spring 2006, pp. 3-20. The Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR), headquartered in Washington, is perhaps the best-known and most controversial Muslim organization in North America. CAIR presents itself as an advocate for Muslims' civil rights and the spokesman for American Muslims.
We are similar to a Muslim NAACP, says its communications director, Ibrahim Hooper. Its official mission—to enhance understanding of Islam, encourage dialogue, protect civil liberties, empower American Muslims, and build coalitions that promote justice and mutual understanding—suggests nothing problematic. Starting with a single office in 1994, CAIR now claims thirty-one affiliates, including a branch in Canada, with more steadily being added. In addition to its grand national headquarters in Washington, it has impressive offices in other cities; the writing service victoria, New York office, for example, is front, housed in the 19-story Interchurch Center located on victoria bc, Manhattan's Riverside Drive. But there is another side to CAIR that has alarmed many people in positions to know. The Department of Homeland Security refuses to deal with it. Senator Charles Schumer (Democrat, New York) describes it as an organization which we know has ties to terrorism. Senator Dick Durbin (Democrat, Illinois) observes that CAIR is unusual in front page latex, its extreme rhetoric and avoiding plagiarism in research, its associations with groups that are suspect. Steven Pomerantz, the front page latex, FBI's former chief of counterterrorism, notes that CAIR, its leaders, and its activities effectively give aid to international terrorist groups. The family of John P. O'Neill, Sr., the former FBI counterterrorism chief who perished at the World Trade Center, named CAIR in psychology term paper, a lawsuit as having been part of the criminal conspiracy of radical Islamic terrorism responsible for the September 11 atrocities.
Counterterrorism expert Steven Emerson calls it a radical fundamentalist front group for Hamas. Of particular note are the American Muslims who reject CAIR's claim to page latex, speak on their behalf. The late Seifeldin Ashmawy, publisher of the New Jersey-based Voice of duke, Peace , called CAIR the champion of extremists whose views do not represent Islam. Jamal Hasan of the page latex, Council for Democracy and Tolerance explains that CAIR's goal is to spread Islamic hegemony the world over by hook or by crook. Kamal Nawash, head of Free Muslims Against Terrorism, finds that CAIR and similar groups condemn terrorism on resume writing service bc, the surface while endorsing an phd thesis page latex, ideology that helps foster extremism, adding that almost all of their members are theocratic Muslims who reject secularism and oedipus, want to establish Islamic states. Tashbih Sayyed of the Council for Democracy and phd thesis latex, Tolerance calls CAIR the most accomplished fifth column in the United States. And Stephen Schwartz of the duke university, Center on page, Islamic Pluralism writes that CAIR should be considered a foreign-based subversive organization, comparable in the Islamist field to the Soviet-controlled Communist Party, USA. CAIR, for its part, dismisses all criticism, blaming negative comments on resume writing service bc, Muslim bashers who can never point to something CAIR has done in its 10-year history that is objectionable. Actually, there is much about the organization's history that is objectionable—and it is readily apparent to anyone who bothers to look. When President George W. Bush visited the Islamic Center of phd thesis front latex, Washington several days after September 11, 2001, to signal that he would not tolerate a backlash against Muslims, he invited CAIR's executive director, Nihad Awad, to join him at the podium. Two months later, when Secretary of State Colin Powell hosted a Ramadan dinner, he, too, called upon rex essays on pride CAIR as representative of Islam in America. More broadly, when the State Department seeks out Muslims to welcome foreign dignitaries, journalists, and academics, it calls upon CAIR. The organization has represented American Muslims before Congress. The National Aeronautics and Space Agency hosted CAIR's Sensitivity and Diversity Workshop in an effort to harmonize space research with Muslim sensibilities. Law-enforcement agencies in Florida, Maryland, Ohio, Michigan, New York, Arizona, California, Missouri, Texas, and Kentucky have attended CAIR's sensitivity-training sessions. The organization boasts such tight relations with law enforcement that it claims to have even been invited to monitor police raids. In July 2004, as agents from the FBI, Internal Revenue Service, and Homeland Security descended on the Institute of Islamic and front, Arabic Sciences in America, a Saudi-created school in Merrifield, Virginia, a local paper reported that the university, FBI had informed CAIR's legal director, Arsalan Iftikhar, that morning that the raid was going to phd thesis front page, take place. CAIR is also a media darling. Essay Among. It claims to page, log five thousand annual mentions on newspapers, television, and radio, including some of the most prestigious media in the United States. The press dutifully quotes CAIR's statistics, publishes its theological views, reports its opinions, rehashes its press releases, invites its staff on television, and generally dignifies its existence as a routine part of the American and Canadian political scenes.
CAIR regularly participates in seminars on Islamic cultural issues for corporations and has been invited to psychology paper, speak at many of America's leading universities, including Harvard, Stanford, Johns Hopkins, and Columbia. American high schools have invited CAIR to promote its agenda, as have educationally-minded senior citizens. Perhaps the most obvious problem with CAIR is the fact that at phd thesis page least five of its employees and board members have been arrested, convicted, deported, or otherwise linked to terrorism-related charges and activities. Randall (Ismail) Royer , an American convert to Islam, served as CAIR's communications specialist and duke sex thesis, civil rights coordinator; today he sits in jail on terrorism-related charges. Page Latex. In June 2003, Royer and ten other young men, ages 23 to 35, known as the rex essays on pride, Virginia jihad group, were indicted on forty-one counts of conspiracy to train for and participate in a violent jihad overseas. Front Latex. The defendants, nine of them U.S. citizens, were accused of association with Lashkar-e-Taiba, a radical Islamic group designated as a foreign terrorist organization by the U.S. Department of State in essay on body ritual among the nacirema, 2001. They were also accused of meeting covertly in private homes and at the Islamic Center in Falls Church to prepare themselves for battle by front page listening to lectures and english essays corruption, watching videotapes. As the prosecutor noted, Ten miles from Capitol Hill in phd thesis, the streets of northern Virginia, American citizens allegedly met, plotted, and recruited for violent jihad. According to Matthew Epstein of the Investigative Project, Royer helped recruit the others to the jihad effort while he was working for CAIR. The group trained at firing ranges in Virginia and Pennsylvania; in on body ritual among, addition, it practiced small-unit military tactics at a paintball war-games facility in front, Virginia, earning it the essay the nacirema, moniker, the paintball jihadis. Eventually members of the group traveled to Pakistan. Five of the men indicted, including CAIR's Royer, were found to have had in their possession, according to the indictment, AK-47-style rifles, telescopic lenses, hundreds of front latex, rounds of ammunition and tracer rounds, documents on undertaking jihad and martyrdom, [and] a copy of the terrorist handbook containing instructions on how to manufacture and use explosives and sex thesis, chemicals as weapons. After four of the front page latex, eleven defendants pleaded guilty, the writing bc, remaining seven, including Royer, were accused in a new, 32-count indictment of yet more serious charges: conspiring to help Al-Qaeda and the Taliban battle American troops in Afghanistan. Royer admitted in his grand jury testimony that he had already waged jihad in Bosnia under a commander acting on orders from Osama bin Laden.
Prosecutors also presented evidence that his father, Ramon Royer, had rented a room in phd thesis page latex, his St. Louis-area home in 2000 to Ziyad Khaleel, the student who purchased the satellite phone used by oedipus on pride Al-Qaeda in phd thesis front page, planning the two U.S. Writing Service Victoria Bc. embassy bombings in East Africa in August 1998. Royer eventually pleaded guilty to lesser firearms-related charges, and the former CAIR staffer was sentenced to twenty years in prison. A coda to the Virginia jihad network came in phd thesis front latex, 2005 when a Federal court convicted another Virginia man, Ahmed Omar Abu Ali, of plotting to kill President Bush. Avoiding In Research Papers. Prosecutors alleged that Abu Ali participated in front page latex, the Virginia jihad network's paintball games and perhaps supplied one of rex essays, his fellow jihadists with an assault rifle. Royer's possible role in phd thesis page, Abu Ali's plans are unclear. Ghassan Elashi , the educational, founder of front page, CAIR's Texas chapter, has a long history of funding terrorism. First, he was convicted in July 2004, with his four brothers, of having illegally shipped computers from their Dallas-area business, InfoCom Corporation, to two designated state-sponsors of terrorism, Libya and Syria. Second, he and two brothers were convicted in educational, April 2005 of page latex, knowingly doing business with Mousa Abu Marzook, a senior Hamas leader, whom the U.S. State Department had in 1995 declared a specially designated terrorist. Elashi was convicted of all twenty-one counts with which he was charged, including conspiracy, money laundering, and dealing in the property of plagiarism, a designated terrorist. Third, he was charged in July 2004 with providing more than $12.4 million to Hamas while he was running the Holy Land Foundation for Relief and Development, America's largest Islamic charity. When the U.S. government shuttered Holy Land Foundation in late 2001, CAIR characterized this move as unjust and disturbing. Bassem Khafagi , an Egyptian native and CAIR's onetime community relations director, pleaded guilty in September 2003 to lying on his visa application and passing bad checks for substantial amounts in early 2001, for which he was deported. CAIR claimed Khafagi was hired only after he had committed his crimes and phd thesis latex, that the organization was unaware of his wrongdoing. But that is unconvincing, for resume writing victoria bc, a cursory background check reveals that Khafagi was a founding member and president of the Islamic Assembly of North America (IANA), an organization under investigation by phd thesis front page the U.S.
Department of Justice for terrorism-related activities. CAIR surely knew that IANA under Khafagi was in the business of, as prosecutors stated in essay, Idaho court papers, disseminating radical Islamic ideology, the purpose of which was indoctrination, recruitment of members, and the instigation of acts of violence and terrorism. For example, IANA websites promoted the views of two Saudi preachers, Salman al-Awdah and Safar al-Hawali, well-known in Islamist circles for page, having been spiritual advisors to Osama bin Laden. Under Khafagi's leadership, Matthew Epstein has testified, IANA hosted a conference at resume writing victoria bc which a senior Al-Qaeda recruiter, Abdelrahman al-Dosari, was a speaker. IANA disseminated publications advocating suicide attacks against the United States, according to federal investigators. Also, Khafagi was co-owner of front page, a Sir Speedy printing franchise until 1998 with Rafil Dhafir, who was a former vice president of resume writing service bc, IANA and a Syracuse-area oncologist convicted in February 2005 of illegally sending money to Iraq during the Saddam Hussein regime as well as defrauding donors by using contributions to his Help the phd thesis front page, Needy charitable fund to avoid taxes and to purchase personal assets for himself. Dhafir was sentenced to papers, twenty-two years in prison. Rabih Haddad , a CAIR fundraiser, was arrested in December 2001 on terrorism-related charges and page, deported from the university sex thesis, United States due to his subsequent work as executive director of the Global Relief Foundation, a charity he cofounded which was designated by the U.S. Treasury Department in October 2002 for phd thesis latex, financing Al-Qaeda and other terrorist organizations. Siraj Wahhaj , a CAIR advisory board member, was named in 1995 by U.S. attorney Mary Jo White as a possible unindicted coconspirator in the plot to blow up New York City landmarks led by the blind sheikh, Omar Abdul Rahman. In defense of having Wahhaj on its advisory board, CAIR described him as one of the most respected Muslim leaders in America. In October 2004, he spoke at a CAIR dinner. This roster of employees and board members connected to terrorism makes one wonder how CAIR remains an acceptable guest at U.S. government events—and even more so, how U.S. law enforcement agencies continue to educational, associate with it.
CAIR has a number of front latex, links to the terror organization Hamas, starting with the founder of its Texas chapter, Ghassan Elashi, as noted above. Secondly, Elashi and another CAIR founder, Omar Ahmad, attended a key meeting in Philadelphia in 1993. An FBI memo characterizes this meeting as a planning session for Hamas, Holy Land Foundation, and Islamic Association of Palestine to find ways to disrupt Israeli-Palestinian diplomacy and raise money for Hamas in the United States. The Philadelphia meeting was deemed such strong proof of Islamic Association of Palestine's relation to Hamas that a federal judge in Chicago in December 2004 ruled the educational psychology, Islamic Association of page latex, Palestine partially liable for US$156 million in damages (along with the Holy Land Foundation and Mohammad Salah, a Hamas operative) for oedipus rex essays on pride, having aided and phd thesis front page latex, abetted the Hamas murder of David Boim, an American citizen. Third, CAIR's founding personnel were closely linked to the Islamic Association of Palestine, which was founded by Ibrahim Abu Marzook, a senior Hamas operative and husband of rex essays on pride, Elashi's cousin; according to Epstein, the Islamic Association of Palestine functions as Hamas's public relations and recruitment arm in the United States. The two individuals who established CAIR, Ahmad and Nihad Awad, had been, respectively, the president and public relations director of the phd thesis front latex, Islamic Association of Palestine. Hooper, CAIR's director of communications, had been an employee of the essay the nacirema, Islamic Association of Palestine. Rafeeq Jabar, president of the Islamic Association of Palestine, was a founding director of CAIR. Page. Fourth, the service victoria bc, Holy Land Foundation, which the U.S. government has charged with funneling funds to phd thesis front page latex, Hamas, provided CAIR with some of its start-up funding in 1994. (See $5,000 money transfer, figure 1.) In the other direction, according to Joe Kaufman, CAIR sent potential donors to the Holy Land Foundation's website when they clicked on their post-September 11 weblink, Donate to writing service victoria, the NY/DC Disaster Relief Fund. Fifth, Awad publicly declared his enthusiasm for Hamas at Barry University in Florida in 1994: I'm in support of Hamas movement more than the page latex, PLO. As an attorney pointed out in the course of deposing Awad for the Boim case, Awad both supported Hamas and acknowledged an awareness of its involvement in violence. A class-action lawsuit brought by the estate of John P. Duke Sex Thesis. O'Neill, Sr. charges CAIR and page, its Canadian branch of being, since their inception, part of the criminal conspiracy of radical Islamic terrorism with a unique role in the terrorist network: both organizations have actively sought to hamper governmental anti-terrorism efforts by direct propaganda activities aimed at bc police, first-responders, and front latex, intelligence agencies through so-called sensitivity training. Their goal is to plagiarism in research papers, create as much self-doubt, hesitation, fear of name-calling, and litigation within police departments and intelligence agencies as possible so as to render such authorities ineffective in pursuing international and domestic terrorist entities. It would be hard to improve on latex, this characterization; under the guise of participating in avoiding plagiarism, counterterrorism, CAIR does its best to impede these efforts.
This approach can be seen from its statements. CAIR encourages law enforcement in its work—so long as it does not involve counterterrorism. Wissam Nasr, the head of CAIR's New York office, explains: The Muslim community in New York wants to play a positive role in protecting our nation's security, but that role is made more difficult if the phd thesis page latex, FBI is perceived as pursuing suspects much more actively than it is searching for community partners.  Nasr would have the FBI get out of the unpleasant business of pursuing suspects and avoiding papers, instead devote itself to front, building social good will—through CAIR, naturally. Likewise, on the eve of the U.S. Avoiding Plagiarism. war with Iraq in March 2003, CAIR distributed a Muslim community safety kit that advised Muslims to Know your rights if contacted by the FBI. It tells them specifically, You have no obligation to talk to the FBI, even if you are not a citizen. Front Page Latex. … You do not have to permit them to essays corruption, enter your home. … ALWAYS have an attorney present when answering questions.
On the phd thesis page latex, other hand, when it comes to protecting Muslims, CAIR wants an active FBI. Corruption. The same Muslim community safety kit advised: If you believe you have been the victim of an anti-Muslim hate crime or discrimination, you should: 1. Report the phd thesis latex, incident to your local police station and FBI office IMMEDIATELY. In January 2006, CAIR joined a lawsuit against the National Security Agency demanding that the U.S. intelligence agency cease monitoring communications with suspected Islamist terrorists. Part of papers, its complaints concerned a belief that the U.S. government monitored its communications with Rabih Haddad, the suspected Al-Qaeda financier who has since moved to Lebanon. Upon learning that CAIR was a fellow plaintiff in the suit, political writer Christopher Hitchens said, I was revolted to see who I was in company with. CAIR is a lot to phd thesis front page latex, swallow. Finally, CAIR discourages Americans from improving their counterterrorism skills. Deedra Abboud, CAIR's Arizona director, approves of police learning the Arabic language if that lowers the university sex thesis, chances of cultural and linguistic misunderstandings. However, if they're learning it in order to phd thesis front page, better fight terrorism, that concerns me. Only because that assumes that the duke university, only fighting we have to front page latex, do is among Arabic speakers. English. That's not a long-term strategy. Apologizing for Islamist Terrorism.
CAIR has consistently shown itself to be on the wrong side of the war on phd thesis, terrorism, protecting, defending, and supporting both accused and even convicted radical Islamic terrorists. In October 1998—months after Osama bin Laden had issued his first declaration of resume writing bc, war against the United States and had been named as the chief suspect in the bombings of two U.S. embassies in Africa—CAIR demanded the removal of front page, a Los Angeles billboard describing Osama bin Laden as the sworn enemy, finding this depiction offensive to Muslims. CAIR also leapt to educational psychology term, bin Laden's defense, denying his responsibility for the twin East African embassy bombings. CAIR's Hooper saw these explosions resulting from misunderstandings of both sides. Even after the page, September 11 atrocity, CAIR continued to protect bin Laden, stating only that if [note the if] Osama bin Laden was behind it, we condemn him by resume service victoria name. Not until December 2001, when bin Laden on videotape boasted of his involvement in the attack, did CAIR finally acknowledge his role. CAIR has also consistently defended other radical Islamic terrorists.
Rather than praise the conviction of the perpetrators of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, it deemed this a travesty of justice. It labeled the extradition order for suspected Hamas terrorist Mousa Abu Marzook anti-Islamic and anti-American. CAIR has co-sponsored Yvonne Ridley, the British convert to Islam who became a Taliban enthusiast and a denier that Al-Qaeda was involved in 9-11. When four U.S. civilian contractors in Falluja were (in CAIR's words) ambushed in their SUV's, burned, mutilated, dragged through the streets, and then hung from front page latex a bridge spanning the english essays, Euphrates River, CAIR issued a press release that condemned the mutilation of the corpses but stayed conspicuously silent on the actual killings. During the phd thesis, 2005 trial of essay on body among the nacirema, Sami Al-Arian, accused of latex, heading Palestinian Islamic Jihad in the United States, Ahmed Bedier of CAIR's Florida branch emerged as Al-Arian's effective spokesman, providing sound bytes to the media, trying to get his trial moved out of Tampa, commenting on term, the jury selection, and so on. More broadly, TheReligionofPeace.com website pointed out that of the more than 3100 fatal Islamic terror attacks committed in the last four years, we have only phd thesis front page, seen CAIR specifically condemn 18. Ties to Extremists, Left and Right. The Council on American-Islamic Relations has affinities to extremists of both the left and right, sharing features with both. Essays Corruption. Its extensive ties to far-left groups include funding from the Tides Foundation for its Interfaith Coalition against Hate Crimes; endorsing a statement issued by Refuse Resist and front page latex, a National Day of Protest … to Stop Police Brutality, Repression and the Criminalization of oedipus rex essays on pride, a Generation. CAIR supported the Civil Liberties Restoration Act, legislation drafted by Open Society Policy Center, an organization founded by George Soros that would obstruct U.S. law enforcement from page latex prosecuting the War on Extremism. Far-left members of Congress such as Dennis Kucinich (Democrat, Ohio) and Jim McDermott (Democrat, Washington) have turned up as featured speakers at CAIR fundraising events. Its neo-Nazi side came out most clearly in CAIR's early years. In 1996, according to testimony by Steven Emerson, Yusuf Islam—the Muslim convert formerly known as the singer Cat Stevens—gave a keynote speech at a CAIR event. The contents of the speech itself are not known but Islam wrote a pamphlet published by the Islamic Association of Palestine, CAIR's stepparent, which included these sentences: The Jews seem neither to respect God nor his Creation. Their own holy books contain the curse of God brought upon them by avoiding plagiarism their prophets on account of their disobedience to Him and mischief in the earth. We have seen the phd thesis, disrespect for religion displayed by those who consider themselves to be God's Chosen People. In 1998, CAIR co-hosted an event at which an Egyptian Islamist leader, Wagdi Ghunaym, declared Jews to be the university sex thesis, descendants of the front, apes. CAIR continues to expose its fascistic side by its repeated activities with William W. Baker, exposed as a neo-Nazi in March 2002. Even after that date, CAIR invited Baker to speak at several events, for oedipus rex essays on pride, example in Florida on August 12, 2003 and New Jersey on phd thesis front page latex, October 18, 2003 .  CAIR liked Baker's work so much, it used the title of his book, More in Common Than You Think , in essays, one of its ad campaigns in March 2004 and as the title of an front page latex, Elderhostel lecture. According to filed copies of its annual Internal Revenue Service Form 990, CAIR's U.S. chapters have more than doubled their combined revenues from the university sex thesis, $2.5 million they recorded in 2000 to $5.6 million in phd thesis front, 2002, though the number dipped slightly to $5.3 million in 2003, the most recent year for which figures are available. That CAIR has recorded at least $3.1 million on its year-end combined balance sheets since 2001, combined with its minimal grant-making ($27,525 was the total that all CAIR chapters granted in 2003), suggests that CAIR is building an endowment and planning for english essays corruption, the long term.
The Internal Revenue Service filings claim that the bulk of its funds come from direct public support and phd thesis page, its website explicitly denies that CAIR receives support from foreign sources: We do not support directly or indirectly, or receive support from, any overseas group or government. However, this denial is flatly untrue, for resume writing service, CAIR has accepted foreign funding, and from many sources. A press release from the Saudi Arabian embassy in Washington indicates that in August 1999, the Islamic Development Bank—a bank headquartered in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia—gave CAIR $250,000 to phd thesis page, purchase land for its Washington, D.C. headquarters. CAIR's decision to accept Islamic Development Bank funding is oedipus on pride, unfortunate, given the bank's role as fund manager of the Al-Quds and the Al-Aqsa Funds, established by twelve Arab countries in phd thesis page latex, order to term, fund the Palestinian intifada and provide financial support to the families of Palestinian martyrs. According to phd thesis front, records made public by term Paul Sperry, CAIR purchased its national headquarters in 1999 through an unusual lease-purchase transaction with the United Bank of phd thesis latex, Kuwait. The bank was the deed holder and on pride, leased the building to CAIR; yet despite not owning the building, CAIR recorded the property on its balance sheet as a property asset valued at $2.6 million. This arrangement changed in September 2002 when CAIR bought out the Kuwaiti bank with funds provided, at least in part, by Al-Maktoum Foundation, based in Dubai and headed by Dubai's crown prince and defense minister, Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid al-Maktoum. The markings on the deed indicate that the foundation provided purchase money to the extent of $978,031.34 to phd thesis page latex, CAIR, or roughly one-third the value of the oedipus on pride, property. One only front latex, wonders what a more complete investigation of its real estate transactions would turn up. In December 1999, the World Assembly of Muslim Youth (WAMY), an organization benefiting from papers Saudi patronage, announced at a press conference in Saudi Arabia that it was extending both moral and phd thesis page, financial support to CAIR  to help it construct its $3.5 million headquarters in Washington, D.C. WAMY also agreed to introduce CAIR to Saudi philanthropists and educational psychology paper, recommend their financial support for the headquarters project. In 2002, CAIR and WAMY announced, again from Saudi Arabia, their cooperation on phd thesis front page, a $1 million public relations campaign. The Saudi Gazette , which reported the story, said that CAIR's leader, Nihad Awad, had already met leading Saudi businessmen in order to essay among the nacirema, brief them about the projects and raise funds. Later that week on the same fundraising trip through the Middle East, CAIR reportedly received $500,000 from Saudi prince Al-Waleed bin Talal, reputed to be one of the world's richest men. Waleed also, in phd thesis front page latex, May 2005, stated that he is more than prepared to work with organizations such as CAIR, and to provide needed support to them. CAIR has received at essay among the nacirema least $12,000 from the latex, International Relief Organization (also called the avoiding plagiarism in research, International Islamic Relief Organization, or IIRO), which itself was the recipient of some $10 million from front latex its parent organization in Saudi Arabia. (See a 1994 check from the IIRO for $5,000, figure 2.) The International Institute of corruption, Islamic Thought (IIIT) gave CAIR's Washington office $14,000 in 2003. According to page latex, a court-filed affidavit, David Kane of the U.S.
Customs Service determined that the sex thesis, IIIT receives donations from overseas via its related entities. Law enforcement is looking at the IIIT connection with Operation Green Quest, the major investigation into the activities of individuals and organizations believed to front, be ardent supporters of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad, Hamas, and Al-Qaeda. CAIR, not surprisingly, criticized the probe of its donor, telling the avoiding papers, Financial Times of phd thesis front page, London that the investigation is an attack on respected Islamic institutions. Despite these many foreign sources, CAIR still claims to receive no funds from outside the educational paper, United States. An Integral Part of the Wahhabi Lobby. CAIR has a key role in the Wahhabi lobby—the network of organizations, usually supported by donations from Saudi Arabia, whose aim is to propagate the phd thesis, especially extreme version of Islam practiced in Saudi Arabia. For one, it sends money to other parts of the lobby. According to CAIR's Form 990 filings for 2003, its California offices invested $325,000 with the resume victoria, North American Islamic Trust (NAIT). The NAIT was established in front latex, 1971 by the Muslim Student Association of the U.S. and Canada, which bills itself as the paper, precursor to the Islamic Society of North America, now the largest member of the Wahhabi lobby. According to Newsweek , authorities say that over the years NAIT money has helped the Saudi Arabian sect of Wahhabism—or Salafism, as the broader, pan-Islamic movement is called—to seize control of hundreds of phd thesis front, mosques in U.S. Muslim communities. J. Michael Waller, a terrorism expert, testified before the Senate Judiciary Committee that NAIT is believed to own 50 to 79 percent of the mosques in North America. According to Waller, NAIT was raided as part of Operation Green Quest in university sex thesis, 2002, on suspicions of involvement in terrorist financing. CAIR affiliates regularly speak at events sponsored by the Islamic Society of North America (ISNA), an umbrella organization of the Wahhabi lobby. Front Latex. Nabil Sadoun, a director of CAIR-DC, spoke at the ISNA's regional conference in 2003. Hussam Ayloush, executive director of essay on body ritual the nacirema, CAIR's Southern California chapter, and Fouad Khatib, the CAIR-California chairman, spoke at an ISNA-sponsored event. Safaa Zarzour, president of CAIR-Chicago, was also an ISNA speaker, as was Azhar Azeez, a board member of CAIR-Dallas, who has spoken at phd thesis page latex several ISNA conferences. In January 2003, the Saudi newspaper Ar-Riyadh reported that Nihad Awad appeared on term, a panel along with 'Aqil ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz al-'Aqil, secretary-general of the Saudi charity Al-Haramain Foundation—despite that organization's well-known ties to front latex, terrorism and the fact that already in March 2002, long before Awad's visit with Al-Haramain, the U.S. and Saudi governments had jointly designated eleven of its branches financial supporter[s] of essay ritual among the nacirema, terrorism. The U.S.-based branch of the organization was also subsequently designated in page latex, September 2004. To fully appreciate what it means that more than half of U.S. mosques are promoting Saudi Islam, we refer to the Freedom House report, Saudi Publications on Hate Ideology Invade American Mosques. It explains that Saudi documents disseminated at U.S. mosques are telling America's Muslims that it is a religious obligation for them to hate Christians and Jews and warning that Muslims should not have Christians and Jews as friends, nor should they help them. The Freedom House report indicates that Saudi publications disseminated by U.S. Oedipus. mosques: say it is lawful for Muslims to physically harm and front, steal from adulterers and homosexuals; condemn interpretations of Islam other than the strict Wahhabi version preached in Saudi Arabia; advocate the duke university, killing of those who convert out of phd thesis front latex, Islam; assert that it is university sex thesis, a Muslim's duty to front, eliminate the State of Israel; and promote the educational psychology term paper, idea that women should be segregated and veiled and, of course, barred from some employment and activities. But not to worry; CAIR's spokesman, Ibrahim Hooper, tells us, The majority of the stuff they picked is in Arabic, a language that most people in mosques don't read. CAIR's personnel are normally tight-lipped about the organization's agenda but sometimes let their ambitions slip out.
CAIR's long-serving chairman, Omar Ahmad, reportedly told a crowd of California Muslims in July 1998, Islam isn't in America to be equal to any other faith, but to become dominant. Latex. The Koran . should be the highest authority in America, and Islam the only accepted religion on english, earth. Five years later, Ahmad denied having said this and issued a press release saying he was seeking a retraction. But the reporter stood behind her story, and latex, the newspaper that reported Ahmad's remarks told WorldNetDaily it had not been contacted by CAIR. In 1993, before CAIR existed, Ibrahim Hooper told a reporter: I wouldn't want to create the duke university, impression that I wouldn't like the government of the United States to front latex, be Islamic sometime in the future. On the Michael Medved radio show in 2003, Hooper made the oedipus rex essays, same point more positively: if Muslims ever become a majority in the United States, it would be safe to assume that they would want to replace the U.S. Constitution with Islamic law, as most Muslims believe that God's law is superior to man-made law. Other CAIR personnel also express their contempt for the United States. Ihsan Bagby of CAIR's Washington office has said that Muslims can never be full citizens of phd thesis front page latex, this country, referring to the United States, because there is no way we can be fully committed to the institutions and ideologies of this country. Ayloush said that the war on terror has become a war on Muslims with the U.S. government the new Saddam. He concluded: So let's end this hypocrisy, this hypocrisy that we are better than the other dictator. In a bizarre coda, Parvez Ahmed, the current CAIR chairman, touted the resume writing, virtues of Islamic democracy in 2004 by portraying the page latex, Afghan constitutional process as superior to the U.S. one: The new Afghan constitution shows that the constitution of a Muslim nation can be democratic and yet not contradict the essence of Islam. During my meeting with a high-ranking Afghan delegation during their recent visit to the United States, I was told that the Afghan constitutional convention included Hindu delegates despite Hindus accounting for only 1 percent of the population. Contrast this with our own constitutional convention that excluded women and blacks. CAIR attempts to avoiding plagiarism in research papers, close down public debate about itself and Islam in front page, several ways, starting with a string of lawsuits against public and educational, private individuals and several publications. CAIR's Rabiah Ahmed has openly acknowledged that lawsuits are increasingly an instrument for phd thesis page latex, it to use. In addition, CAIR has resorted to financial pressure in an effort to silence critics. One such case concerns ABC radio personality Paul Harvey, who on December 4, 2003, described the vicious nature of cock fighting in Iraq, then commented: Add to the [Iraqi] thirst for blood, a religion which encourages killing, and it is psychology paper, entirely understandable if Americans came to this bloody party unprepared. CAIR responded a day later with a demand for phd thesis front page latex, an on-air apology. CAIR then issued a call to its supporters to contact Harvey's advertising sponsors to press them to pull their ads until Harvey responds to Muslim concerns. Although Harvey quickly and publicly retracted his remarks, CAIR continued its campaign against him. Another case of financial intimidation took place in March 2005, when CAIR campaigned to have National Review remove two books—Serge Trifkovic's The Sword of the Prophet  and J.L.
Menezes' The Life and Religion of Mohammed —as well as the positive reviews of those books, from its on-line bookstore. On Body. CAIR claimed the books defame Islam and the Prophet Muhammad. When it did not get immediate satisfaction from front page National Review , it instructed its partisans to pressure the on pride, Boeing Corporation to page latex, withdraw its advertisements from the magazine. National Review briefly took down both books but then quickly reposted the one by Trifkovic. Trifkovic himself argued that CAIR's success here will only whet Islamist appetites and encourage their hope that the end-result will be a crescent on the Capitol a generation or two from now. CAIR resorted to another form of intimidation versus Florida radio show host and Baptist pastor Mike Frazier. Frazier had criticized local and state officials in September 2004 for attending a CAIR awards dinner because, as he put it, If these people would have bothered to check CAIR out beforehand they would have seen that it is a radical group. He termed what followed absolutely unbelievable.
Within a month, he says he received six death threats and forty-seven threatening phone calls, was accosted by strangers, was labeled an extremist and a fundamentalist zealot, and accused of paper, propagating fear, terror and disunity by phd thesis latex the St. Petersburg Times . Several members of his church fled his congregation because, according to Frazier, they were afraid. Other CAIR targets of university, intimidation have included the Simon Wiesenthal Center for phd thesis page, juxtaposing a picture of the Ayatollah Khomeini next to Adolf Hitler, and the Reader's Digest for essay on body the nacirema, an article, The Global War on Christians, which CAIR found smears Islam by citing well-documented cases of Christian persecution. CAIR's Nihad Awad faulted the Reader's Digest for leaving the impression that Islam somehow encourages or permits rape, kidnapping, torture, and forced conversion. In December 2003, CAIR ruined the career of an army officer and page latex, nurse, Captain Edwina McCall, who had treated American soldiers wounded in Iraq and Afghanistan but ended up resigning under a cloud of rex essays, suspicion. Her crime? Using her military e-mail address on an Internet discussion board concerning the Islamist agenda. CAIR sent the front latex, comments to term, the secretary of defense, calling attention to her allegedly bigoted anti-Muslim comments and phd thesis front page latex, demanding that her extremist and Islamophobic views be investigated and then followed by appropriate action.
The Army immediately cast the officer under suspicion, leading her to bc, resign from a career she had loved. At times, CAIR inspires its attack dogs to make threats and sits back when they follow through. Page. After Daniel Pipes published an article in July 1999 explaining the difference between moderate and radical Islam, CAIR launched fifteen separate attacks on educational psychology, him in the space of two months, attacks widely reprinted in Muslim publications. Dozens of letters followed to the newspapers that carried Pipes' articles, some calling him harsh names (bigot and racist), others comparing him to the Ku Klux Klan and the neo-Nazis, or characterizing his writings as an atrocity filled with pure poison and outright lies. More alarmingly, the letter-writers accused the author of perpetrating a hate crime against Muslims or of front, promoting and abetting such crimes. One threatened: Is Pipes ready to answer the Creator for his hatred or is writing service victoria, he a secular humanist . He will soon find out. CAIR metes out even worse treatment to Muslim opponents, as the case of Khalid Duran shows. Duran taught at leading universities and phd thesis, wrote about Islam for think tanks; he was commissioned by the American Jewish Committee to write Children of Abraham: An Introduction to Islam for Jews . Fourteen scholars of Islam endorsed the manuscript prior to publication; it won glowing reviews from such authoritative figures as Cardinal William Keeler of service, Baltimore, the phd thesis front, eminent church historian Martin Marty, and Prince Hassan of rex essays, Jordan. Then, before the book was even released, CAIR issued two press releases insulting Duran personally and latex, demanding that the Children of Abraham be withheld until a group of resume, CAIR-approved academics could review the book to correct what it assumed (without having read the manuscript) would be its stereotypical or inaccurate content.
Islamist publications quickly picked up CAIR's message, with Cairo's Al-Wafd newspaper announcing that Duran's book spreads anti-Muslim propaganda through its distortions of Islamic concepts. A weekly in Jordan reported that 'Abd al-Mun'im Abu Zant—one of that country's most powerful Islamist leaders—had declared that Duran should be regarded as an phd thesis latex, apostate, and on rex essays, this basis called for an Islamic ruling to condone Duran's death. Days later, Duran's car was broken into, and a dead squirrel and excrement were thrown inside. CAIR, far from apologizing for the evil results of front latex, its handiwork, accused the American Jewish Committee of fabricating the death edict as a cheap publicity stunt to boost book sales. CAIR has a long record of unreliability and deceit even in relatively minor matters.
To begin with, it has the audacity to claim to be America's largest civil rights group, ignoring much larger groups by far, such as the duke university sex thesis, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and the Anti-Defamation League. Phd Thesis Latex. In May 2005, CAIR published its annual report on the violations of Muslim civil rights in America which purported to document a significant rise in english essays corruption, the number of hate crimes directed at Muslims. Phd Thesis. According to the report, anti-Muslim hate crimes in essay on body ritual, the United States have gone up dramatically: from 42 cases in 2002, to 93 cases in 2003, to front page, 141 in 2004. The mainstream media dutifully recycled CAIR's press release, effectively endorsing this study by reporting it as a serious piece of research. But closer inspection shows that of twenty anti-Muslim hate crimes for on body ritual among, which CAIR gives information, at least six are invalid. David Skinner points out a further problem with the 2004 report: its credulity in reporting any incident, no matter how trivial, subjective or unsubstantiated. One anecdote concerns a Muslim college student who encountered flyers and posters with false and degrading statements about the front page latex, Qur'an and the prophet Muhammad; another concerns a student at Roger Williams in resume writing, Rhode Island who wrote that a true Muslim is phd thesis front page, taught to slay infidels. Also, any reluctance to duke university, accommodate Muslim women wearing a headscarf or veil was tallied as a bias incident, even in the case of genuine quandaries (such as veiled athletes or drivers applying for their licenses). Nor is phd thesis latex, this the first unreliable CAIR study. Victoria. Referring to the 1996 version, Steven Emerson noted in phd thesis, congressional testimony that a large proportion of the english essays corruption, complaints have been found to phd thesis front, be fabricated, manufactured, distorted, or outside standard definitions of duke, hate crimes. Jorge Martinez of the U.S. Front Page Latex. Department of Justice dismissed CAIR's 2003 report, Guilt by Association , as unfair criticism based on a lot of misinformation and propaganda. CAIR's manipulative habits assert themselves even in petty ways. For example, CAIR is not above conducting straw polls in on body among, an effort to forward its political agenda and may even be willing to exaggerate its own outreach efforts. This seems to be the case in CAIR's library project, where it claims to phd thesis page, have sent thousands of packages of books and duke university sex thesis, tapes to American libraries. Phd Thesis Front Page Latex. An inquiry turned up the curious fact that while CAIR claimed the District of Columbia had received thirty-seven such packages, records showed only one such copy being recorded. Maybe the mailmen lost the remaining thirty-six?
In September 2005, CAIR indulged in some Stalinist revisionism: as Robert Spencer revealed, CAIR doctored a photo on its website to make it more Islamically correct by manually adding a hijab onto a Muslim woman. Despite all this, CAIR's statements continue to essays, gain the phd thesis front, respectful attention of uncritical media outlets. The few hard-hitting media analyses of CAIR generally turn up in the conservative press. Otherwise, it generally wins a pass from news organizations, as Erick Stakelbeck has documented. The mainstream media treat CAIR respectfully, as a legitimate organization, avoiding the less salutary topics explored here, even the multiple connections to terrorism. One telling example of the media's negligence in investigating CAIR occurred when Ghassan Elashi—a founding board member of CAIR's Texas chapter—was indicted and sex thesis, convicted of supporting terrorism by sending money to Hamas and phd thesis front page, Mousa Abu Marzook. Reporting on this, not one single mainstream media source mentioned Elashi's CAIR connection. Worse, the resume writing, media went to CAIR and quoted it on front page latex, Elashi's arrest, without noting their close connection. The Washington Post seems particularly loath to expose CAIR's unsavory aspects.
For example, on January 20, 2005, it ran a story about the victoria, opening of CAIR's new Virginia office on Grove Street in Herndon. Page Latex. The article not only passed up the opportunity to consider CAIR's presence in a town notorious for Islamist organizational connections to Al-Qaeda and to the Wahhabi network, but it was also remarkably similar in tone and style to CAIR's own press release on the same subject. (A later Washington Post article did mention that the new CAIR offices are located on the very street where federal agents had conducted a major raid in March 2002.) There is english, much else for the press to look into. One example: CAIR-DC lists the page, Zahara Investment Corporation as a related organization on its IRS Form 990. Curiously, Zahara Investment Corporation was listed as a tax-exempt entity in 2002; in 2003, it became a non-tax-exempt entity. This prompts several questions: how is a tax-exempt like CAIR related to an investment company, much less a corporation? How does an ritual the nacirema, investment corporation become a tax-exempt?
And how does it change itself into a non-exempt? And why did CAIR-DC invest $40,000 of the public's money in latex, 1998 in securities that it would have to educational psychology term, write off less than three years later? Whose securities were these? The usual databases have nothing on Zahara Investment Corporation; all this took place under the radar screen. That the front latex, U.S. government, the mainstream media, educational institutions, and others have given CAIR a free pass amounts to a dereliction of duty.
Yet, there appear to be no signs of change. How long will it be until the establishment finally recognizes CAIR for what it is and denies it mainstream legitimacy? Daniel Pipes is director of the Middle East Forum. Sharon Chadha is the co-author of Jihad and International Security .  Columbus Dispatch (Ohio), Jan. 1, 2002. Essay On Body Ritual Among The Nacirema.  FDCH Political Transcripts , Sept.
10, 2003. Latex.  Bad CAIR Day: Ex-staffer pleads guilty to terror charges, Senate asks questions on 9/11 anniversary, Center for Security Policy, accessed Jan. 9, 2006.  Joseph Farah, Between the Lines: The Real CAIR, WorldNetDaily , Apr. 25, 2003; Steve Pomerantz, Counterterrorism in a Free Society, The Journal of Counterterrorism Security International , Spring 1998.  Estate of John P. O'Neill, Sr. et al. English Essays Corruption. vs. Al Baraka Investment and Development Corporation , DanielPipes.org, accessed Jan. 9, 2006.  Steven Emerson, Re: Terrorism and the Middle East Peace Process, prepared testimony before the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Subcommittee on phd thesis front latex, Near East and South Asia, Mar. 19, 1996.  The Jerusalem Post , Mar. 5, 1999.  Personal communication from Jamal Hasan to Daniel Pipes, July 25, 2003.  Melissa Radler , A Different Face of Islam, Jerusalem Post International Edition , July 18, 2003.  Stephen Schwartz, An Activist's Guide to avoiding in research papers, Arab and Muslim Campus and Community Organizations in front page latex, North America, FrontPageMagazine.com , May 26, 2003.  Colin Powell, remarks at Iftaar dinner, Benjamin Franklin Room, Washington, D.C., Nov.
18, 2002.  Partial List of CAIR's Work with Local State and Federal Law Enforcement Authorities, CAIR website, accessed Jan. 9, 2006.  The Connection Newspapers , July 8, 2004.  Muslim-American Activism: CAIR Marks Decade of university sex thesis, Dedication, The Washington Report on Middle East Affairs , Oct. Page Latex. 2004, p. 76.  CAIR-Chicago Extends Lecture Series on Islam, 'Building Bridges to Islam' Events Co-hosted by Edlerhostel, CAIR, Feb. 1, 2005.  United States of America v. Randall Todd Royer, et al , United States District Court for the Eastern District of avoiding plagiarism in research, Virginia, Alexandria Division, June 2003.  CNN, June 27, 2003.  FDCH Political Transcripts , June 27, 2003. Phd Thesis Front.  U.S. Department of Justice, news release, Apr. 9, 2004.
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23, 2004. Front Page Latex.  CAIR et al v. On Body Ritual. Ashcroft and Mueller complaint, p. 13.  U.S. Department of the Treasury, news release, Oct. 18, 2002.  Ibrahim Hooper, CAIR Responds to Daniel Pipes' Anti-Muslim Hysteria, Middle East News World Report , Aug. 25, 2000.  Epstein, Saudi Support for front page latex, Islamic Extremism. Educational Psychology Term.  Epstein, Saudi Support for Islamic Extremism.  Text from Lawsuit Response, Council on American-Islamic Relations, Inc. v. Andrew Whitehead , law no. Phd Thesis Front Page Latex. CL04-926, Virginia: In the resume service bc, Circuit Court for page, the City of ritual the nacirema, Virginia Beach, Apr. 30, 2004.  Steven Emerson, American Jihad: The Terrorists Living Among Us (New York: Free Press, 2003); Deposition of phd thesis front, Nihad Awad , Oct. 22, 2003, In the english corruption, Matter of: Stanley Boim, et al. v. Quranic Literacy Institute, et. al , p. 58.  ACLU et al. vs. National Security Agency , U.S.
District Court, Eastern District of Michigan, Southern Division, Jan. 17, 2006, pp. 30-1.  The New York Sun , Jan. 18, 2006.  The Arizona Republic (Phoenix), Mar. 25, 2004.  Steven Emerson, statement to the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon phd thesis front page latex the United States, July 9, 2003.  Jake Tapper, Islam's Flawed Spokesmen, Salon , Sept. 26, 2001.  Newsletter of the Marzuk Legal Fund , June 1996.  The Oracle (University of essay among, South Florida), Mar. 31, 2004.  CAIR Condemns Mutilation of Bodies in Iraq, CAIR, Mar.
31, 2004.  The Tides Community Responds to phd thesis page, 9/11/01, Groundsprings.org, accessed Jan. 10, 2006. Avoiding In Research.  February 20, 2002—National Day of phd thesis page latex, Solidarity with Muslim, Arab and South Asian Immigrants, Refuse and Resist, New York, N.Y., accessed Jan. 10, 2006.  The Call for a National Day of Protest on October 22nd, 2002, to Stop Police Brutality, Repression and the Criminalization of oedipus rex essays, a Generation, October 22 Coalition, accessed Jan. 10, 2006. Front Page Latex.  Steven Emerson, Foreign Terrorists in rex essays, America: Five Years after the World Trade Center Bombing, statement before the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee Subcommittee on Terrorism, Technology and Government Information, Feb. 24, 1998.  Pomerantz, Counterterrorism in a Free Society; Schwartz, An Activist's Guide.  The Palestine Chronicle (Mountlake Terrace, Wash.), Aug. 4, 2003.  CAIR Promotes and Hosts William W. Baker, Neo-Nazi, DanielPipes.org, Mar. 9, 2004. Phd Thesis Latex.  A Day of Discovery: Building Bridges to Islam in Arizona, program guide, Islamic Community Center, Tempe, Ariz., May 31, 2005 and June 14, 2005.  The IRS offers several choices under the item Revenues, including direct public support, indirect public support, government contributions (grants), membership dues and assessments, and avoiding plagiarism, net income or (loss) from front latex special events or rental properties—the categories in which CAIR has classified its revenues. Term Paper.  Epstein, Saudi Support for Islamic Extremism.  Paul Sperry, Chapter 13: The 9/11 Imam, SperryFiles , accessed Jan. 10, 2006.  Deed of Trust, Doc. # 2002105143, Commercial Settlements, Inc., Washington, D.C., Aug. 7, 2002, SperryFiles , accessed Jan. 10, 2006.  WAMY's relationship to latex, Saudi Arabia was described this way by its secretary general: The Kingdom provides us with a supportive environment that allows us to university sex thesis, work openly within the society to collect funds and spread activities.
It also provides us with protection abroad through Saudi embassies and consulates, in phd thesis front, addition to financial support. Oedipus Rex Essays On Pride. WAMY Team in Afghanistan Risks Life to Deliver Aid, Middle East Newsfile, Nov. 20, 2001.  WAMY Spends SR12m on New Mosques, Middle East Newsfile, Dec. 23, 1999.  Epstein, Saudi Support for Islamic Extremism.  Kingdom Holding Company, news release, May 20, 2005. Phd Thesis Front Page.  David Kane, (Proposed Redacted) Affidavit in university sex thesis, Support of Application for Search Warrant (October 2003), United States District Court, Eastern District of Virginia.  Operation Green Quest, brochure, U.S. Customs Service, Office of Investigations, Washington, D.C.  Financial Times (London), Mar. 28, 2002. Page.  A Little Taste of History, Muslim Student Association of the essay on body ritual among, United States and Canada website, accessed Jan.
11, 2006.  J. Michael Waller, statement before the U.S. Front Page. Subcommittee on Terrorism, Technology and Homeland Security, Senate Committee on the Judiciary, Oct. 14, 2003.  Muslims and the Information Superhighway (MSIC 2000), Hilton Long Beach, Long Beach, Calif., July 14 -16, 2000.  U.S.-Saudi Arabia Terrorist Financing Designations, U.S. Department of the Treasury, news release, Mar. 11, 2002.  Office of Foreign Assets Control, U.S. Department of the Treasury, news release, Sept. On Body The Nacirema. 9, 2004.  New Report on Saudi Government Publications, Center for Religious Freedom, Freedom House, accessed Jan. 11, 2006.  Dallas Morning News , Feb. 5, 2005. Phd Thesis Latex.  National Review , Apr. 8, 2003. Resume Writing Service Bc.  Star Tribune (Minneapolis), Apr.
4, 1993.  Personal communication from page latex Michael Medved, Oct. 21, 2004.  Quoted in Steve A. Johnson, Political Activities of oedipus rex essays, Muslims in America, in Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad, ed., The Muslims of America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991), p. 115.  Associated Press, May 8, 2004.  Orlando Sentinel , Feb. 23, 2004.  Regina Orthodox Press, 2002.  Sands Publishers, 1912.  Srdja Trifkovic, Caving in to Jihad: National Review , CAIR, and front page latex, My Book, Chronicles Magazine , Apr. 6, 2005.  Erick Stakelbeck, Jihad at the St. Petersburg Times , FrontPageMagazine.com , Nov. 3, 2004.  Muslims Exchange Letters with Wiesenthal Center about Possible Changes to Museum of Tolerance, CAIR, Jan. 6, 1998.  Ralph Kinney Bennett, The Global War on duke, Christians, Reader's Digest , Aug.
1997.  Andrew Whitehead and Lee Kaplan, CAIR's War from Within, FrontPageMagazine.com , Mar. 9, 2004. Front Page.  Interview with Ahmed Bedier, Fox Hannity Co ., Fox News Network, Feb. 15, 2005.  Daniel Pipes and Sharon Chadha, CAIR's Hate Crime Nonsense, FrontPageMagazine.com , May 18, 2005.  Emerson, Foreign Terrorists in America.  Robert Spencer, Stalinism at CAIR: Photo Doctored for Islamic Correctness, Jihad Watch , Sept. 15, 2005.  Zev Chafets, Beware the Wolves Among Us, The New York Daily News , Sept. 28, 2001; editorial, CAIR and Terrorism, The Washington Times , July 24, 2004; David Frum, The Question of oedipus, CAIR, The National Post , Nov. 23, 2004; Eli Lake, Me Rethinks a CAIR Event, The New York Sun , Nov. 12, 2003; Daniel Pipes, CAIR: 'Moderate' Friends of Terror, The New York Post , Apr. Phd Thesis Latex. 22, 2002; Michael Putney, Pressure May Smother Dialogue, The Miami Herald , Sept. 10, 2003; Stephen Schwartz, Not So Holy after All; The Bush Administration Takes on a Hamas Front Group, The Weekly Standard , Dec. Duke University. 17, 2001; and front page, Glenn Sheller, Muslim Group's Conflict with Discrimination Is Uphill Fight, The Columbus Dispatch , Aug.
31, 2004.  4 Indicted in Texas Terror Probe, The Boston Globe , Dec. 19, 2002; 5 Brothers Charged with Aiding Hamas, The New York Times , Dec. 19, 2002; Hamas Arrests Called Unfair, Fort Worth Star-Telegram , Dec. 20, 2002; Aid Sought for 5 Suspected of Terror Ties, Associated Press, Feb.
15, 2003; Muslim Leader Criticizes Prosecution, United Press International, July 9, 2004; Muslim Leaders Blast Brothers' Convictions, The Dallas Morning News , July 10, 2004.  CAIR's DC office is required to make its Form 990 available to corruption, the public upon request. Related Topics: Muslims in latex, the United States | Daniel Pipes | Sharon Chadha | Spring 2006 MEQ receive the latest by email: subscribe to the free mef mailing list This text may be reposted or forwarded so long as it is presented as an integral whole with complete and accurate information provided about its author, date, place of publication, and avoiding plagiarism, original URL.
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By David Freddoso. By Stanley Kurtz. By Sharyl Attkisson. By Matthew Vadum. By Matt Margolis. By Michael Savage. By Michael Savage. By Tommy Newberry. By James Delingpole. By Jerome Corsi.
By Jack Cashill. ADDITIONAL IMPORTANT FEATURES: Democrat Barack Hussein Obama, Jr. was elected President of the United States on November 4, 2008. Front Page. Prior to that, he had served four years as a U.S. senator from paper Illinois (2005-2008) and eight years as an Illinois state senator (1996-2004). “In Islam, religion passes from the father to the child. Barack Hussein Obama, Sr. [his Kenyan birth father] was a Muslim who named his boy Barack Hussein Obama, Jr. Only Muslim children are named ‘Hussein’. [Barack Obama’s] stepfather, Lolo Soetoro, was also a Muslim. In fact, as Obama's half-sister, Maya Soetoro-Ng explained to Jodi Kantor of the New York Times : ‘My whole family was Muslim, and most of the people I knew were Muslim.’ An Indonesian publication, the phd thesis latex Banjarmasin Post reports a former classmate, Rony Amir, recalling that ‘All the sex thesis relatives of Barry's [Barack’s] father were very devout Muslims.’” * As a child in Indonesia, Obama attended Koranic classes at phd thesis latex, a Muslim school known as Besuki. At tha same time, he attended the St. Francis of Assisi Catholic School. * In February 2009, Obama said: I was not raised in oedipus on pride a particularly religious household.
I had a father who was born a Muslim but became an atheist, grandparents who were non-practicing Methodists and Baptists, and a mother who was skeptical of organized religion. I didn't become a Christian until I moved to the South Side of Chicago after college. * In a March 2009 interview, Obama's then-30-year-old half-brother, George Hussein Onyango Obama , said that “on the inside Barack Obama is Muslim.” * In September 2010, Obama said: I came to my Christian faith later in life. * Author Edward Klein , while researching his 2012 book The Amateur , once asked the Rev. Jeremiah Wright, Obama's longtime pastor at phd thesis latex, Trinity United Methodisy Church in Chicago: Did you convert Obama from Islam to Christianity? Wright replied enigmatically: That's hard to tell. * Daniel Pipes writes that many pieces of oedipus rex essays evidence argue for page Obama having been born and raised a Muslim Specifically, says Pipes: (1) Islam is a patrilineal religion : In Islam, the father passes his faith to the children; and when a Muslim male has children with a non-Muslim female, Islam considers the children Muslim. Obama's grandfather and father having been Muslims the extent of their piety matters not at educational term paper, all means that, in Muslim eyes, Barack was born a Muslim. (2) Arabic forenames based on the H-S-N trilateral root : All such names (Husayn or Hussein, Hasan, Hassân, Hasanayn, Ahsan, Muhsin, and others) are exclusively bestowed on page latex Muslim babies. (The same goes for names based on educational psychology the H-M-D root.) Obama's middle name, Hussein, explicitly proclaims him a born Muslim.
(3) Registered as Muslim at phd thesis, SD Katolik Santo Fransiskus Asisi : Obama was registered at a Catholic school in Jakarta as Barry Soetoro. A surviving document correctly lists him as born in Honolulu on Aug. 4, 1961; in addition, it lists him having Indonesian nationality and avoiding in research papers Muslim religion. (4) Registered as Muslim at SD Besuki : Although Besuki (also known as SDN 1 Menteng) is phd thesis front latex a public school, Obama curiously refers to rex essays, it in phd thesis latex Audacity (p. 154) as the Muslim school he attended in Jakarta. Oedipus Rex Essays On Pride. Its records have not survived but several journalists (Haroon Siddiqui of the page Toronto Star , Paul Watson of the on pride Los Angeles Times , David Maraniss of the Washington Post ) have all confirmed that there too, he was registered as a Muslim. (5) Islamic class at SD Besuki : Obama mentions ( Audacity , p. 154) that at Besuki, the phd thesis front page teacher wrote to tell my mother that I made faces during Koranic studies.
Only Muslim students attended the weekly two-hour Koran class, Watson reports: two of his teachers, former Vice Principal Tine Hahiyari and avoiding plagiarism papers third-grade teacher Effendi, said they remember clearly that at this school too, he was registered as a Muslim, which determined what class he attended during weekly religion lessons. Muslim students were taught by a Muslim teacher, and Christian students were taught by phd thesis page, a Christian teacher, said Effendi. Andrew Higgins of the Washington Post quotes Rully Dasaad, a former classmate, saying that Obama horsed around in class and, during readings of the Koran, got laughed at because of his funny pronunciation. English Essays Corruption. Maraniss learned that the class included not only studying how to pray and phd thesis front page latex how to read the Koran, but also actually praying in the Friday communal service right on essay on body among the nacirema the school grounds. (6) Mosque attendance : Maya Soetoro-Ng, Obama's younger half-sister, said her father (namely, Barack's stepfather) attended the mosque for big communal events, Barker found that Obama occasionally followed his stepfather to page, the mosque for corruption Friday prayers.
Watson reports: The childhood friends say Obama sometimes went to Friday prayers at front latex, the local mosque. We prayed but not really seriously, just following actions done by older people in the mosque. But as kids, we loved to educational psychology, meet our friends and page latex went to the mosque together and played, said Zulfin Adi, who describes himself as among Obama's closest childhood friends. Sometimes, when the muezzin sounded the call to duke university, prayer, Lolo and Barry would walk to the makeshift mosque together, Adi said. His mother often went to the church, but Barry was Muslim. He went to front, the mosque, Adi said. (7) Muslim clothing : Adi recalls about resume, Obama, I remember him wearing a sarong. Likewise,Maraniss found not only that His classmates recalled that Barry wore a sarong but written exchanges indicating that he continued to wear this garment in the United States. Front Page. This fact has religious implications because, in oedipus Indonesian culture, only Muslims wear sarongs.
(8) Piety : Obama says that in Indonesia, he didn't practice [Islam], an front page latex, assertion that inadvertently acknowledges his Muslim identity by ritual the nacirema, implying he was a non-observant Muslim. Phd Thesis Latex. But several of those who knew him contradict this recollection. On Pride. Rony Amir describes Obama as previously quite religious in Islam. A former teacher, Tine Hahiyary, quoted in front the Kaltim Post , says the future president took part in advanced Islamic religious lessons: I remember that he had studied mengaji . In the service context of Southeast Asian Islam, mengaji Quran means to front, recite the Koran in Arabic, a difficult task denoting advanced study. In summary, the record points to Obama having been born a Muslim to a non-practicing Muslim father and having lived for four years in a fully Muslim milieu under the auspices of his Muslim Indonesian stepfather. For these reasons, those who knew Obama in Indonesia considered him a Muslim. * Daniel Pipes has pointed out the significance of the manner in which Obama typically addresses Muslim audiences: “When addressing Muslim audiences, Obama uses specifically Muslim phrases that recall his Muslim identity. He addressed audiences both in Cairo (in June 2009 ) and Jakarta (in Nov. 2010 ) with 'as-salaamu alaykum,' a greeting that he, who went to Koran class, knows is reserved for duke university sex thesis one Muslim addressing another.” Further, Pipes notes that “In Cairo, he [Obama] also deployed several other pious terms that signal to phd thesis front, Muslims he is one of them: (a) 'the Holy Koran' (a term mentioned five times): an exact translation from the standard Arabic reference to the Islamic scripture, al-Qur'an al-Karim ; (b) 'the right path': a translation of the Arabic as-sirat al-mustaqim , which Muslims ask God to guide them along each time they pray; (c) 'I have known Islam on educational psychology paper three continents before coming to phd thesis front, the region where it was first revealed': non-Muslims do not refer to Islam as revealed ; (d) 'the story of Isra, when Moses, Jesus, and Mohammed joined in prayer': this Koranic tale of a night journey establishes the english essays corruption leadership of front page Muhammad over all other holy figures, including Jesus; (e) 'Moses, Jesus, and Mohammed, peace be upon avoiding papers them': a translation of the page latex Arabic 'alayhim as-salam , which pious Muslims say after mentioning the names of dead prophets other than Muhammad.” * Pipes offers also the following insight about english essays, Obama's use of the phrase Peace be upon them: “Obama's saying 'Peace be upon them' has other implications beyond being a purely Islamic turn of phrase never employed by Arabic-speaking Jews and Christians.
First, it contradicts what a self-professed Christian believes because it implies that Jesus, like Moses and Muhammad, is latex dead; Christian theology holds him to have been resurrected, living, and plagiarism in research papers the immortal Son of front God. Second, including Muhammad in essay on body ritual among this blessing implies reverence for him, something as outlandish as a Jew talking about Jesus Christ . Third, a Christian would more naturally seek peace from phd thesis front Jesus rather than wish peace on him.” “[Obama] drastically overestimates both the number and the role of Muslims in the United States, announcing in June 2009 that 'if you actually took the number of Muslims Americans, we'd be one of the largest Muslim countries in sex thesis the world.' (Hardly: according to one listing of phd thesis front Muslim populations , the United States, with about 2.5 million Muslims , ranks about 47 th largest.) Three days later , he gave a bloated estimate of 'nearly 7 million American Muslims in our country today' and bizarrely announced that 'Islam has always been a part of America's story. since our founding, American Muslims have enriched the psychology term United States.' Obama also announced the dubious fact, in Apr. 2009 , that many Americans 'have Muslims in their families or have lived in a Muslim-majority country.' When ordering religious communities in the United States, Obama always gives first place to Christians but second place varies between Jews and Muslims, most notably in front page latex his Jan. Plagiarism In Research. 2009 inaugural speech: 'The United States is a nation of Christians and Muslims, Jews and front latex Hindus and non-believers.' Obama so wildly overestimates the Muslim role in American life that they suggest an Islamic supremacist mentality specific to someone coming from on body the nacirema a Muslim background.” The 1970s and page CPUSA Member Frank Marshall Davis:
In 1971, Obama was sent back to Hawaii to be raised largely by writing service victoria, his white, middle-class, maternal grandparents, and to attend the prestigious Punahou Academy. For only one month of his life, also when he was ten, Obama was visited by his biological father. To avoid being mistaken for phd thesis front latex a sellout,I chose my friends carefully. The more politically active black students. The foreign students. The Chicanos.The Marxist Professors and the structural feminists and essay among punk-rock performance poets.We smoked cigarettes and phd thesis latex wore leather jackets. At night,in the on body among the nacirema dorms,we discussed neocolonialism, [the socialist, anti-colonialist revolutionary] Franz Fanon,Eurocentrism,and patriarchy.
When we ground out our cigarettes in the hallway carpet or set our stereos so loud that the walls began to shake, we were resisting bourgeois society's stifling constraints. We weren't indifferent or careless or insecure. We were alienated. John C. Drew's Recollections of Obama as a Student at Occidental College: What’s missing from this story is that the 'social justice' young men and women were, in fact, simply left-wing socialists. They found a hero in phd thesis page Professor Boesche because he made complex texts easier to understand and because he encouraged them to fight even though they would be inevitably ground up in the gears of oedipus on pride history. The outrage that Obama felt when he got a 'B' from Boesche was due to the idea that Obama felt he was held to a higher standard because he was a revolutionary who shared Boesche’s perspective. Obama felt he was held to a higher standard because he was one of the student[s] in greatest ideological agreement with what Professor Boesche was teaching at that time. In February 2010, John C. Drew shared the latex following recollections he had of Obama: I met Barack Obama face-to-face later that same year in late December 1980.
By then, I was in my second year of graduate school at Cornell. I was doing my first, official teaching. The young Ann Coulter was a student in Theodore J. Lowi’s Introduction to American Government course in 1980 and I was the teaching assistant responsible for guiding her small group discussion section. Back on the West Coast for Christmas break, I was visiting a girlfriend who was still attending Occidental College who introduced me to english essays, 'Barry' Obama and his housemate Mohammed Hasan Chandoo, a wealthy Pakistani student. From Occidental, Obama transferred to Columbia University in New York City, where he graduated in 1983 with a degree in political science.
In 1982, Obama's biological father -- Barack Obama, Sr. Phd Thesis. -- died in a car crash. In Dreams From My Father , Obama reveals that during his student years at Columbia he “went to socialist conferences at Cooper Union and African cultural fairs in Brooklyn.” Specifically, these were Socialist Scholars Conferences (SSC), which featured the oedipus elite of socialist academia as well as union activists, political revolutionaries, reformers, and opponents of “corporate greed.” According to phd thesis front latex, the libertarian writer Trevor Loudon, guest speakers at these conferences included “members of the Communist Party USA and its offshoot, the Committees of Correspondence, as well as Maoists, Trotskyists, black radicals, gay activists and plagiarism radical feminists.” Matthew Vadum and Jeremy Lott provide an excellent explanation of what a community organizer does. They write: “What does a “community organizer” do? Good question. Ever since former New York mayor Rudy Giuliani mocked Senator Barack Obama at the Republican convention in September 2008, for the senator’s community organizing past, and Alaska Governor Sarah Palin said that her previous experience as mayor was “sort of like a ‘community organizer,’ except that you have actual responsibilities,” [Obama’s] supporters have been furiously spinning this one. Phd Thesis. They’ve suggested a fanciful interpretation of “community organizer” that includes organizing church picnics and bake sales. Psychology Term. Some have even had the cheek to phd thesis front latex, suggest that Jesus Christ was a community organizer. Dr.
Thomas Sowell, the eminent Stanford University sociologist, offers this assessment of what community organizers do: For 'community organizers' . racial resentments are a stock in trade. What does a community organizer do? What he does not do is organize a community. What he organizes are the resentments and paranoia within a community, directing those feelings against other communities, from essay on body ritual among whom either benefits or revenge are to be gotten, using whatever rhetoric or tactics will accomplish that purpose. Political analyst Andrew McCarthy calls community organizing a gussied-up term for systematic rabble-rousing. Phd Thesis Latex. He adds:
The quest for on body among raw power is the gospel according to front page, the seminal organizer, Saul Alinsky. In Obama terminology, 'hope' is the sex thesis possibility that power may be wrested from society’s 'haves' by infiltrating their political system. Just as Willie Sutton robbed banks because that’s where the money is, organizers must target the front very system they reject to acquire powermaking themselves attractive to the great mass of society despite having 'contemptuously rejected the values and victoria the way of life of the phd thesis front page middle class,' as Alinsky put it. This is the english essays corruption formula for front page transformational 'change': the exploitation of power, once acquired, to avoiding, redistribute wealth and elevate the left’s professionally aggrieved vanguard. The day after the page rally, Marty [Jerry Kellman in Dreams] decided it was time for me to university, do some real work, and phd thesis front page he handed me a long list of writing victoria bc people to interview. Find out phd thesis front latex their self-interest, he said. That’s why people become involved in corruption organizingbecause they think they’ll get something out of it. Page Latex. Once I found an issue enough people cared about, I could take them into action.
With enough actions, I could start to build power. Corruption. Issues, action, power, self-interest. I liked these concepts. They bespoke a certain hardheadedness, a worldly lack of sentiment; politics, not religion. Obama's expenses at DCP were signed and approved by the late Cardinal Joseph Bernardin, a far-leftist who founded the phd thesis latex Catholic Campaign for Human Development (CCHD); who famously credited Mikhail Gorbachev, not Reagan or John Paul II, with having brought about the service victoria bc collapse of the front latex Soviet Union; and who called for rex essays a “consistent ethic of life,” in an effort to persuade anti-abortion Catholics to likewise embrace pacifism and page wealth redistribution. He pursued manifestly worthy goals; protecting people from asbestos in english corruption government housing projects is phd thesis front obviously a good thing and a responsibility of the service victoria government that built them. But [in every case except one] the proposed solution to latex, every problem on the South Side was a distribution of on body among the nacirema government funds .  Nor was Obama reluctant to use intimidation as a tactic. In one instance, he personally orchestrated a demonstration in which scores of protestors broke into a private meeting between bank executives and local community leaders, menacing them as they attempted to negotiate a deal vis a vis a controversial landfill issue.
In 1987, when Obama was executive director of front latex DCP, he asked Chicago mayor Harold Washington to support a community organizing project whose advisory board would include Obama's pastor Jeremiah Wright, the leftist Catholic priest Michael Pfleger, Illinois State Senator Emil Jones, and John Ayers (brother of former Weather Underground terrorist Bill Ayers). In a followup letter addressed to Washington’s assistant three days later, Obama again laid out his plans and included a list of resume victoria his advisory council members. Trained in the Saul Alinsky Method: Three of Obama's mentors in phd thesis Chicago were trained at essay on body ritual among the nacirema, the Saul Alinsky-founded Industrial Areas Foundation (IAF) in the Windy City. Phd Thesis Front. (The Developing Communities Project itself was an paper, affiliate of the Gamaliel Foundation, whose modus operandi for the creation of “a more just and democratic society” is rooted firmly in the Alinsky method.) Alinsky was known for having helped to establish the aggressive political tactics that characterized the 1960s, and which have remained central to phd thesis front page, all subsequent revolutionary movements in the United States. He was a natural, the duke university undisputed master of agitation, who could engage a room full of recruiting targets in a rapid-fire Socratic dialogue, nudging them to phd thesis, admit that they were not living up to educational paper, their own standards.
As with the panhandler, he could be aggressive and page confrontational. With probing, sometimes personal questions, he would pinpoint the source of pain in their lives, tearing down their egos just enough before dangling a carrot of hope that they could make things better. For several years, Obama himself taught workshops on the Alinsky method. “Grass-roots community organizing builds on avoiding papers indigenous leadership and page direct action. The debate as to how black and other dispossessed people can forward their lot in America is not new. Avoiding In Research. From W. Phd Thesis Front Latex. E. B. DuBois to Booker T. Educational Psychology. Washington to phd thesis page latex, Marcus Garvey to Malcolm X to Martin Luther King, this internal debate has raged between integration and nationalism, between accommodation and militancy, between sit-down strikes and boardroom negotiations. The lines between these strategies have never been simply drawn, and the most successful black leadership has recognized the need to bridge these seemingly divergent approaches. Author Andrew McCarthy makes the following observations about plagiarism papers, Obama's words: Breathtaking. Lawfulness and lawlessness, thuggishness and front page latex regular politicswe’re not to divine any moral or ethical differences. They are just different 'approaches' to empowerment.
They only 'seem' to be 'divergent.' It may be important to plagiarism in research papers, maintain the veneer of respect for legal processes, but it is just as legitimate to stretch or break the rules whenever necessary to front, achieve the oedipus rex essays on pride desired outcomesocial justice being a higher form of legitimacy than society’s rule of law. Separatism, menacing, and civil disobedience: none of these is beyond the pale; they are simply choices on the hard power menu Obama 'bridges' with soft power (i.e., the system’s mundane legal and political processes). As a young community organizer, Obama had close connections to the Midwest Academy, a radical training ground for activists of his political ilk. Probably the most influential community-organizing-related entity in America at that time, the Midwest Academy worked closely with the DSA and synthesized Saul Alinsky’s organizing techniques with the practical considerations of electoral politics. Emphasizing “class consciousness” and page “movement history,” the avoiding papers Academy’s training programs exposed students to the efforts and achievements of veteran activists from earlier decades. Recurring “socialism sessions,” taught by Heather Booth, encompassed everything from Marx and Engels through Michael Harrington’s democratic socialism and the factional struggles of the Students for a Democratic Society, a radical organization that aspired to remake America’s government in a Marxist image. Phd Thesis Page. Knowing that many Americans would be unreceptive to straightforward, hard-left advocacy, the Midwest Academy in its formative years was careful not to explicitly articulate its socialist ideals in its organizing and educational psychology training activities. The group’s inner circle was wholly committed to building a socialist mass movement, but stealthily rather than overtly.
As Midwest Academy trainer Steve Max and phd thesis page latex the prominent socialist Harry Boyte agreed in a private correspondence: “Every social proposal that we make must be [deceptively] couched in terms of how it will strengthen capitalism.” This strategy of avoiding in research papers hiding its own socialist agendas below the proverbial radar, earned the Academy the designation “crypto-socialist organization” from Stanley Kurtz. “Nearly every thread of Obama’s career runs directly or indirectly through the Midwest Academy,” says Kurtz, and, as such, it represents “the hidden key to Barack Obama’s political career.” The author elaborates: “Obama’s organizing mentors had ties to [the Midwest Academy]; Obama’s early funding was indirectly controlled by it; evidence strongly suggests that Obama himself received training there; both Barack and Michelle Obama ran a project called ‘Public Allies’ that was effectively an extension of the Midwest Academy; Obama’s first run for public office was sponsored by Academy veteran Alice Palmer; and Obama worked closely at phd thesis page latex, two foundations for years with yet another veteran organizer from the Midwest Academy, Ken Rolling. Perhaps more important, Barack Obama’s approach to politics is clearly inspired by that of the Midwest Academy.” Obama and the Alliance for Better Chicago Schools: In 1988 Obama applied for admission to Harvard Law School. At the time, a Muslim attorney and black nationalist named Khalid Abdullah Tariq al-Mansour asked civil rights activist Percy Sutton to send a letter of recommendation to his (Sutton's) friends at Harvard on Obama's behalf.
In an educational psychology term, interview published by the Daily Herald on front page March 3, 1990, Barck Obama said: I feel good when I'm engaged in what I think are the core issues of the society, and those core issues to me are what's happening to poor folks in english essays corruption this society. There's certainly racism here [at Harvard Law School]. There are certain burdens that are placed [on blacks], more emotionally at this point than concretely. Hopefully, more and more people will begin to feel their story is phd thesis page latex somehow part of duke sex thesis this larger story of front how we're going to reshape America in a way that is less mean-spirited and more generous. University. I mean, I really hope to be part of page latex a transformation of oedipus rex essays this country. In May 2012, Breitbart News reported that it had obtained a 36-page promotional booklet produced in 1991 by Barack Obama's then-literary agency, Acton Dystel, which stated that Obama was born in phd thesis front latex Kenya and raised in Indonesia and Hawaii. Oedipus Rex Essays On Pride. The booklet, which was distributed to people in the publishing industry, includes a brief biography of Obama and 89 other authors represented by Acton Dystel. Obama’s biography in the booklet reads as follows:
Barack Obama, the first African-American president of the Harvard Law Review , was born in front Kenya and raised in university sex thesis Indonesia and Hawaii. The son of an American anthropologist and a Kenyan finance minister, he attended Columbia University and worked as a financial journalist and phd thesis front page latex editor for Business International Corporation. He served as project coordinator in Harlem for the New York Public Interest Research Group, and was Executive Director of the Developing Communities Project in Chicago’s South Side. His commitment to social and racial issues will be evident in his first book, Journeys in Black and White . The booklet also included biographies of such notable authors as former Speaker of the House Tip O’Neill, sports legends Joe Montana and Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, and english corruption a number of Hollywood celebrities. Jay Acton (of Acton Dystel) told Breitbart News that the booklet had cost the agency tens of thousands of dollars to produce. He said that while almost nobody wrote his or her own biography, the non-athletes in the booklet were probably approached to approve the text as presented.
His most traditional course was in the due process and equal protection areas of constitutional law. Phd Thesis Front Latex. His voting rights class traced the evolution of service bc election law, from the disenfranchisement of blacks to contemporary debates over districting and campaign finance. His most original course, a historical and political seminar as much as a legal one, was on racism and law [In] one class on race, he imitated the way clueless white people talked. 'Why are your friends at the housing projects shooting each other?' he asked in a mock-innocent voice. . Mr. Front Page Latex. Obama was especially eager for his charges to understand the horrors of the past, students say. Duke University Sex Thesis. He assigned a 1919 catalog of lynching victims, including some who were first raped or stripped of their ears and fingers, others who were pregnant or lynched with their children, and phd thesis latex some whose charred bodies were sold off, bone fragment by bone fragment, to gawkers. Resume Service Victoria Bc. 'Are there legal remedies that alleviate not just existing racism, but racism from the past?' Adam Gross, now a public interest lawyer in Chicago, wrote in front page latex his class notes in on body ritual among the nacirema April 1994. Liberals flocked to his classes[.] After all, the professor was a progressive politician[.] . Karen McQuillan writes, in American Thinker , that Obama was a lecturer, and phd thesis page not a full professor, because he did not have the qualifications to be a professor. Adds McQuillan: Obama never published a single law paper. He was hired by the University of Chicago when they learned he had been given a book contract on race and law directly after graduating from Harvard. There was no book just the contract, which he later reneged on.
This is not the normal level of psychology term paper accomplishment for a University of Chicago professor or even lecturer. Introduction to phd thesis page, ACORN and Project Vote: In the early to mid-1990s, Obama worked with ACORN, a grassroots political organization that grew out of George Wiley's National Welfare Rights Organization (NWRO). In the late 1960s and early 70s, NWRO members had invaded welfare offices across the U.S. -- often violently -- bullying social workers and loudly demanding every penny to which the essay ritual law “entitled” them.  Litigator for Davis, Miner, Barnhill Galland, P.C .: In 1993 Barack Obama took a job as a litigator of voting rights and employment cases with the law firm Davis, Miner, Barnhill Galland, P.C. Phd Thesis Front Page. (a.k.a.
Davis Miner). University Sex Thesis. That same year, he also became a lecturer at the University of Chicago Law School. Obama -- along with such notables as Al Sharpton and phd thesis Jeremiah Wright -- helped organize the October 1995 Million Man March in Washington, DC, which featured Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan. Said Obama in oedipus on pride the immediate aftermath of the March: “What I saw was a powerful demonstration of an impulse and need for latex African-American men to come together to on pride, recognize each other and affirm our rightful place in the society. Historically, African-Americans have turned inward and towards black nationalism whenever they have a sense, as we do now, that the mainstream has rebuffed us, and that white Americans couldn’t care less about the profound problems African-Americans are facing.” Obama Smears White Executives in the Suburbs: I worked as a community organizer in Chicago.
I was very active in low-income neighborhoods, working on issues of phd thesis page latex crime and plagiarism papers education and employment, and front page seeing that in some ways, certain portions of the educational psychology term African American community are doing as bad if not worse, and recognizing that my fate remained tied up with their fates, that my individual salvation is not going to come about phd thesis front latex, without a collective salvation for the country. Unfortunately I think that recognition requires that we make sacrifices, and this country has not always been willing to oedipus on pride, make the sacrifices necessary to bring about front latex, a new day and a new age. By no means was this the only time Obama spoke about victoria, collective salvation. Phd Thesis Latex. In a 1998 radio interview he said: . my individual salvation is not going to in research, come about without a collective salvation for the country. Phd Thesis Page. Um, unfortunately I think that recognition requires that we make sacrifices and this country has not always been willing to make the sacrifices necessary to bring about a new day and a new age. Obama Identifies White Suppression of Blacks As a Problem in the United States, As Elsewhere: . [T]he truth of the matter is that many of the problems that Africa faces, whether it's poverty or political suppression or ethnic conflict is just as prominent there and can't all be blamed on the effects of colonialism. University Sex Thesis. What it can be blamed on is some of the common factors that affect Bosnia or Los Angeles or all kinds of places on this earth, and that is the phd thesis latex tendency for one group to try to essay the nacirema, suppress another group in phd thesis front page latex the interest of power or greed or resources or what have you. In an environment of on pride scarcity, where the cost of living is phd thesis latex rising, folks begin to university sex thesis, get angry and bitter and front look for scapegoats.
Historically, instead of looking at the top 5% of this country that controls all the oedipus wealth, we turn towards each other, and the Republicans have added to phd thesis front latex, the fire. In that same interview, Obama said that his perspective on the “top 5%” had been shaped by his experiences abroad: It's about power. Avoiding In Research. My travels made me sensitive to the plight of those without power and the issues of class and inequalities as it relates to wealth and power. Anytime you have been overseas in these so-called third world countries, one thing you see is the vast disparity of wealth of those who are part of power structure and those outside of it. Bill Ayers, Bernardine Dohrn, and front Obama's Entry into Politics:
In the mid-1990s, Obama developed a friendship with fellow Chicagoans Bill Ayers and his wife Bernardine Dohrn, university professors who hosted a fundraiser at on body the nacirema, their home to introduce Obama to their neighbors during his first run for the Illinois state senate in phd thesis 1996. (This fundraiser was likely organized by the socialist New Party.) Ayers (who contributed money to Obama’s 1996 campaign) and Dohrn had been leaders of the 1960s domestic terrorist group Weatherman, a Communist-driven splinter faction of Students for a Democratic Society. The pair had participated personally in the bombings of New York City Police Headquarters in essay on body among the nacirema 1970, the phd thesis Capitol building in 1971, and the Pentagon in on pride 1972. To this day, both have remained unrepentant about phd thesis page, their former terrorist activities and their hatred of the United States.  “This is a guy who lives in my neighborhood, who is a professor of English in essay on body ritual Chicago, who I know, and who I have not received some official endorsement from. He is not somebody who I exchange ideas from [with] on phd thesis page a regular basis. And the notion that somehow, as a consequence of me knowing somebody who engaged in detestable acts forty years ago when I was eight years old, somehow reflects on me and my values doesn't make much sense [T]his kind of game, in which anybody who I know, regardless of how flimsy the relationship is, [that] somehow their ideas could be attributed to service victoria, me, I think the American people are smarter than that. They’re not gonna suggest somehow that that is reflective of my views, because it obviously isn’t.”
Chicago Annenberg Challenge and front Bill Ayers: But in reality, Obama's ties to essay on body the nacirema, Ayers were deep and longstanding. In 1995, for instance, Obama was appointed as the first Chairman of the Chicago Annenberg Challenge (CAC), a “school reform organization” founded by Ayers, who would later write, in his book Teaching Toward Freedom , that his educational objective was to phd thesis latex, “teach against oedipus on pride, oppression” as embodied in “America’s history of evil and racism, thereby forcing social transformation.” “Ayers made presentations to board meetings chaired by Obama. Ayers also spoke for the Chicago School Reform Collaborative before Obama's board, while Obama periodically spoke for the board at meetings of the page latex collaborative According to service bc, the documents, the CAC granted money to far-leftist causes, such as the radical Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now, or ACORN, which has done work on behalf of phd thesis front latex Obama's presidential campaign.” WorldNetDaily reported further that “while Obama chaired the board of the CAC, more than $600,000 was granted to avoiding, an organization founded by Ayers and run by Mike Klonsky, a former top communist activist. Klonsky was leader of the Marxist-Leninist Communist Party, which was effectively recognized by China as the all-but-official U.S.
Maoist party.” Said Stanley Kurtz: “Instead of funding schools directly, [the CAC] required schools to affiliate with ‘external partners,’ which actually got the latex money. Proposals from groups focused on math/science achievement were turned down. Instead CAC disbursed money through various far-left community organizers, such as ACORN.” Kurtz has provided the following synopsis of the resume writing service victoria CAC/Ayers agendas: The CAC's agenda flowed from Mr. Phd Thesis Front Page Latex. Ayers's educational philosophy, which called for infusing students and their parents with a radical political commitment, and educational which downplayed achievement tests in front latex favor of activism. Essay Ritual The Nacirema. In the mid-1960s, Mr. Ayers taught at a radical alternative school, and served as a community organizer in Cleveland's ghetto. Between 1995 and 1999, Obama and phd thesis front CAC distributed $110 million to a variety of leftist education enterprises for experiments in Chicago's public schools. During his time teaching at the University of Chicago, Obama told then-colleague John Lott directly: “I don’t believe people should be able to own guns.”
Obama Endorses Ayers' Book: In December 1997 Obama wrote a blurb praising Ayers' recently published book, A Kind and Just Parent: The Children of essay the nacirema Juvenile Court , calling it a searing and timely account of the juvenile court system, and the courageous individuals who rescue hope from phd thesis front page latex despair. A notable attendee at oedipus, the aforementioned political gatherings which Ayers and Dohrn hosted on behalf of Obama (in the mid-1990s) was Democratic state senator Alice J. Phd Thesis Front Page Latex. Palmer (of Illinois’ 13th District), who quickly developed a friendly relationship with Obama. Prior to her stint in politics, Palmer had worked for the Black Press Institute and was editor of the writing service victoria bc Black Press Review . Front Latex. During the Cold War, she supported the Soviet Union and spoke out against the United States. In the 1980s she served as an executive board member of the U.S. Avoiding Plagiarism Papers. Peace Council, which the FBI identified as a Communist front group (and which was an affiliate of the World Peace Council, an international Soviet front).
Palmer participated in the World Peace Council’s Prague assembly in 1983 -- just as the USSR was launching its “nuclear freeze” movement, a scheme that would have frozen Soviet nuclear and military superiority in phd thesis page latex place. Obama Betrays Palmer: But in educational psychology term paper November 1995, Jesse Jackson, Jr. defeated Palmer in a special election for Reynolds’ empty congressional seat. At that point, Palmer filed to retain the Democratic nomination for the state senate seat she had encouraged Obama to pursue; that seat would be up for grabs in the November 1996 elections. Phd Thesis. She asked Obama to politely withdraw from the race and offered to help him find an university sex thesis, alternative position elsewhere. In 1995 Barack Obama sought the endorsement of the so-called New Party for his 1996 state senate run. Phd Thesis Page Latex. He was successful in obtaining that endorsement, and he used a number of essay on body ritual among the nacirema New Party volunteers as campaign workers. Obama was involved as early as 1993, with a New Party sister organization - Progressive Chicago. This organization was formed by members of the phd thesis page latex New Party as a support group for progressive candidates. It's main instigators included New Party members Madeline Talbott of Chicago ACORN and Dan Swinney, a Chicago labor unionist.
Barack Obama was probably approached to join Progressive Chicago as early April 7, 1993, as this unsigned handwritten note suggests [see image here]. According to the same note Obama was more than happy to be involved [see image here]. By September 1993 Obama was one of 17 people listed as a signatory on all Progressive Chicago letters - as shown by the second page of this September 22 Progressive Chicago letter to Joe Gardner [see image here]. It appears beyond doubt that Barack Obama was involved, more than two years before his Illinois State Senate run, with a New Party founded, sister organization - Progressive Chicago. In a 2010 interview, Carl Davidson, a Marxist activist who helped establish the corruption New Party, recalled Obama's involvement with the New Party: A subcommittee met with [Obama] to interview him to see if his stand on the living wage and similar reforms was the same as ours. We determined that our views on these overlapped, and we could endorse his campaign in phd thesis front page the Democratic Party. Recently obtained evidence from the updated records of resume writing victoria Illinois ACORN at the Wisconsin Historical Society now definitively establishes that Obama was a member of the New Party. He also signed a 'contract' promising to publicly support and phd thesis page latex associate himself with the New Party while in writing victoria bc office. Barack Obama, candidate for State Senate in phd thesis front the 13th Legislative District, gave a statement to the membership and answered questions. He signed the english New Party 'Candidate Contract' and front requested an rex essays on pride, endorsement from the phd thesis New Party. He also joined the plagiarism in research New Party.
Consistent with this, a roster of the Chicago chapter of the New Party from latex early 1997 lists Obama as a member, with January 11, 1996, indicated as the date he joined. Obama Calls for Collective Action; Says the Christian Right is rex essays Characterized by Intolerance and Narrow-mindedness; Blames Society for Failing to Educate Teens Who Get in latex Trouble: In a 1995 story in the Chicago Reader , Obama was quoted saying: In America, we have this strong bias toward individual action. You know, we idolize the university sex thesis John Wayne hero who comes in to correct things with both guns blazing. But individual actions, individual dreams, are not sufficient. We must unite in collective action, build collective institutions and organizations. The right wing talks about this but they keep appealing to that old individualistic bootstrap myth: get a job, get rich, and get out. Instead of investing in our neighborhoods, that's what has always happened.
Our goal must be to help people get a sense of building something larger. Latex. People are hungry for community; they miss it. Rex Essays On Pride. They are hungry for change. The Marxist Carl Davidson and Obama's 1996 State Senate Run: Obama’s 1996 senate campaign also secured the endorsement of the Democratic Socialists of America (DSA), the phd thesis front page latex largest socialist organization in the United States and the principal U.S. affiliate of the english essays Socialist International.
Obama’s affiliation with DSA was longstanding, as evidenced by his reference, in Dreams From My Father , to the fact that during his student years at Columbia University he “went to socialist conferences at phd thesis front page, Cooper Union,” a privately funded college for university the advancement of science and art. Latex. From the early 1980s until 2004, Cooper Union had served as the essay on body ritual among usual venue of the annual Socialist Scholars Conference. According to Trevor Loudon, guest speakers at these conferences included “members of the Communist Party USA and its offshoot, the Committees of Correspondence, as well as Maoists, Trotsyists, black radicals, gay activists and phd thesis front latex radical feminists.” London observes that “Obama speaks of ‘ conferences ’ plural, indicating [that] his attendance was not the result of accident or youthful curiosity.” So, what’s in the play? It truly is a love song to psychology term paper, Alinsky. Front. In the educational term paper first few minutes of the play, Alinsky plays Moses yes, the Biblical Moses talking to phd thesis page, God. The play glorifies Alinsky stealing food from restaurants and organizing others to do the university same, explaining, 'I saw it as a practical use of phd thesis page latex social ecology: you had members of the intellectual community, the hope of the future, eating regularly for six months, staying alive till they could make their contributions to avoiding in research, society.' Joining Obama on the discussion panel were the following individuals: Also in 1937, Despres and his wife met with, and delivered a suitcase of “clothing” to, Leon Trotsky, who was then in Mexico City, hiding from Stalin’s assassins.
The Joyce Foundation: I Actually Believe in Redistribution: At an October 19, 1998 conference at front page latex, Loyola University, Barack Obama said: There has been a systematic . propaganda campaign against the possibility of government action and duke its efficacy. And I think some of it has been deserved. Phd Thesis Front. The trick is, how do we structure government systems that pool resources and hence facilitate some redistribution, because I actually believe in redistribution, at least at a certain level, to make sure that everybody's got a shot. “to the on body among the nacirema extent that we are doing research figuring out phd thesis what kinds of government action would successfully make their [the working poor's] lives better, we are then putting together a potential majority coalition to move those agendas forward”; the one good thing that comes out of [the welfare-reform bill of on body among the nacirema 1996] is that it essentially desegregates the welfare population,” merging urban blacks with “the working poor, which are the phd thesis front page other people; and such a coalition becomes one batch of folks . that is increasingly a majority population” whose policy needs would grow to on body, encompass health care, job training, education, and page latex a system where government would “provide effective child care.” The Woods Fund of Chicago and oedipus on pride Bill Ayers: Obama also had been a board member of the Woods Fund of Chicago since 1993. In 1999 he was joined on phd thesis page this board by Bill Ayers, who would serve alongside Obama until the latter left the Fund in December 2002. (In 2002 -- while Obama was still on the board -- the Woods Fund made a grant to oedipus rex essays on pride, Northwestern University Law School's Children and Family Justice Center, where Ayers' wife, Bernardine Dohrn, was employed.) In 2000, Obama ran against former Black Panther and incumbent congressman Bobby Rush in the Democratic Primary for the U.S.
House of phd thesis page Representatives. Rush denounced Obama as an “elitist” who “wasn’t black enough,” and resume writing service victoria bc crushed him by nearly a two-to-one vote margin. Phd Thesis Page Latex. Obama returned to the Illinois state senate for another four-year term. As noted earlier, during his state senate years Obama was a lecturer at on body ritual, the University of Chicago law school, where he became friendly with Rashid Khalidi, a professor in Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations. Phd Thesis Front. Obama and his wife were regular dinner guests at Khalidi’s Hyde Park home. Avoiding. Khalidi and page his wife Mona had founded in 1995 the Arab American Action Network (AAAN), noted for its contention that Arab Americans face widespread discrimination in the United States, and for its view that Israel’s creation in victoria bc 1948 was a catastrophe for Arab people.
In 2001 and again in phd thesis front page latex 2002, the Woods Fund of Chicago, while Obama served on its board, made grants totaling $75,000 to AAAN. Shortly after Obama’s unsuccessful run for Congress in psychology term paper 2000, he was deeply in debt, with little cash at his disposal (his annual part-time salary as a state senator was $58,000) and a stagnant law practice that he had largely neglected during a year of political campaigning. “Even as I hope for some measure of peace and comfort to the bereaved families, I must also hope that we as a nation draw some measure of wisdom from this tragedy. Certain immediate lessons are clear, and we must act upon those lessons decisively. We need to step up security at our airports. We must reexamine the effectiveness of our intelligence networks. And we must be resolute in identifying the perpetrators of these heinous acts and dismantling their organizations of destruction.
Depicting America as a Racially and Economically Unjust Society: Obama was an outspoken opponent of the Iraq War ever since it was first discussed as a possible means of unseating Saddam Hussein from power. On October 2, 2002, Obama gave an antiwar speech alongside Jesse Jackson on the very day that President Bush and Congress agreed on a joint resolution authorizing the use of phd thesis front page latex force against Iraq. It was with this speech that Obama first caught the attention of the American public. Now, let me be clear I suffer no illusions about Saddam Hussein.
He is a brutal man. A ruthless man. A man who butchers his own people to secure his own power. He has repeatedly defied U.N. resolutions, thwarted U.N. inspection teams, developed chemical and biological weapons, and coveted nuclear capacity. He's a bad guy. Essay Ritual Among The Nacirema. The world, and the Iraqi people, would be better off without him.
Also in phd thesis page his 2002 speech, Obama said that instead of resume using force to phd thesis, depose Saddam, America should “fight” for democratic reforms in the Middle East, for stronger international nuclear safeguards, and for energy independence: “Those are the battles that we need to oedipus on pride, fight. Those are the battles that we willingly join the battles against ignorance and intolerance, corruption and greed. Phd Thesis Page. Poverty and despair.” In July 2004, Obama delivered the keynote address at the Democratic National Convention in essays Boston. He used the speech to introduce himself to a national audience while impugning the Bush administration and the War in Iraq. In 2004 Obama ran for one of Illinois’ two seats in phd thesis front page the U.S. Senate. The Chicago Tribune endorsed Obama’s campaign. More importantly, the Tribune persuaded a Democrat-appointed judge in paper California to open the sealed divorce records of Obama’s Republican opponent to the media. The resulting sex scandal, based on allegations in the divorce records by a Hollywood actress eager to prevent her ex-husband from phd thesis front page latex getting custody of plagiarism their children, prompted the Republican to resign from the race.
One month before the 2004 Democratic primary for the U.S. Senate, Obama was down in the polls, about to lose to Blair Hull, a multimillionaire securities trader. But then the Chicago Tribune leaked the claim that Hull’s second ex-wife, Brenda Sexton, had sought an order of protection against him during their 1998 divorce proceedings. Obama then used similar techniques to win the general election, as Human Events again explains: As luck would have it, Obama’s opponent in phd thesis front the general election had also been divorced! Jack Ryan was tall, handsome, Catholic and shared a name with one of Harrison Ford’s most popular onscreen characters! He went to Dartmouth, Harvard Law and Harvard Business School, made hundreds of millions of dollars as a partner at Goldman Sachs, and then, in essays corruption his early 40s, left investment banking to page, teach at ritual among the nacirema, an inner city school on the South Side of Chicago.
With a $10 million campaign war chest from contributors, and with no Republican opponent who could garner much support, Obama had an open road to become the next U.S. Senator from Illinois. His friend and political supporter, the longtime Chicago alderwoman Dorothy Tillman, helped him win the voting in page latex Chicago’s predominantly black wards. He also received valuable backing from the Jesse Jacksons, Junior and Senior, and Rev. Jackson’s Rainbow Coalition.
In March 2005 Obama joined forces with the english essays corruption Web-based, grassroots political network MoveOn -- which seeks to use its fundraising clout to push the Democratic Party ever further to the political left -- in an effort to raise campaign money for West Virginia Senator Robert Byrd’s 2006 reelection bid. In a letter to MoveOn members, Obama wrote: “You and millions of phd thesis front page others, working through MoveOn, have helped change the essay on body ritual way politics works in this country.” In a 2005 commencement address, Obama described the conservative philosophy of government as one that promises “to give everyone one big refund on front page their government, divvy it up by individual portions, in the form of essays tax breaks, hand it out, and encourage everyone to use their share to go buy their own health care, their own retirement plan, their own child care, their own education, and so on.” “In Washington,” said Obama, “they call this the Ownership Society. But in our past there has been another term for it, Social Darwinism, every man or woman for him or herself. It's a tempting idea, because it doesn't require much thought or ingenuity.” The fact that Obama socialized with Ayers and Dohrn contradicts the statement that Obama campaign spokesman Ben LaBolt gave the New York Times in 2008: 'Mr.
LaBolt said the men . have not spoken by phone or exchanged e-mail messages since Mr. Obama began serving in the United States Senate in January 2005 and last met more than a year ago when they bumped into each other on phd thesis the street in Hyde Park.' Obama Accuses the oedipus rex essays Bush Administration of Racism: In September 2005, Obama spoke at phd thesis front page latex, a town hall meeting of the Congressional Black Caucus. Nominally devoted to educational psychology term, the subject of “eradicating poverty,” the front latex meeting was replete with condemnations of President George W. Rex Essays On Pride. Bush, the Republican Party, and America’s purportedly intractable racial inequities. Obama stopped short of suggesting that the allegedly slow federal response to the victims of Hurricane Katrina (which had devastated New Orleans and the Gulf Coast earlier that month) -- especially black victims -- was motivated by racism. But he nonetheless claimed that racism was the cause of what he perceived to front, be the Bush administration’s lack of sensitivity to the struggles of African Americans generally: “The incompetence was colorblind. What wasn’t colorblind was the rex essays on pride indifference. Human efforts will always pale in comparison to nature’s forces.
But [the Bush administration] is a set of folks who simply don’t recognize what’s happening in large parts of the country.” Blacks in hurricane-hit areas were poor, Obama further charged, because of the Bush administration’s “decision to give tax breaks to phd thesis page latex, Paris Hilton instead of providing child care and education ” Obama Advocates Welfare State; Says Much Success Is Due to “Blind Luck”: Obama Endorses Dorothy Tillman, Proponent of corruption Reparations and Admirer of front page Louis Farrakhan: In 2006 Obama endorsed the aforementioned Dorothy Tillman in the Third Ward race for the Chicago City Council. A passionate admirer of Louis Farrakhan, Tillman was a leading proponent of reparations for slavery. Claiming that America remains “one of the cruelest nations in the world when it comes to black folks,” Tillman continues to declare that the U.S. “owes blacks a debt.” In December of 2006, Obama, who by then was contemplating a run for oedipus rex essays the presidency, met in New York with billionaire financier George Soros, who previously had hosted a fundraiser for Obama during the latter’s 2004 campaign for the U.S. Senate. promoting the phd thesis latex view that America is institutionally an writing service bc, oppressive nation promoting the election of front page latex leftist political candidates throughout the United States opposing virtually all post-9/11 national security measures enacted by U.S. government, particularly the Patriot Act depicting American military actions as unjust, unwarranted, and on pride immoral promoting open borders, mass immigration, and phd thesis page latex a watering down of current immigration laws promoting a dramatic expansion of among social welfare programs funded by ever-escalating taxes promoting social welfare benefits and front latex amnesty for illegal aliens defending suspected anti-American terrorists and their abetters financing the recruitment and plagiarism training of future activist leaders of the political Left advocating America’s unilateral disarmament and/or a steep reduction in its military spending opposing the death penalty in all circumstances promoting socialized medicine in the United States promoting the tenets of radical environmentalism, whose ultimate goal, as writer Michael Berliner has explained, is “not clean air and clean water, [but] rather . the demolition of technological/industrial civilization” bringing American foreign policy under the control of the United Nations promoting racial and front page latex ethnic preferences in academia and the business world alike promoting taxpayer-funded abortion-on-demand advocating stricter gun-control measures advocating the legalization of marijuana.
Obama's Activities in avoiding plagiarism Support of a Socialist Bidding to Be Elected President of Kenya: McCarthy says Obama undermined U.S. Front Latex. relations with a strong antiterrorism ally in an African region where al-Qaida operates. In 2006 . Obama campaigned for duke sex thesis a pro-communist candidate running against Nairobi's pro-American government 'in outrageous contravention of U.S. policy and, probably, federal law.' Running for President: On January 16, 2007, Obama announced the creation of a presidential exploratory committee. Within hours after the announcement, Soros sent the senator a contribution of $2,100, the maximum amount allowable under campaign finance laws.
Later that week, the New York Daily News reported that Soros would back Obama over Senator Hillary Clinton, whom he had supported in the past. Obama’s wife Michelle quickly emerged as one of the new candidate’s most vocal campaigners. In a February 2007 appearance with her husband on the television program 60 Minutes , Mrs. Obama implied that America’s allegedly rampant white racism posed a great physical threat to her husband. Said Mrs. Obama: “As a black man, you know, Barack can get shot going to the gas station.” In April 2007, Obama addressed the front page activist Al Sharpton’s National Action Network, telling an writing bc, overflow crowd of listeners about his success as an Illinois lawmaker in making health insurance available to children and reducing the cost of prescription drugs for senior citizens. He also expressed his opposition to racial profiling in law enforcement, detailing how he had helped pass legislation against the practice. Phd Thesis. In addition, he asserted that society must help ex-convicts escape an “economic death sentence” by securing jobs for them when they leave prison. “Jackie Kendall, executive director of the educational psychology Midwest Academy, was on page the team that developed and delivered the first Camp Obama training for volunteers aiding Obama’s campaign through the 2008 Iowa Caucuses. English. Hans Riemer, who served as national youth vote director for the Obama campaign, said of the phd thesis front page latex camp: 'We are training them, teaching them how to be effective, showing them what their role is in our strategy to oedipus on pride, win the phd thesis front latex election We’re taking people from raw enthusiasm to capable organizers.'
Support from Jodie Evans of Code Pink: In February 2007, Evans co-hosted (along with her now-deceased husband Max Palevsky and rex essays the Dreamworks team of Steven Spielberg, David Geffen and Jeffrey Katzenberg) a key Obama fundraiser just weeks after he announced his presidential candidacy. Evans donated the phd thesis front maximum $2,300 to Obama’s campaign. In April 2007, the Obama campaign announced that Evans was one of duke university sex thesis its early fundraising bundlers. In June 2008, Evans met with Obama at a high-priced fundraiser. In late August 2008, Evans attended the Democratic National Convention and, because of her status as a bundler, was invited to two private receptions with Obama and his running mate, Joe Biden. In September 2008, Evans attended two exclusive Hollywood fundraisers with Obama. Two weeks later, she met with Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad in New York City. In October 2008, Evans worked with Code Pink’s Los Angeles chapter on a get-out-the-vote campaign in phd thesis latex Obama's behalf. Robert Malley and the Hamas Incident:
In 2007 Obama appointed Robert Malley, the Middle East and North Africa Program Director for the International Crisis Group, as a foreign policy advisor to his campaign. ICG receives funding from the Open Society Institute (whose founder, George Soros, serves on the ICG Board and Executive Committee). Prior to joining ICG, Malley had served as President Bill Clinton’s Special Assistant for university Arab-Israeli Affairs (1998-2001); National Security Advisor Sandy Berger’s Executive Assistant (1996-1998); and the National Security Council’s Director for Democracy, Human Rights, and Humanitarian Affairs (1994-1996). Malley’s father, Simon Malley, had been a key figure in the Egyptian Communist Party. Rabidly anti-Israel, Simon Malley was a confidante of the late PLO leader Yasser Arafat; an inveterate critic of “Western imperialism”; a supporter of various leftist revolutionary “liberation movements,” particularly the Palestinian cause; a beneficiary of Soviet funding; and a supporter of the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.
“Thanks to all of you at Planned Parenthood for front latex all the oedipus work that you are doing for women all across the country and for families all across the countryand for men, who have enough sense to realize you are helping them, all across the front latex country. Planned Parenthood is the largest abortion provider in the United States, with some 850 clinics across the country. It purports to offer “a wide range of medical and avoiding plagiarism counseling services and health care education,” but its primary business is providing abortion services. In 2004 Planned Parenthood completed 138 abortions for front latex every adoption referral it made to resume service, an outside agency. During the 2004-2005 fiscal year, the organization reported 1,414 adoption referrals (one adoption for front page every 180 abortions). During its 2005-2006 fiscal year, Planned Parenthood performed a record 264,943 abortions; garnered $345.1 million in clinic income; took in duke $212.2 million in page donations; and received record taxpayer funding of $305.3 million. Total income reached a record $902.8 million. In August 2007, Obama appeared at avoiding plagiarism in research papers, the national convention of the leftist political weblog Daily Kos.
According to a New York Times report: Mr. Obama, who has built his candidacy upon the mantra of change, received booming applause when he was introduced to the audience of more than 1,500. When the moderator mentioned that the senator turned 46 years old on Saturday, several of those gathered in the ballroom began to serenade him with 'Happy Birthday.' In October 2007 Obama stated that, if elected, he would offer a high-level position in front page latex his administration to rex essays on pride, former Vice President Al Gore. On December 4, 2007, Obama’s campaign announced the creation of its African American Religious Leadership Committee. Among the page latex committee's more notable members were Rev.
Jeremiah Wright, Rev. Psychology Paper. Otis Moss III, and Rev. Joseph E. Lowery. From March 1972 until February 2008, Jeremiah Wright -- whom Barack Obama described as his “spiritual advisor,” his “mentor,” and phd thesis page “one of the greatest preachers in America” -- was the educational psychology term pastor of Chicago's Trinity United Church of Christ (TUCC), where Obama had attended services since 1988, and where he (Obama) had been a member since 1992. Said Obama of Wright: “What I value most about Pastor Wright is not his day-to-day political advice. He’s much more of a sounding board for me to make sure that I am speaking as truthfully about what I believe as possible and that I’m not losing myself in some of the hype and front page latex hoopla and stress that’s involved in oedipus rex essays national politics.”
Rev. Phd Thesis Front Page. Otis Moss III -- whom Obama has extolled as a “wonderful young pastor” -- served as assistant pastor of TUCC from 2006-2008 and then succeeded Jeremiah Wright as pastor when the latter retired. Duke. In one notable sermon, Moss likened the condition of contemporary black Americans to that of the hapless lepers referenced in biblical stories. He further implied that whites -- who, in his estimation, continue to subjugate blacks both socially and economically -- are the “enemy” of African Americans. “Our society creates thugs,” Moss added. Phd Thesis Front Page. “Children are not born thugs. Thugs are made and not born.” Rev. Joseph Lowery is a prominent figure in the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Viewing the United States as a nation that is “not committed to serious efforts to address the issue of on body ritual racism,” he has warned that “white racism is gaining respectability again,” and that “there’s a resurgence of racism at almost every level of phd thesis latex life.” Lowery has expressed contempt for Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas, specifically because the black conservative Thomas opposes the use of affirmative action (i.e., race preferences) in business and academia. Says Lowery: “I have told [Thomas] I am ashamed of duke university sex thesis him, because he is phd thesis page latex becoming to oedipus on pride, the black community what Benedict Arnold was to front, the nation he deserted; and what Judas Iscariot was to Jesus: a traitor ; and what Brutus was to Caesar: an assassin .” Another notable religious supporter of psychology term Barack Obama is Rev.
Michael Pfleger, a white Roman Catholic priest who has been the pastor of Saint Sabina Catholic Church in Chicago since 1981. A great admirer of Louis Farrakhan and Jeremiah Wright, Pfleger views America as a nation plagued by “classism and page latex racism,” and he identifies white racism as “the number one sin in this country.” Pfleger has had a longstanding friendly relationship (since the late 1980s) with Obama and has played a significant role as a spiritual advisor who, Obama once said, had helped him maintain his moral compass. Yet another religious figure affiliated with Obama is Rev. James Meeks, a Democratic member of the Illinois state senate, where he served alongside Obama from 2002-2004 (prior to writing service victoria bc, Obama’s election to the U.S. Senate). Meeks also has been the pastor of Chicago’s 22,000-member Salem Baptist Church since 1985, and he was once the executive vice president of Jesse Jackson’s Rainbow/PUSH coalition.
For his 2008 presidential run, Obama formed a Black Advisory Council whose members included, most notably: (a) Marxist professor Cornel West, a longtime member of the Democratic Socialists of latex America and a great admirer of Obama’s former pastor, Rev. Jeremiah Wright; and (b) Harvard law professor Charles Ogletree, a reparations-for-slavery proponent who has advised Obama on such matters as criminal-justice reform. Obama Clearly Articulates His Desire to Remake the World and writing service Change This Country: After Obama's victory in the Iowa Caucus, longtime Communist Party USA supporter Frank Chapman -- who had previously chaired the National Alliance Against Racist Political Oppression and served as a board member of the U.S. Peace Council, both Communist Party fronts -- wrote a letter that was published in the January 12, 2008 edition of the CPUSA publication, Peoples Weekly World : Now, beyond all the latex optimism I was capable of mustering, Mr. Obama won Iowa!
He won in plagiarism a political arena 95 percent white. It was a resounding defeat for the manipulations of the ultra-right and their right-liberal fellow travelers. Also it was a hard lesson for liberals who underestimated the political fury of the masses in these troubled times. Accusing Republicans of Having Failed Minorities: During a Democratic presidential debate on January 21, 2008, Obama expressed his belief that Republican politicians had failed to provide adequate opportunities for the social and economic advancement of minorities: “I am absolutely convinced that white, black, Latino, Asian, people want to move beyond our divisions, and front latex they want to join together in order to create a movement for change in this country. The Republicans may have a different attitude. The policies that they have promoted have not been good at providing ladders for upward mobility and plagiarism in research opportunity for all people.” Tony Rezko, the Federally Indicted Real-Estate Developer: Also in January 2008, Obama’s relationship with a federally indicted real estate developer came to light when rival candidate Hillary Clinton said, during a South Carolina Democratic Party presidential debate: “I was fighting against [Republican] ideas when you were practicing law and representing your contributor, Rezko, in his slum landlord business in inner city Chicago.” Clinton’s reference was to Tony Rezko, a Syrian-born, Chicago-based restaurateur and real estate developer who had been one of the front page latex first major financial contributors to rex essays, Barack Obama’s political campaigns in the 1990s. For a full explanation of Rezko’s relationship with Obama, see footnote number  . At a February 12, 2008 campaign stop in Wisconsin, Obama said:
The politics of hope does not mean hoping things come easy. Front Page Latex. Because nothing worthwhile in this country has ever happened unless somebody somewhere stood up when it was hard, stood up when they were told, no you can't, and said, yes we can. And where better to affirm our ideals than here in resume victoria bc Wisconsin, where a century ago the progressive movement was born. It was rooted in page the principle that the voices of the people can speak louder than special interests, that citizens can be connected to their government and to writing service bc, one another, and that all of us share a common destiny, an phd thesis page, American Dream. On other occasions, Obama described himself as a pragmatic progressive who tries to make decisions based on what works. Praise from Louis Farrakhan: In February 2008 Louis Farrakhan called Obama “a herald of the university sex thesis Messiah.” “Barack has captured the youth,” said the phd thesis page latex Nation Of Islam leader, referring to the passionate support Obama had drawn from young people in America. “And he has involved young people in oedipus rex essays a political process that they didn’t care anything about. That’s a sign. When the messiah speaks, the youth will hear.
And the messiah is absolutely speaking.” In March 2008 the controversial Al Sharpton, a strong supporter of Obama’s presidential candidacy, revealed publicly that he was in the habit of speaking to Obama on a regular basis -- “two or three times a week.” Sharpton also said that he had told Obama four months earlier, “I won’t either endorse you or not endorse you. But I will tell you I can be freer not endorsing you to help you and everybody else.” According to Sharpton, Obama then protested and asked for his public support: “No, no, no. I want you to phd thesis front, endorse.” In early 2008, MoveOn executive director Eli Pariser announced that he and his organization were endorsing Obama for U.S. President. “We’ve learned that the writing service victoria key to achieving change in Washington without compromising core values is having a galvanized electorate to back you up,” said Pariser, “and Barack Obama has our members ‘fired up and ready to go’ on that front.” In April 2008 Ahmed Yousef, a political advisor for the terrorist group Hamas, told interviewer Aaron Klein that his (Yousef’s) organization was hopeful that Obama would win the front latex presidential election and change America’s foreign policy vis a vis the Arab-Israeli conflict. When reporters subsequently asked Obama what he thought of the Hamas leader’s endorsement, Obama said: “My position on sex thesis Hamas is indistinguishable from the position of Hillary Clinton or [Republican presidential candidate] John McCain. I said they are a terrorist organization, and I've repeatedly condemned them.
I’ve repeatedly said, and I mean what I say: Since they are a terrorist organization, we should not be dealing with them until they recognize Israel, renounce terrorism, and abide by previous agreements.” During an April 2008 campaign stop in San Francisco, Obama said: “You go into phd thesis front latex some of these small towns in Pennsylvania, and like a lot of small towns in the Midwest, the jobs have been gone now for 25 years, and university nothing’s replaced them. And they fell through the Clinton administration and the Bush administration, and each successive administration has said that somehow these communities are gonna regenerate, and page they have not. And it’s not surprising then they get bitter, they cling to on body, guns or religion or antipathy to people who aren't like them or anti-immigrant sentiment or anti-trade sentiment as a way to explain their frustrations.” Anthony Lake, Foreign Policy Advisor: In June 2008, Obama named former New Leftist Anthony Lake as one of his leading foreign policy advisors. Lake served as a special assistant for national security affairs under President Nixon in 1969-70, but soon thereafter he stepped down from that post to protest the Nixon administration’s bombing raids in Cambodia -- raids that were designed to support the existing government against the power-grabbing efforts of front page Pol Pot and his bloodthirsty Khmer Rouge. At a June 2008 campaign stop in Jacksonville, Florida, Obama suggested that his political opponents were trying to exploit the oedipus on pride issue of race to undermine his candidacy. “It is going to phd thesis front, be very difficult for Republicans to educational term paper, run on their stewardship of the economy or their outstanding foreign policy,” he said. “We know what kind of campaign they’re going to run. They’re going to try to make you afraid.
They’re going to try to make you afraid of me. He’s young and inexperienced and phd thesis he’s got a funny name. And did I mention he’s black?” Speaking at a July 2008 gathering of hundreds of minority journalists in Chicago, Obama said the United States should acknowledge its history of corruption poor treatment of certain ethnic groups: “There's no doubt that when it comes to our treatment of Native Americans as well as other persons of color in this country, we've got some very sad and difficult things to account for. I personally would want to phd thesis front page, see our tragic history, or the essay on body the nacirema tragic elements of our history, acknowledged.
I consistently believe that when it comes to whether it's Native Americans or African-American issues or reparations, the phd thesis front page latex most important thing for the U.S. government to educational paper, do is not just offer words, but offer deeds.” Joe Biden, Running Mate: In August 2008, Obama named Senator Joe Biden to page latex, be his vice presidential running mate. Fannie Mae . has been under increasing pressure from the Clinton Administration to expand mortgage loans among low and moderate income people and felt pressure from stock holders to maintain its phenomenal growth in profits. In addition, banks, thrift institutions and mortgage companies have been pressing Fannie Mae to help them make more loans to so-called subprime borrowers.
These borrowers whose incomes, credit ratings and ritual among savings are not good enough to qualify for conventional loans, can only get [so-called 'subprime'] loans from finance companies that charge much higher interest rates -- anywhere from front page latex three to four percentage points higher than conventional loans. Demographic information on these borrowers is sketchy. But at in research, least one study indicates that 18 percent of the loans in the subprime market went to black borrowers, compared to 5 per cent of loans in phd thesis page the conventional loan market. In moving, even tentatively, into this new area of lending, Fannie Mae is taking on oedipus rex essays significantly more risk, which may not pose any difficulties during flush economic times. But the government-subsidized corporation may run into trouble in an economic downturn, prompting a government rescue similar to that of the savings and loan industry in the 1980's. The Editors of phd thesis front page National Review Online explain the connection between the foregoing policies and Barack Obama: One of the duke reasons so many bad mortgage loans were made in the first place is that Barack Obama’s celebrated community organizers make their careers out of phd thesis page forcing banks to paper, do so.
ACORN, for which Obama worked, is one of many left-wing organizations that spent decades pressuring banks and bank regulators to do more to make mortgages available to people without much in the way of front page latex income, assets, or credit. These campaigns often were couched in racially inflammatory terms. The result was the Community Reinvestment Act. The CRA empowers the FDIC and other banking regulators to duke, punish those banks which do not lend to the poor and minorities at the level that Obama’s fellow community organizers would like. Among other things, mergers and acquisitions can be blocked if CRA inquisitors are not satisfied that their demands which are political demands have been met. There is page a name for loans made to people who do not have the credit, assets, income, or down payment to qualify for a normal mortgage: subprime. As Forbes magazine points out, Obama has been a staunch supporter of the CRA throughout his public life. In an October 15, 2008 presidential debate, Republican John McCain raised the issue of Obama’s ties to among, ACORN. Latex. At the time, ACORN was in the news for two major reasons. First, the organization was under investigation in 14 separate states for massive voter fraud.
Strongly pro-Democrat, ACORN claimed to on pride, have registered 4 million new voters (most of whom were Democrats) during the phd thesis front latex preceding four years. Many tens of thousands of these registrations already had been found to be fraudulent -- they bore phony names, fake or nonexistent addresses, inaccurate personal information, duplicate signatures, etc. The full extent of the on pride fraud, however, was impossible to determine. “The only involvement I’ve had with ACORN was I represented them alongside the U.S. Justice Department in making Illinois implement a motor voter law that helped people get registered at DMVs. ACORN is a community organization.
Apparently what they’ve done is they were paying people to go out and front register folks, and apparently some of the people who were out there didn’t really register people, they just filled out plagiarism in research a bunch of names. Latex. It had nothing to do with us. We were not involved.” He said nothing about the years he had spent training ACORN activists; nothing about the avoiding plagiarism papers laudatory statements he had made about ACORN in front page latex the recent past; and nothing about the $800,000+ his campaign had given to the ACORN front group Citizens' Services Inc. (an ACORN-dominated subsidiary whose headquarters were located at precisely the university same address as ACORN's national headquarters in phd thesis page latex New Orleans, Louisiana) to fund his campaign's 2008 voter-registration efforts. To conceal the purpose of these payments to ACORN and Citizens' Services Inc., the Obama campaign misidentified the $800,000+ payment as money that had been spent for election services. Well, first of all my relationship with ACORN is pretty straightforward.
It’s probably 13 years ago when I was still practicing law, I represented ACORN and my partner in that investigation was the US Justice department in having Illinois implement what was called the motor voter law, to make sure people could go to DMV’s and driver license facilities to get registered. It wasn’t being implemented. That was my relationship and is my relationship to ACORN. Essays. There is an ACORN organization in Chicago. They’ve been active. As an phd thesis front latex, elected offiical, I’ve had interactions with them. But, they’re not advising my campaign. We’ve got the best voter registration in politics right now and we don’t need ACORN’s help. Obama's statements from the aforementioned debate and interview are contradicted, however, but the words he himself had spoken in other venues.
For example, during his presidential campaign, Obama was a featured speaker at one particularly notable political event in which ACORN played a prominent role -- a December 1, 2007 forum exclusively for thousands of duke sex thesis community organizers from across the United States. He was inroduced to the crowd by page, Deepak Bhargava, ACORN's leader of community reinvestment and fair housing (and Executive Director of the resume Center for page Community Change). In his introductory remarks, Bhargava characterized America as a society that is still deeply structured by racism and sexism. When Obama took the microphone (to thunderous applause), he did not refute Bhargava's comments in corruption any way. He was then asked, If elected President of the phd thesis front page United States, would you agree, in your first one-hundred days, to meet with a delegation of representatives from essay ritual among the nacirema these various community organizations . Obama replied: Yes, but let me even say, before I even get inaugurated, during the transition we're gonna be calling all of you in to help us shape the front latex agenda. We're gonna be having meetings all across the country with community organizations so that you have input into plagiarism papers the agenda for the next presidency of the United States of front page America. Similarly, in an interview with ACORN representatives in service 2007, candidate Obama said the following: You know you've got a friend in front page me. English Essays Corruption. And I definitely welcome ACORN's input.
You don't have to ask me about that. I'm going to call you even if you didn't ask me. Front. When I ran Project Vote, the voter registration drive in Illinois, ACORN was smack dab in the middle of it. Once I was elected, there wasn't a campaign that ACORN worked on down in Springfield that I wasn't right there with you. Since I have been in the United States Senate I've been always a partner with ACORN as well. Duke University Sex Thesis. I've been fighting with ACORN, along side ACORN, on issues you care about my entire career. In 2008, Obama's presidential campaign furnished the ACORN affiliate Project Vote with a list of donors who had already contributed (to the front campaign) the writing bc maximum amount of phd thesis page latex money permitted by law.
Anita Moncrief, a former Washington, DC staffer for resume writing service Project Vote, later revealed that her organization had contacted these big donors and phd thesis urged them to give money to essay among the nacirema, Project Vote -- money which could then be funneled directly into the Obama campaign coffers, thereby evading election-law limits on campaign contributions. F oreign Contributions to Presidential Campaign: A Federal Election Commission (FEC) employee has reportedly been warning for front page latex months about evidence that the Obama campaign has received as much as $200 million, almost half of his total donations, in amounts less than $200. That is below the threshold for donor information [which] Mr. Sex Thesis. Obama has chose[n] to report to phd thesis page latex, the FEC -- unlike the Clinton and educational McCain campaigns, which have reported all donor information.
In August 2008, Pamela Geller wrote, in the American Thinker , that among the myriad foreign donations Obama had received was a $33,000 contribution from Palestinian brothers based in the Hamas-controlled Rafah refugee camp in Gaza, who had proudly declared their love for Obama. The Obama campaign claimed that it had returned that money to the brother donors, but the latter said they had never received such a return. Moreover, Geller catalogued several dozen of the foreign cities and nations from which illegal contributions to phd thesis page latex, the Obama campaign had originated. In many cases, the avoiding in research donors' names and contact information were fraudulent -- sometimes consisting of front page latex nothing more than letters arranged in random, nonsensical sequence. On October 30, 2008, Obama told a large crowd of cheering supporters: We are five days away from fundamentally transforming the United States of America. What makes Obama different is that he has also been a community organiser. He has read left literature, including my works, and he understands what socialism is. English Corruption. A lot of the people working with him are, indeed, socialists with backgrounds in the Communist Party or as independent Marxists. Front Page. There are a lot of duke sex thesis people like that in Chicago who have worked with him for years.
Obama’s Policy Positions and Voting Record as State Senator, U.S. Senator, and Presidential Candidate: During his eight-year career in the Illinois state senate, Barack Obama avoided making controversial votes approximately 130 times -- which, according to page latex, other Illinois state senators, is much higher than average. Rather than vote yea or nay on essay on body ritual among the legislation in phd thesis page question, Obama on those occasions simply voted present. In the Illinois state senate, this was the equivalent of rex essays a nay vote when tallying up support or opposition to a given bill. But, as David Freddoso points out: [F]or rhetorical purposes, a 'present' vote is phd thesis page latex different in that critics and journalists must discuss it differently. For example, Barack Obama did not vote against oedipus, a bill to prevent pornographic book and video stores and strip clubs from setting up within 1,000 feet of schools and phd thesis latex churches -- he just voted 'present.' Obama voted 'present' on an almost unanimously passed bill to prosecute students as adults if they fire guns on schol grounds. He voted 'present' on the partial-birth abortion ban and psychology paper other contentious issues . 
Obama favors racial preferences for minorities in university admissions, public employment, and state contracting. “I still believe in affirmative action as a means of overcoming both historic and phd thesis front potentially current discrimination,” said Obama in April 2008. [W]henever we define a pre-viable fetus as a person that is protected by the equal protection clause or other elements in the Constitution, what we're really saying is, in fact, that they are persons that are entitled to university, the kinds of protections that would be provided to a -- a child, a nine-month-old -- child that was delivered to term. Front Page. That determination, then, essentially, if it was accepted by a court, would forbid abortions to take place. For that reason, I think it would probably be found unconstitutional. As David Freddoso observes, Obama's argument: implies that babies born prematurely without abortions might not be 'persons.' They might have to english, be 'nine months old' before they count. [O]ne might even conclude from [his words] that he actually does think they are persons. Phd Thesis Page Latex. But, he argues, we cannot legally recognize them as 'persons.' Because if we do, then somewhere down the road it might threaten someone's right to an abortion.
Barack Obama's actions indicate he thinks that before any other rights are granted to 'persons,' the Constitution exists to guarantee abortion rights.  Though it did not in rex essays on pride any way conflict with, or compromise, Roe v. Wade , Obama voted against this same legislation in 2003. Front Latex. As chair of the term paper Health and Human Services Committee, he blocked another attempt to bring the bill to the floor of the page latex Illinois Senate. As I understand it, this [bill] puts the resume burden on the attending physician who has determined, since they were performing this procedure, that, in fact, this is a nonviable fetus; that if that fetus, or child however way you want to phd thesis front, describe it is now outside the duke university mother’s womb and the doctor continues to think that it’s nonviable but there’s, let’s say, movement or some indication that, in fact, they’re not just coming out limp and dead, that, in fact, they would then have to call a second physician to phd thesis, monitor and check off and make sure that this is not a live child that could be saved. But Obama knew quite well that children were being born alive and were not looked after by the abortion doctors; that in 10 to 20 percent of the papers cases where induced labor abortion was practiced, the infants survived and front page latex were then being left, uncared for, to die; and that these facts were precisely what had prompted the legislation in educational term the first place. In committee he took the opinion of the phd thesis latex ACLU attorney and said that he thought that this would be something that would overturn Roe v. Wade , and he opposed it in committee, and then he took a leadership role opposing this to go on and be the sole senator to sex thesis, speak against this bill on the Senate floor, not once, but two years in a row. And he brags on his Web site now that he strategized with Planned Parenthood to defeat this bill. Phd Thesis Page Latex. He said on the Senate floor as a matter of fact that he thought that this would ultimately be considered unconstitutional, and he said that he strategized with Planned Parenthood to vote present because in Illinois a present vote is the same as a no vote. And he thought by doing this that he would lure some squeamish senators who didn't really want to vote to endorse infanticide. In 2006 Obama voted “Yes” on a Senate Budget amendment allocating $100 million to: “increas[e] funding and access to family planning services”; “fun[d] legislation that requires equitable prescription coverage for contraceptives under health plans”; and on pride “fun[d] legislation that would create and expand teen pregnancy prevention programs and education programs concerning emergency contraceptives.”  Well, you know, I think that whether you're looking at it from a theological perspective or a scientific perspective, answering that question with specificity, you know, is above my pay grade.
“Latinos have such a high dropout rate. What you see consistently are children at a very early age are starting school already behind. That’s why I’ve said that I’m going to front page, put billions of dollars into early childhood education that makes sure that our African-American youth, Latino youth, poor youth of educational psychology term every race, are getting the kind of help that they need so that they know their numbers, their colors, their letters.”  Obama opposed the phd thesis front page latex Supreme Court’s 2007 split decision that invalidated programs in Seattle and papers Louisville (Kentucky) which sought to maintain “diversity” in local schools by factoring race into decisions about phd thesis front page, which students could be admitted to any particular school, or which students could be allowed to transfer from one school to another. Under these programs, parents were not free to send their children to the schools of their choice. Writing Victoria. Instead they were obliged to abide by the quotas preordained by page, bureaucrats who had never met any of the children whose educational lives they sought to micromanage. Among. Both the phd thesis front latex Seattle and writing service victoria Louisville programs were representative of similar plans in hundreds of other school districts nationwide. In 1997 Obama opposed an phd thesis latex, Illinois welfare-reform bill, proposed by term, Republican senator Dave Syverson, which sought to move as many people as possible off the front state welfare rolls and into paying jobs. He tried to weaken the essay among the nacirema legislation by calling for exceptions not only to the requirement that welfare recipients make an effort to phd thesis page latex, find employment, but also to the bill's proposed five-year limit on benefits. My commitment is to avoiding in research, make sure that we've got universal healthcare for all Americans by the end of my first term as President.
I would hope that we can set up a system that allows those who can go through their employer to access a federal system or a state pool of phd thesis front page some sort. But I don't think we're going to be able to eliminate employer coverage immediately. Resume Service Victoria. There's going to be, potentially, some transition process. I can envision a decade out, or 15 years out, or 20 years out. On April 3, 2007, Obama said:
Let's say that I proposed a plan that moved to a single payer system. Let's say Medicare Plus. It'd be essentially everybody can buy into Medicare for example. Transitioning a system is a very difficult and costly and lengthy enterprise. Front Latex. It's not like you can turn on a switch and you go from one system to another. So it's possible that upfront you would need not just, I mean, you might need an corruption, additional $90 or $100 billion a year. On August 4, 2007, Obama said: This [health care] is front latex a two-trillion dollar part of our economy.
And it is my belief that, not just politically but also economically, it's better for us to university, start getting a system in front page place, a universal health care system signed into resume writing service victoria bc law by the end of my first term as president, and build off that system to further, to make it more rational. By the way, Canada did not start off immediately with a single payer system. They had a similar transition step. On November 21, 2007, Obama said he favored the implementation of a transitional system building on the existing systems that we have. He elaborated: [T]ransitional hopefully because the system currently is so, such a patchwork of inefficiency that over time I would want to see Medicaid, Medicare, the children's health insurance program, SCHIP -- all those integrated more effectively. In the summer of page 2008, when asked by a campaign audience about single-payer healthcare, Obama said, If I were designing a system from scratch, I would probably go ahead with a single-payer [government-run] system . my attitude is let’s build up the system we got, let’s make it more efficient, we maybe over time . decide that there are other ways for writing service us to latex, provide care more effectively. (Obama would sound this theme again in June 2009, when he told an unreceptive American Medical Association: I'll be honest, there are countries where a single-payer system works pretty well.) “It is hard to overstate the degree to which our addiction to oil undermines our future. A large portion of the $800 million we spend on foreign oil every day goes to some of the world's most volatile regimes. And there are the environmental consequences. Just about every scientist outside the White House believes climate change is real.
We cannot drill our way out essays of the problem. Instead of subsidizing the oil industry, we should end every single tax break the phd thesis front page latex industry currently receives and demand that 1% of the revenues from oil companies with over $1 billion in quarterly profits go toward financing alternative energy research and educational psychology paper infrastructure.” At a July 30, 2008 campaign stop in Missouri, Obama said: “There are things that you can do individually . to save energy; making sure your tires are properly inflated, simple thing, but we could save all the oil that they’re talking about getting off [from] drilling, if everybody was just inflating their tires and getting regular tune-ups. You could actually save just as much.” To produce five gallons of ethanol from corn, one must spend the energy equivalent of roughly four galons of ethanol for farming, shipping, and processing. (In other words, ethanol has a 25 percent net energy yield.) . America's entire 6.5 billion gallon ethanol production created the net energy equivalent of 2.2 days' worth of American gasoline consumption.  (Emphasis in latex original) In exchange for that miniscule output, adds Freddoso, federal and state governments provide between $6.3 billion and $8.7 billion in annual direct and indirect subsidies. When government subsidized corn ethanol production in 2007, it was like spending $9.00 to create a gallon of oedipus on pride gasoline, and doing it 853 million times.  “When I was asked earlier about the issue of coal, you know, under my plan of a cap and trade system, electricity rates would necessarily skyrocket. Even regardless of what I say about whether coal is front latex good or bad. Because I’m capping greenhouse gases, coal power plants, you know, natural gas, you name it, whatever the oedipus rex essays plants were, whatever the industry was, uh, they would have to retrofit their operations. That will cost money. Front Latex. They will pass that money on to consumers.” “Global warming is real, is happening now and is the educational psychology result of human activities.
The number of Category 4 and phd thesis page 5 hurricanes has almost doubled in the last 30 years. Glaciers are melting faster; the polar ice caps are shrinking; trees are blooming earlier; oceans are becoming more acidic, threatening marine life; people are dying in heat waves; species are migrating, and eventually many will become extinct. Scientists predict that absent major emission reductions, climate change will worsen famine and drought in some of the poorest places in rex essays on pride the world and wreak havoc across the globe. In the front page U.S., sea-level rise threatens to cause massive economic and ecological damage to our populated coastal areas.”  During a 2008 campaign stop in Oregon, Obama called on resume writing service the United States to “lead by phd thesis page, example” on global warming. “We can’t drive our SUVs and eat as much as we want and resume keep our homes on 72 degrees at all times . and phd thesis page then just expect that other countries are going to say OK,” he said. “That’s not leadership. That’s not going to english, happen.” In 2004 Obama spoke out against the Republican-led Congress' budgets generally, and against phd thesis page latex, the 2001 anti-terrorism bill known as the Patriot Act specifically, suggesting that the Act infringed upon Americans' civil liberties. Said Obama: When you rush these budgets that are a foot high, and nobody has any idea what's in them and nobody has read them . Essay On Body Among. It gets rushed through without any clear deliberation or debate, then these kind of front page latex things happen, and I think this is in resume some ways what happened to the Patriot Act. I mean, you remember, there was no real debate about that. It was so quick after 9/11 that it was introduced, that people felt very intimidated by the [Bush] administration.
Obama voted “No” on a bill to front latex, remove the oedipus rex essays need for a FISA [Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act] warrant before the government may proceed with wiretapping in page latex terrorism-related investigations of suspects in avoiding plagiarism in research papers other countries. “Warrantless surveillance of American citizens, in defiance of FISA, is front unlawful and unconstitutional,” said Obama.  “Why don’t we close Guantanamo and restore the right of habeas corpus, because that’s how we lead, not with the might of our military, but the power of our ideals and the power of our values. It’s time to show the world we’re not a country that ships prisoners in the dead of night to be tortured in far off countries.” On June 19, 2008, political analyst Dick Morris described Obama's prescription for dealing with terrorism as follows: [Obama has] urged us to resume writing service, go back to the era of front latex criminal-justice prosecution of terror suspects, citing the successful efforts to imprison those who bombed the World Trade Center in 1993. [He said] 'It is my firm belief that we can crack down on threats against corruption, the United States, but we can do so within the constraints of our Constitution. In previous terrorist attacks -- for page example, the first attack against the World Trade Center, we were able to arrest those responsible, put them on trial. They are currently in essays corruption U.S. prisons, incapacitated.' The War in Afghanistan and the Iraq War:
In July of page '04 [you said]: 'I'm not privy to among, Senate intelligence reports. What would I have done? I don't know,' in terms of how you would have voted on the war [in 2002]. In June 2006 Obama spoke out against the idea of setting a firm withdrawal date for U.S. Latex. troops in Iraq. Immediately after the midterm election five months later, however, Obama declared that it was vital to rex essays, change our policy and to bring home all American troops. In January 2007 Obama proposed legislation calling for the withdrawal of all troops within 14 months. “. Phd Thesis Front. would immediately begin to pull out on body troops engaged in combat operations at a pace of one or two brigades every month, to be completed by the end of . He would call for phd thesis front page a new constitutional convention in Iraq, convened with the United Nations, which would not adjourn until Iraq’s leaders reach a new accord on reconciliation. He would use presidential leadership to surge our diplomacy with all of the ritual nations of the region on behalf of page a new regional security compact.
And he would take immediate steps to confront the humanitarian disaster in Iraq, and to hold accountable any perpetrators of potential war crimes.” Claiming that the U.S. University. presence in Iraq was “illegal,” Obama campaigned publicly in front latex 2007 and 2008 for writing service victoria a speedy withdrawal of American troops from Iraq. But in a July 2008 discussion he held with Iraqi leaders in Baghdad, Obama privately tried to persuade them to delay an agreement on a timetable for such a withdrawal until after the November elections. According to Iraqi Foreign Minister Hoshyar Zebari, “He asked why we were not prepared to delay an agreement until after the U.S. elections and the formation of a new administration in Washington. However, as an Iraqi, I prefer to have a security agreement that regulates the front page latex activities of foreign troops, rather than keeping the matter open.” “Because . it's pretty straightforward.
By us putting $10 billion to $12 billion a month, $200 billion, that's money that could have gone into Afghanistan. Those additional troops could have gone into oedipus on pride Afghanistan. That money also could have been used to shore up a declining economic situation in the United States. That money could have been applied to having a serious energy security plan so that we were reducing our demand on oil, which is helping to fund the insurgents in front latex many countries. So those are all factors that would be taken into consideration in my decision -- to deal with a specific tactic or strategy inside of Iraq.” In mid-July 2008, the portions of Obama's campaign website that had emphasized his opposition to oedipus on pride, the troop surge and his statement that more troops would not change the course of the war, were suddenly removed. On the matter of using enhanced interrogation techniques (such as waterboarding) on high-level terrorist suspects, Obama emphatically pledged to latex, end that practice: “This means ending the rex essays practices of page shipping away prisoners in the dead of oedipus night to phd thesis latex, be tortured in far-off countries, of detaining thousands without charge or trial, of maintaining a network of plagiarism in research papers secret prisons to jail people beyond the reach of law. That will be my position as president. Page. That includes renditions.” Which passages of scripture should guide our public policy? Should we go with Leviticus, which suggests slavery is OK and that eating shellfish is an abomination?
Or we could go with Deuteronomy which suggests stoning your child if he strays from the resume faith. Page. Or should we just stick to Sermon on the Mount, a passage that is so radical that it's doubtful that our own Defense Department would survive its application. Obama has consistently opposed America's development of a missile defense system. In a February 2008 campaign ad, he stated: “I will cut tens of billions of dollars in wasteful spending. I will cut investments in unproven missile defense systems. I will not weaponize space. I will slow our development of future combat systems. I will institute an independent Defense Priorities Board to ensure that the Quadrennial Defense Review is not used to justify unnecessary defense spending.
I will set a goal of a world without nuclear weapons. To seek that goal, I will not develop new nuclear weapons. I will seek a global ban on the production of fissile material.” Redistribution of Wealth: You know, if you look at english essays corruption, the victories and failures of the phd thesis latex civil-rights movement, and its litigation strategy in the court, I think where it succeeded was to vest formal rights in previously dispossessed peoples. So that I would now have the right to vote, I would now be able to sit at a lunch counter and order and as long as I could pay for on body among the nacirema it, I’d be okay, but the Supreme Court never entered into phd thesis page latex the issues of redistribution of wealth, and sort of more basic issues of political and economic justice in this society. A caller then asked: “The gentleman [Obama] made the point that the Warren Court wasn’t terribly radical. Writing Bc. My question is (with economic changes) my question is, is it too late for phd thesis front latex that kind of reparative work, economically, and is that the appropriate place for reparative economic work to on pride, change place?”
You know, I’m not optimistic about front, bringing about major redistributive change through the courts. The institution just isn’t structured that way. You start getting into all sorts of separation of powers issues, you know, in resume writing victoria terms of the court monitoring or engaging in a process that essentially is administrative and takes a lot of time. You know, the front court is just not very good at it, and politically, it’s just very hard to legitimize opinions from the duke court in latex that regard. In October 2008, Bill Whittle of essay ritual National Review Online analyzed Obama's words (from 2001) as follows: There is nothing vague or ambiguous about this.
Nothing. His plan would boost the phd thesis top marginal [income tax] rate to well over 55 percentbefore the inclusion of state and local taxesresulting in many individuals seeing their marginal tax rate double. On Body Ritual Among The Nacirema. Senator Obama would end the Bush tax cuts and allow the top two tax rates to return to 36 and 39.6 percent. He also would allow personal exemptions and deductions to latex, be phased out for those with income over $250,000 [and] would end the Social Security payroll tax cap for those over $250,000 in earnings. (The cap is currently set at $102,000.) These individuals will then face a tax rate of 15.65 percent from payroll taxes and the top income tax rate of on body the nacirema 39.6 percent for a combined top rate of over 56 percent on each additional dollar earned. In an front latex, April 2008 Democratic primary debate, Obama was asked, by journalist Charlie Gibson, a question about his proposal to nearly double the capital gains tax (from 15 percent to oedipus rex essays, 28 percent). Phd Thesis Page. Said Gibson: “ In each instance when the rate dropped [in the english corruption 1990s], revenues from the tax increased. The government took in more money. And in the 1980s, when the [capital gains] tax was increased to 28 percent, the revenues went down. So why raise it at all, especially given the fact that 100 million people in phd thesis this country own stock and would be affected?” Democratic presidential candidate Barack Obama’s plan to cut taxes on 95 percent of taxpayers would effectively increase government spending by an average of $64.8 billion a year and effectively raise income tax rates for on pride many Americans, even on some earning $20-$50,000 per year, according to the non-partisan Tax Policy Center.
The net result of the tax plan, according to the figures above, will be to increase by more than 25 percent the number of households that pay no taxes at all, thereby effectively increasing the size of the welfare state. At an October 2008 campaign appearance in Ohio, Obama was approached by a man named Joe Wurzelbacher (who thereafter would become widely known in page the media as “Joe the among the nacirema plumber”). Wurzelbacher told Obama that he was planning to purchase a business which was projected to page, earn in excess of $250,000 per essay ritual the nacirema, hear, and that Obama’s tax plan, which would raise taxes (by 8.5 percent) on all small businesses earning over $250,000, would impose an unfair financial burden on him. Obama replied that the tax increase on phd thesis front latex businesses like his was justified because it would enable the essay ritual government to phd thesis page latex, give tax breaks to people earning considerably less than $250,000. “I think when you spread the wealth around, it’s good for everybody,” said Obama. Earmarking refers to the commonplace congressional practice of directing federal tax dollars to local projects which are often frivolous and of extremely limited utility. In fiscal year 2008, Obama was the sole Senate sponsor of resume service victoria bc 29 earmarks whose aggregate sum was $10.7 million. Earmarks are often informal quid pro quo arrangements, where recipients show gratitude by giving money to the political official who steered the earmarks their way. For example, after Obama inserted earmarks into a 2008 defense appropriations bill, the recipients sent $16,000 in contributions to Obama's presidential campaign.
In 1998 Obama proposed the creation of a study panel to examine the front feasibility of having the government regulate and cap automobile insurance rates. In January 2000 he spoke out in favor of price controls for service victoria bc prescription drugs. A year later he called for the establishment of a five-person government review board to place a cap on drug prices in latex Illinois. To read economist Thomas Sowell's explanation of university sex thesis why price controls have historically failed to lower costs or improve products and services, click here. Phd Thesis Page Latex.  In September 2005, Obama sponsored Senate Concurrent Resolution 53, which expressed the sense of Congress that any effort to impose photo identification requirements for voting should be rejected.
“I will never walk away from the 12 million undocumented immigrants who live, work, and contribute to avoiding, our country every single day. In July 2008, Obama again spoke to phd thesis page latex, NCLR. Among his remarks were the following: “The theme of resume writing this [La Raza] conference is the work of phd thesis front your lives: strengthening America together. It's been the work of this organization for four decades --lifting up families and transforming communities across America. And for that, I honor you, I congratulate you, I thank you, and I wish you another forty years as extraordinary as your last. The U.S. Border Control (USBC), a nonprofit citizen's lobby dedicated to ending illegal immigration and securing America’s borders, reports that Obama’s immigration-related votes are consistent with USBC’s values only 8 percent of the time.
By USBC’s definition, Obama’s stance on immigration qualifies him as an english essays corruption, “open borders” advocate. Obama voted against a bill to declare English the official language of the U.S. Phd Thesis Front Page. government. Under this bill, no person would be entitled to have the government communicate with him (or provide materials for essay the nacirema him) in any language other than English. Nothing in the bill, however, prohibited the page use of a language other than English. “When we get in a tussle, we appeal to resume writing bc, the Founding Fathers and the Constitution’s ratifiers to page, give direction. Some, like Justice Scalia, conclude that the original understanding must be followed and educational psychology term paper if we obey this rule, democracy is respected. Others, like Justice Breyer, insist that sometimes the front latex original understanding can take you only so far -- that on the truly big arguments, we have to take context, history, and sex thesis the practical outcomes of a decision into page account. I have to side with Justice Breyer’s view of the Constitution -- that it is not a static but rather a living document and oedipus must be read in the context of an ever-changing world.” When President Bush in 2005 nominated John Roberts to be Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Obama stated that few Supreme Court cases involve any controversy at all, “so that both a [conservative like] Scalia and a [leftist like] Ginsburg will arrive at the same place most of the time on those 95 percent of cases.” In the other 5 percent, he said, “the critical ingredient” was neither the law nor the Constitution says, but rather “what is in the judge’s heart.” “[W]hen I examined Judge Roberts’ record and front latex history of public service, it is resume writing bc my personal estimation that he has far more often used his formidable skills on phd thesis latex behalf of the strong in opposition to avoiding plagiarism, the weak. Phd Thesis Front Page Latex. In his work in the White House and the Solicitor General’s Office, he seemed to have consistently sided with those who were dismissive of psychology efforts to eradicate the remnants of racial discrimination in phd thesis latex our political process. In these same positions, he seemed dismissive of essays corruption concerns that it is harder to make it in phd thesis page latex this world and in this economy when you are a woman rather than a man.”
Obama was also “deeply troubled” by “the philosophy, ideology and record” of yet another Bush nominee to the Supreme Court, Samuel Alito. Avoiding Plagiarism Papers. “There is front page no indication that he [Alito] is not a man of fine character,” Obama said in a floor speech on January 26, 2006. “But when you look at on pride, his record, when it comes to his understanding of the Constitution, I found that in front almost every case he consistently sides on behalf of the powerful against the powerless.” “In contrast to his soaring campaign rhetoric about english, bringing America together, Obama’s Senate speeches against Roberts and Alito revealed a polarizing vision of America. Minorities, women, employees and front page latex criminal defendants were among the service victoria bc weak; majorities, men, employers and prosecutors were among the strong.” In April 2007, newsman Wolf Blitzer asked Obama, Are there . Justices right now upon whom you would model [appointments to the Supreme Court]? Obama replied, Well, you know, I think actually Justice [Stephen] Breyer, Justice [Ruth Bader] Ginsburg are very sensible judges. I think that Justice [David] Souter . is a sensible judge. We need somebody who's got the heart, the phd thesis front empathy, to recognize what it's like to be a young teenage mom, the empathy to avoiding plagiarism in research papers, understand what it's like to be poor or African-American or gay or disabled or old--and that's the criterion by which I'll be selecting my judges. I've spent my entire adult life working with SEIU. Front Page Latex. I'm not a newcomer to this. I didn't just suddenly discover SEIU.
Your agenda's been my agenda in the United States Senate. Avoiding. Before debating health care, I talked to [SEIU President] Andy Stern and SEIU members. Phd Thesis Page Latex. Before immigration debates took place in Washington, I talked with [SEIU Executive Vice President] Eliseo Medina and SEIU members. Before the EFCA [Employee Free Choice Act], I talked to SEIU. Obama supports an initiative known as the Global Poverty Act (GPA), which, if signed into oedipus on pride law, would compel the U.S.
President to develop “and implement” a policy to front, “cut extreme global poverty in half by 2015 through aid, trade, debt relief,” and other means. “With billions of people living on just dollars a day around the plagiarism world, global poverty remains one of the greatest challenges and tragedies the international community faces. Phd Thesis Front Page Latex. It must be a priority of psychology term American foreign policy to commit to eliminating extreme poverty and phd thesis latex ensuring every child has food, shelter, and clean drinking water. As we strive to university, rebuild America’s standing in the world, this important bill will demonstrate our promise and commitment to phd thesis page, those in the developing world. Our commitment to the global economy must extend beyond trade agreements that are more about increasing profits than about helping workers and small farmers everywhere.” According to psychology paper, a February 2008 report by Accuracy in Media editor Cliff Kincaid, the adoption of the GPA could “result in the imposition of a global tax on the United States” and phd thesis latex would make levels “of U.S. foreign aid spending subservient to the dictates of the United Nations.” Kincaid stated that the duke sex thesis legislation would earmark some 0.7 percent of the U.S. gross national product to foreign aid, which over a 13-year period would amount to roughly $845 billion “over and front page latex above what the U.S. already spends.” During a July 2007 Democrat primary debate, Obama was asked: [W]ould you be willing to meet separately, without preconditions, during the first year of service victoria bc your administration, with the leaders of Iran, Syria, Venezuela, Cuba and North Korea, in front page latex order to bridge the gap that divides our countries? In January 2008 the National Journal published its rankings of all U.S. senators -- based on avoiding papers how they had voted on a host of foreign and domestic policy bills -- and rated Barack Obama “the most liberal Senator of 2007.” “Obama’s [foreign policy] liberal score of 92 and conservative score of 7 indicate that he was more liberal in front page latex that issue area than 92 percent of the senators and more conservative than 7 percent,” the researchers explained. University. In the latex area of domestic policy voting, the study found that “Obama voted the liberal position on 65 of the essay on body 66 key votes on phd thesis latex which he voted [and] garnered perfect liberal scores in both the duke sex thesis economic and social categories.”
President Barack Obama: On November 4, 2008, Barack Obama was elected President of the phd thesis front page latex United States. He defeated Republican opponent John McCain, capturing 364 electoral votes vs. McCain's 162. Obama received a total of duke sex thesis 64,538,980 votes (52.5%), vs. McCain's 56,802,609 (46.2%).  David Horowitz and Jacob Laksin, The New Leviathan (2012), Chapter 2.  Rezko had initially met Obama in phd thesis front page latex 1990, when the former was a low-income housing developer in essays Chicago and phd thesis page latex the latter was a Harvard Law School student. In fact, Rezko offered Obama a job with his company, Rezmar Corporation, but Obama turned it down. When Obama announced in 1995 that he was running for an Illinois Senate seat (which would be up for english corruption grabs in 1996), two of Tony Rezko’s companies donated a total of $2,000 to Obama’s campaign. Over the course of the entire primary season, Rezko raised between $10,000 and page $15,000 of the roughly $100,000 Obama collected overall. Obama won the duke university November 1996 election, and the district he represented included 11 of Rezko's 30 low-income housing projects.
Rezko served on front page the campaign committee for Obama’s failed congressional run against U.S. Resume Victoria. Rep. Bobby Rush in 2000, raising between $50,000 and $75,000 of the estimated $600,000 Obama collected for that race. In 2001 Rezko’s Rezmar Corporation stopped making its mortgage payments on page latex the old nursing home it had converted into apartments, and the state of resume writing victoria bc Illinois foreclosed on the building, which was located in Obama's Senate district. In 2003 Obama announced that he would run for an Illinois seat in phd thesis front page the U.S. Senate which would be open the essays following year. He again named Rezko to his campaign finance committee.
It is phd thesis page latex estimated that Rezko raised some $160,000 for Obama during the Senate primary season. In November 2004 Obama was elected U.S. Senator. A few months later, he and Rezko's wife, Rita, purchased adjacent pieces of writing victoria property in Chicago's Kenwood neighborhood. Obama’s portion of the deal involved a mansion for latex which he paid $1.65 million -- $300,000 below the seller’s asking price. Meanwhile, Rezko's wife (who earned only $37,000 per year and owned few assets) paid the writing service full asking price -- $625,000 -- for front a vacant lot adjacent to Obama’s mansion. At this time, Mr. Rezko was being pursued by creditors seeking more than $10 million which Rezko owed on defaulted loans and failed business ventures. At least 12 lawsuits had been filed against Rezko and essay his businesses from November 2002 to January 2005, including one by the G.E.
Commercial Finance Corporation, which had extended more than $5 million in loans for Rezko’s 17 Papa Johns’ Pizza parlors in Detroit, Chicago and Milwaukee. In November 2004, G.E. obtained a court judgment against Mr. Rezko for the $3.5 million that it said was outstanding on its loans. Obama says he does not know why the Rezkos decided to purchase the vacant lot at that time. But the Rezkos’ involvement was crucial because the owners of the front page house and the lot had stipulated that neither property could be sold unless a deal for the other also closed on the same day. Resume Writing Service Victoria Bc. Both deals indeed closed on the same day in June 2005. At the front page time of the purchase, Mr.
Rezko was ostensibly destitute; that is why his wife was named officially as the rex essays sole purchaser of the vacant lot. In December 2005 Obama paid Rita Rezko $104,500 for a strip that constituted one-sixth of her newly acquired lot, so that he could increase the width of his yard by ten feet. Phd Thesis Front Page Latex. At the time of plagiarism in research papers this deal, Tony Rezko was under federal investigation on charges that he had solicited kickbacks from companies seeking state pension business under his friend, Illinois Governor Rod Blagojevich, for whom Rezko reportedly had raised as much as $500,000. For more than two years before the property purchases, news articles also had raised questions about Mr. Rezko’s influence over page latex state appointments and contracts. Moreover, reports swirled that the FBI was investigating accusations of english essays corruption a shakedown scheme in which Mr. Rezko had suggested appointments to a state hospital board. Obama rejects any suggestion that the Rezkos, by paying full price for the vacant lot, had enabled him to save $300,000 on page latex his home’s purchase price and were perhaps seeking political favors in return. “Frankly, I don’t think he [Mr. Rezko] was doing me a favor,” Obama has said. In October 2006, Mr.
Rezko was indicted on on pride extortion charges. According to phd thesis latex, federal prosecutors, Rezko had funneled $10,000 in kickback fees to Obama's 2004 Senate campaign. Rezko remained free on bail until January 28, 2008, when a U.S. District Judge jailed him for having disobeyed a court order to keep the Judge apprised of his (Rezko’s) financial status. Most notably, Rezko had failed to tell the judge about a $3.5 million loan he had received (in mid-2005) from London-based Iraqi billionaire Nadhmi Auchi -- a loan that Auchi later forgave in term paper exchange for shares in a prime slice of phd thesis front latex Chicago real estate.
According to the Associated Press, Rezko “gave $700,000 of the [$3.5 million] to his wife [for the purchase of the on body among the nacirema vacant lot adjacent to Obama’s mansion] and phd thesis page used the rest to pay legal bills and funnel cash to avoiding in research papers, various supporters.”  David Freddoso, The Case Against Barack Obama , p. 116.  Such an approach to phd thesis front page, “pregnancy prevention” had been tried before, with disastrous results. In the 1960s, leftists in politics and academia demanded that sex education be added to public-school curricula nationwide, and psychology term paper that government-funded “family planning” (abortion) services be made more widely available. By 1968, almost half of all U.S. schoolspublic and private, religious and secularhad instituted sex education programs for their students; these programs continued to spread widely throughout the American educational system in page latex the 1970s. “Family planning” clinics also proliferated exponentially from the mid-Sixties to the mid-Seventies. Between the late Sixties and resume writing bc 1978, federal expenditures for “family planning” and front page “population” legislation grew from $16 million annually to rex essays, $279 million. Whereas in phd thesis page 1969 fewer than 250,000 teenagers used the services provided by abortion clinics, by bc, 1976 their number had risen to 1.2 million. Front. Between 1970 and 1980, the pregnancy rate among 15- to 19-year-olds rose by more than 40 percent. Among unmarried girls aged 15 to 17, birth rates rose 29 percent between 1970 and 1984even as the victoria bc number of abortions more than doubled during the same period.
 David Freddoso, The Case Against Barack Obama , p. 203.  These rules to front, deter racial profiling, say critics, lead to resume writing bc, “de-policing.” To avoid charges of racism if they question or arrest too many minority suspects, police find it easier to front latex, protect their careers by writing service, turning a blind eye and leaving minority criminals alone.  Obama’s premise of a discriminatory justice system is phd thesis page latex entirely mistaken, as Manhattan Institute scholar Heather MacDonald points out: “Let’s start with the idea that cops over-arrest blacks and ignore white criminals. In fact, the race of criminals reported by crime victims matches arrest data. As long ago as 1978, a study of duke sex thesis robbery and front page aggravated assault in eight cities found parity between the race of assailants in victim identifications and in arrestsa finding replicated many times since, across a range of crimes.
No one has ever come up with a plausible argument as to why crime victims would be biased in their reports. “Moving up the enforcement chain, the plagiarism papers campaign against the criminal-justice system next claims that prosecutors overcharge and judges oversentence blacks. Phd Thesis Front Latex. In 1997, criminologists Robert Sampson and Janet Lauritsen reviewed the massive literature on resume victoria charging and sentencing. They concluded that ‘large racial differences in criminal offending,’ not racism, explained why more blacks were in prison proportionately than whites and for longer terms. A 1987 analysis of front latex Georgia felony convictions, for duke university sex thesis example, found that blacks frequently received disproportionately lenient punishment. Phd Thesis. A 1990 study of 11,000 California cases found that slight racial disparities in writing service victoria sentence length resulted from blacks’ prior records and other legally relevant variables. A 1994 Justice Department survey of felony cases from the country’s 75 largest urban areas discovered that blacks actually had a lower chance of prosecution following a felony than whites did, and that they [blacks] were less likely to be found guilty at trial.
Following conviction, blacks were more likely to receive prison sentences, howeveran outcome that reflected the gravity of their offenses as well as their criminal records. “Another criminologisteasily as liberal as Sampsonreached the same conclusion in 1995: ‘Racial differences in patterns of offending, not racial bias by page, police and other officials, are the on body among principal reason that such greater proportions of blacks than whites are arrested, prosecuted, convicted and page latex imprisoned,’ Michael Tonry wrote in Malign Neglect . The media’s favorite criminologist, Alfred Blumstein, found in 1993 that blacks were significantly underrepresented in prison for homicide compared with their presence in arrest.”  Many critics of the Court’s decision contended that it had undone the landmark Brown v. Board of service Education ruling of 1954. But these charges were untrue. The Brown case addressed the issue of mandatory racial segregation in America’s public schools, an issue which had become an international embarrassment for phd thesis front latex the United States. The case centered around a black third-grader named Linda Brown who had been denied admission to oedipus rex essays, an all-white school located just a few blocks from her home in Topeka, Kansas, and was forced instead to page, take a bus to essays, an all-black school in a more distant neighborhood. Because millions of other blacks nationwide faced the same dilemma, her case had far-reaching, monumental implications. Miss Brown’s father successfully sued the Topeka Board of Education on grounds that, contrary to phd thesis front page latex, a previous Supreme Court ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), segregated schools were separate but not equal and thus failed to fulfill the Fourteenth Amendment’s guarantee of equal protection under the laws. On May 17, 1954, the Court handed down a 9-0 decision which stated unequivocally: “Where a State has undertaken to avoiding, provide an opportunity for an education in its public schools, such an opportunity is front page a right which must be made available to essay among the nacirema, all on equal terms.” In other words, Brown overturned the notion that it was permissible to use race as the front page latex basis for avoiding plagiarism denying students the right to phd thesis front, attend the schools they preferred.
Like the 1964 Civil Rights Act that would become law ten years later, Brown was intended to remove barriers to integration by outlawing de jure segregation, but it issued no mandate for measures (like busing or racial quotas) to forcibly integrate America’s schools or workplaces.  Hoover Institution fellow and Stanford University sociologist Thomas Sowell, who has studied this matter in great depth, explains that the “‘compelling’ benefits of ‘diversity’ are “as invisible as the english essays proverbial emperor’s new clothes”; that “[n]ot only is there no hard evidence that mixing and matching black and white kids in school produces either educational or social benefits, there have been a number of studies of phd thesis front page all-black schools whose educational performances equal or exceed the national average”; that “[s]ome black students -- in resume service fact, whole schools of them -- have performed dramatically better than other black students and exceeded the norms in phd thesis white schools,” and that this phenomenon dates back as far as the late 19th century; that black students who have been bussed into white schools have seen no discernible rise in their standardized test scores -- “not even after decades of bussing”; and that “[n]ot only is there no hard evidence” for the dogma “that there needs to be a ‘critical mass’ of black students in a given school or college in order for them to perform up to standard,” but that “such hard evidence as there is points in the opposite direction. Bright black kids have benefited from being in classes with other bright kids, regardless of the english corruption other kids’ color.”  David Freddoso, The Case Against Barack Obama , p. 114.  Contrary to Obama’s claim, in May 2008 it was announced that more than 31,000 scientists across the front U.S. On Body Ritual Among The Nacirema. -- including more than 9,000 Ph.D.s in fields such as atmospheric science, climatology, Earth science, environment and dozens of other specialties -- had signed a petition rejecting the claim that the human production of greenhouse gases is causing global warming that damages the Earth's climate. There is front no convincing scientific evidence that human release of carbon dioxide, methane, or other greenhouse gases is causing or will, in the foreseeable future, cause catastrophic heating of the Earth's atmosphere and disruption of the Earth's climate, the essay ritual among petition stated. Moreover, there is substantial scientific evidence that increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide produce many beneficial effects upon phd thesis front latex the natural plant and animal environments of the Earth.  Most legal scholars believe the president has inherent constitutional authority to educational, conduct warrantless wiretaps to collect foreign intelligence, and page no statute -- including FISA -- can reverse that. Duke Sex Thesis. Citing a 22-year-old precedent, the Federal Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review ruled in 2002 that “the president did have inherent authority to conduct warrantless searches to obtain foreign intelligence information.
We take for granted that the latex president does have that authority and, assuming that is essay on body ritual so, FISA could not encroach on page latex the president’s constitutional power.” John Schmidt, President Clinton’s associate attorney general from 1994-97, wrote that NSA [National Security Agency] surveillance against essay on body among, al-Qaeda “is consistent with court decisions and with the positions of the Justice Department under prior presidents”; FISA, he explained, “did not alter the constitutional situation.” Schmidt quoted Clinton Deputy Attorney General Jamie Gorelick’s 1994 testimony before the Senate Intelligence Committee: “The Department of Justice believes, and the case law supports, that the president has inherent authority to conduct warrantless physical searches for phd thesis front foreign intelligence purposes.”  Obama and his fellow critics of military commissions accuse such tribunals of trampling on the civil rights and liberties of defendants who, the critics contend, should be entitled to ritual the nacirema, all the phd thesis latex rights and protections afforded by service bc, the American criminal court system -- where the phd thesis page latex standards that govern the admissibility of evidence are considerably stricter than the counterpart standards in military tribunals. In November 2006 Congress passed the english Military Commissions Act of 2006, formally authorizing the adjudication of phd thesis latex war crimes and duke university terrorism cases in military courts. The House of Representatives vote was 253 to 168 (Republicans voted 219 to 7 in favor, Democrats 160 to 34 against); the front page overall Senate margin was 65 to 34 in ritual among the nacirema favor. According to the Defense Department, military tribunals, where military officers serve as the judges and jurors, are designed to phd thesis page latex, deal with offenses committed in rex essays the context of front latex warfare including pillaging; terrorism; willfully killing or attacking civilians; taking hostages; employing poison or analogous weapons; using civilians as human shields; torture; mutilation or maiming; improperly using a flag of surrender; desecrating or abusing a dead body; rape; hijacking or hazarding a vessel or aircraft; aiding the enemy; spying; providing false testimony or perjury; soliciting others to commit offenses that are triable by essay on body, military jurisprudence; and phd thesis front page latex intending or conspiring to commit, or to aid in the commission of, such crimes. The issue of whether it is appropriate to try someone accused of the aforementioned transgressions in a military court depends upon how one answers a single overriding question: Is terrorism a matter of war, or is it a legal issue where redress should be pursued via the criminal-justice system like robbery, vandalism, or murder.  “Our government, the Supreme Court has ruled, “by thus defining lawful belligerents entitled to be treated as prisoners of war, has recognized that there is a class of unlawful belligerents not entitled to that privilege, including those who, though combatants, do not wear ‘fixed and distinctive emblems.’” Apart from the question of whether military tribunals are a good idea philosophically, trying terrorists and war criminals in civilian rather than military courts poses a number of serious problems from rex essays on pride a practical standpoint.
For one thing, the rules defining admissible and inadmissible evidence in each venue differ dramatically. In civilian trials, neither coerced testimony, nor confessions made in phd thesis page the absence of oedipus on pride a Miranda warning, nor hearsay evidence can presented to phd thesis, the court; in military tribunals the opposite is true, provided that the court determines such evidence to have “probative value to a reasonable person.” Attorneys Spencer J. Crona and ritual the nacirema Neal A. Richardson explain the profound significance of this: “A relaxation of the hearsay rule might become critical in a prosecution for front page latex terrorism where it may be impossible to produce live witnesses to an event which occurred years earlier in a foreign country. For example, the indictment in the Pan Am Flight 103 case details the alleged purchase of avoiding plagiarism in research papers clothing, by front, Libyan intelligence agent Abdel Bassett, for placement in the suitcase with the essay on body the nacirema bomb. The clothing was used to disguise the contents of the suitcase containing the bomb, which was placed inside a radio-cassette player.
Under the phd thesis front rules of evidence applicable in U.S. District Court, the prosecution would have to produce in person the Maltese shopkeeper to identify Abdel Bassett as the man who allegedly purchased the clothing back in 1988, as opposed to producing the essays investigator who tracked down the phd thesis front shopkeeper and showed him a photograph of Abdel Bassett. Educational Psychology Paper. Even if we assume that the phd thesis page latex shopkeeper could be located six years or more after the fact, we recognize that it is nearly impossible to secure involuntary testimony from a witness who is a citizen of resume writing victoria bc a foreign country, especially one that historically has been less than sympathetic to phd thesis page, the United States. The reach of english corruption a federal court subpoena simply does not extend to Malta.” Another exceedingly significant weakness inherent in phd thesis front page civilian trials for terrorists is the fact that in such proceedings, there exists a high likelihood that classified intelligence sources will be compromised. If the government wishes to present certain incriminating evidence in a civilian trial, which is open to the public, it must disclose its sources as well as the techniques it used for obtaining the oedipus information from them. This obviously would place those sources in phd thesis front grave danger and would quickly lead to english essays, the non-cooperation or disappearance of many of phd thesis page them to say nothing of the future potential informants who would undoubtedly choose to avoid placing themselves in essays corruption similar peril. Moreover, the effectiveness of any publicly disclosed information-gathering techniques would thereafter be permanently compromised. By contrast, military tribunals permit incriminating evidence to be presented to the judge and jury, while being kept secret from the public as well as from the front page defendant and term paper his attorney.
For those who are concerned about legal precedent, it must be understood that the use of military tribunals for the adjudication of war crimes is in no way a departure from past practices. military commissions were used commonly during the Civil War. Prior to that, General George Washington employed such tribunals during the American Revolution in the late 18th century. In the era following the ratification of the U.S. Constitution, military tribunals were first convened by Major General Winfield Scott during the Mexican-American War of phd thesis latex 1846-48, to adjudicate the alleged war crimes of American troops and Mexican guerrilla fighters alike. World War II also saw the use of psychology term paper military courts, the most famous case involving eight marines of the phd thesis front page Third Reich (one of whom was an American citizen named Herbert Haupt ) who rode a Nazi U-boat to the east coast of the United States, where, laden with explosives, they disembarked and resume service bc set off toward various locations with the intent of bombing railroads, hydroelectric plants, factories, department stores, and phd thesis latex defense facilities across the country. The saboteurs were wearing no military uniforms or identifying emblems when they were captured, meaning that they were, in the eyes of the law (as defined by the Supreme Court in Ex parte Quirin , quoted earlier in rex essays this article), “unlawful combatants.” Refusing to grant the perpetrators civilian jury trials, President Franklin D. Roosevelt quickly created a secret military commission to hear their cases. Phd Thesis Page. All eight were convicted and sentenced to death, though two turncoats later had their sentences commuted to life in prison.  David Freddoso, The Case Against Barack Obama , p. 96.  Thomas Sowell, Price Controls, Capitalism (November 16, 2005). Dr. Sowell writes:
It so happens there is a history of university price controls and their consequences in countries around the world, going back literally thousands of page years. But most people who advocate price controls are unaware of, and uninterested in, that history .  David Freddoso, The Case Against Barack Obama, pp. 205-206. ADDITIONAL IMPORTANT FEATURES: Since Feb 14, 2005 --Hits: 61,630,061 --Visitors: 7,024,052.
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Essay on the Importance of Library. The library occupies a very important place in school. With its books suited to the interests and front page, aptitude of students of different age group, with its magazines, periodicals, news papers and with its calm and tranquil atmosphere it has a special call to the students who go there and rex essays on pride, quench their thirst for reading the material which cannot be provided to them in the class room. Here they find an environment which is conductive to the building up of habit of self learning. The library is the center of the intellectual and social activities of school. The library has got very wholesome effect over the work of school. Habit of reading can be cultivated, when students get practice in reading and reading habit in the beginning are made firm when students get that material to read which interests them and occupies their attention. In the class room the books that are prescribed may not serve the purpose, some students may not be in a position to purchase all books that they want to read, while others may not find books that are of interest to front, them.
Interests differ, aptitudes vary, individual capacities present a wide variation in students’ reading capacities. In the library each has what he wants, each goes at the speed to which his capabilities allow him to go. The library is thus, a common platform upon which all students meet on a common level with equal opportunities. It is the nucleus of the school environment, the center of the intellectual activities of the school. The library may be regarded as an essential instrument for putting progressive methods into resume bc, practice. But it is most unfortunate that in a large number of front, schools there are at present no libraries worth the name. The books are usually old, out-dated, unsuitable, usually selected without reference to resume writing service, the students’ tastes and interests. They are stocked in a few book shelves, which are housed in an inadequate and front, unattractive room. The person in duke sex thesis charge of the library is often a clerk or an indifferent teacher, who does the work on a part-time basis and has neither love for books nor knowledge of front latex, library technique. What makes this situation particularly difficult is the fact that most teachers and headmasters and even the educational administrators and authorities do not realize how unsatisfactory this position is and, therefore, hey have no sense to take necessary steps for improving the condition.
The library must be made the most attractive place in the school so that students will be naturally drawn to it. It should be housed in a spacious well lighted hall. Resume. The book shelves, tables, chairs, reading desks should be carefully designed with an eye to artistic effect as well as functional efficiency. As far as possible the open shelf system should be introduced so that students may have free access to books. The success of library depends largely on the proper selection of books, journals and phd thesis, periodicals. There should be a small committee of teachers, for psychology, selecting the books for the library. The guiding principles in selection should be, not the teacher’s own idea of front page latex, what books the students must read but their natural and psychological interests.
The Commission recommended that trained librarians who have a love for books and understanding of student’s interests should be provided in all secondary schools and all teachers should be given some training in the basic principles of library work in the training colleges as well as through refresher courses. As the proper use of well equipped school library is absolutely essential for the official working of every educational institution and for encouraging literary and cultural interests in students, every secondary school should have such a library. Rex Essays. Class libraries and subject libraries should also be utilized for the purpose. The subject teachers should be in charge of subject library. Competent subject teachers can enrich their teaching greatly with the help of small collections of books in their own subjects.
This should not be confined to text books only. Advance works, reference books, books on related subjects and allied field, all these will find a place in front that collection. Most of the teachers in fact, have no idea of what a majority of students are reading or whether they are reading at all. So the Commission recommended that a systematic register should be maintained and each student must be allotted a few pages of the register in which all books studied by him are entered date-wise. This procedure will be very much helpful to the class teachers and headmasters to give necessary advice and avoiding in research, encouragement to individual student for developing their reading habit. On the phd thesis front page latex other hand each student is expected to maintain a diary in which he may enter date-wise, the names of all the books (with the among names of the Authors) which he has read together with brief quotation or extracts that may appeal to phd thesis front page latex, him. The Commission further suggested that where there are no separate public libraries, the school libraries should, so far as possible make their facilities available to the local public and service, all public libraries should have a special section for children and adolescents. (i) It supplements class work by increasing students’ vocabulary, quickening their intelligence and extending their general knowledge; (ii) It enables the students to prepare themselves for taking part in the various co-curricular activities of the phd thesis front page school. They get information which is very helpful to them in taking part in debates, giving lectures and writing for the school magazine; (iii) It develops habits of the students to derive pleasure and information from recreational and informative books; (iv) It broadens their outlook by university sex thesis, placing a vast sphere of information before them; (v) It imparts training to the students for the proper use of phd thesis latex, books; (vi) It gives students training in punctuality by impressing ‘ upon them the necessity of returning and borrowing books at a fixed time; (vii) It provides suitable books to the students to plagiarism papers, satisfy their hunger of reading books and saves them from the harmful effects of reading unsuitable and injurious literature; (viii) It inculcates in the students the habit of silent reading ; (ix) It provides an opportunity to phd thesis front page, make the best use of leisure time thereby lessening the chance of indiscipline in the school. In the history of Indian Education the importance of Secondary Education Commission is of great significance.
Prior to this, various Commissions and Committees recommended for the improvement of secondary education, but adequate steps were not taken at different levels for its practical application. The present system of secondary education was introduced by the British authority. But within the hundred years of its existence there was no remarkable improvement in the field of secondary education. When everybody was feeling intensely for a progressive and workable change at this level, the Secondary Education Commission submitted its report with constructive suggestions. The Commission attempted to investigate all the fundamental problem pertaining to secondary education and educational psychology term, recommended certain concrete measures for eradicating the page evils that stood as stumbling block on the path of the progress of resume service bc, education. It probed deep into each and every aspect of the secondary education and made more practical and sound recommendations than those made by other Commissions appointed in front page the past. The government took initiative to implement some of the recommendation only because those were befitting to on pride, the time and made in the light of the recommendations of other Commissions and Committees. The Commission has put forth sincere efforts to rectify those defects persisted in secondary education i.e. predominance of bookish and literary knowledge, lack of vocational and technical-education, defective system of page, examination, shortcomings inherent in the managing bodies and organisation of schools etc. Realizing the futility of single track institutions the Commission gave entirely original suggestion for the establishment of ‘Multipurpose Schools” catering to the needs of the various ability, aptitude and interest of the students. One of the most vital problems that confronting the essays country at present is the development of agriculture and industry.
Inclusion of these subjects in phd thesis the curriculum of the secondary education and duke sex thesis, emphasis of education in them is a notable feature of the Commission. For improving the progressively deteriorating conditions regarding discipline, reorganization of administration and phd thesis page, management of school at essays this level, the commission gave certain practical suggestions. It also made proposals for bringing about a greater diversity and comprehensiveness in educational courses which would include both general and vocational subjects. Besides, other suggestions for reforming examination and front page latex, evaluation system, diversified of studies, improvement of teachers’ lot, reform of private management etc. are merely repetition and lack the oedipus rex essays spirit of departure from the beaten track. Different Commissions and Committees appointed earlier also highlighted some of these things. As government was not so very keen in eradicating the fundamental defects in the sphere of secondary education, root and branch, the tangible result could not be arrived at. In-spite of the merits and significance of front, these recommendations there are certain limitations and shortcomings which should not be lost sight off. As a matter of fact the Commission has endeavoured to university sex thesis, mould the pre-existing pattern of secondary education by phd thesis page latex, suggesting improvements and changes which are not very sound and effective.
Moreover, insufficient attention has been paid for the improvement of female education and suggestion for teachers training is merely conventional. Its suggestion for financial resources and government responsibilities Sin this regard are most inadequate. In-spite of the resume writing above shortcomings and limitations it can be said that the recommendations of the Secondary Education Commission opened a new era of reconstruction and reform of education at the secondary stage. These recommendations have got far reaching consequences and are likely to front, go a long way if faithfully implemented keeping in view to strengthen the weakest link in the system of service, education of the country. Steps were taken during 2nd plan to implement pattern of reorganization of phd thesis page latex, secondary education as recommended by S.E.C.” Accordingly financial allocation was made in the budget. Government took effective measures during 2nd plan period to introduce crafts and diversified courses, better facilities for science teaching, establishment of multipurpose schools and junior technical schools as well as upgrading of the high schools to higher secondary schools.
In the 1st plan about 250 multipurpose seconds were established. About 1150 high schools were converted into higher secondary schools by the end of the 2nd plan. As a result of the government’s effort secondary education expanded considerably. Educational Paper. At the end of the 1st plan the latex number of all types of duke university, secondary schools was 32,568 with 8,26,509 students and the number increased to 66,920 with 1,81,22,356 students by the end of 2nd plan. One of the phd thesis front latex major aims of the 3rd plan was to expand and intensify the educational effort and to bring every home within its fold so that in resume writing service bc all branches of national life, education becomes the focal point of planned development.
Education programmes embodied in the 3rd plan were comprehensive in scope. The programme for front latex, the reorganization and improvement of secondary education, which had been implemented during 2nd plan period was continued. It was designed both to enlarge the content of writing service victoria, secondary education and to make it a self contained unit within the educational process. During 3rd plan measures were taken for the conversion of phd thesis page latex, high schools into higher secondary schools, development of multipurpose schools with provision of a number of elective subjects, expansion and improvement of facilities for the teaching of science, provision of educational and vocational guidance, improvement of the examination and evaluation system, enlargement of facilities for english corruption, vocational education, increased facilities for the education of girls and the backward classes and encouragement to merit through scholarships. However steady progress was maintained during this period and the number of schools increased considerably. The number of higher secondary schools increased from phd thesis page 3,121 to 6,203 and the number of secondary schools increased to 90 thousands with 300 lakhs students by the end of 3rd plan. During 3rd plan Indian Education Commission was appointed under the chairmanship of Dr. D.S.
Kothari, which is popularly known as Kothari Commission, 1964-66. The Commission aimed at an entire overhauling of the existing setup. Besides many other things it pleaded eloquently for the improvement of secondary education and recommended that: (i) Enrolment in secondary education should be regulated during the next twenty years by proper planning of the location of secondary schools, maintaining adequate standards and to in research papers, that end, by determining the enrolment in terms of facilities available and selecting the best student; (ii) A developmental plan for secondary education should be prepared for each district and implemented in a period of phd thesis page latex, ten years, (iii) The best students should be selected for admission into secondary schools, through a process of oedipus on pride, self selection at the lower secondary stage, and on the basis of external examination results and school records at page the higher secondary stage; (iv) Secondary education should be vocationalised in a large measure and enrolments in vocational courses raised to essay the nacirema, 20 per cent of front page latex, total enrolment at the lower secondary stage and on pride, 50 per cent of total enrolment at the higher secondary stage by 1986. (v) A variety of part-time and full-time facilities in vocational education should be available at both these stages to meet the needs of the front page latex boys and girls, in urban and rural areas. Special sections should be set up in the education department to resume, help young pupils who drop out after class VIII or VII to obtain training on a full time or part time basis, and to be in overall charge of the organisation of these courses; (vi) The central government should provide special grants to state governments in front page centrally sponsored sector for the vocationalisation of secondary education; (vii) Facilities for part-time education should be provided on a large scale at the lower and higher secondary stages in general and vocational courses. Special emphasis will have to be placed on agricultural courses or those who have taken to farming as a vocation and on courses in home science or household industries for girls; (viii) Efforts should be made to accelerate the expansion of sex thesis, girls education so that the proportion of girls to front latex, boys reaches 1 : 2 at the lower secondary stage and 1:3 at the higher secondary stage in 20 years ; (ix) Emphasis should be placed on establishing separate schools for girls, provision of hostels and scholarships and part-time vocational courses; (x) a national policy for the location of new institutions for each category should be adopted so as to avoid waste and duke university sex thesis, duplication; (xi) Vocational schools should be located near the industry concerned; (xii) In non-vocational schools, a common curriculum of general education should be provided for the first ten years of school education and diversification of phd thesis front page, studies and specialization should begin only at the higher secondary stage; (xiii) At the higher secondary stage courses will be diversified in such a manner as to enable pupils to oedipus on pride, study a group of any three subjects in depth with considerable freedom and elasticity in the grouping of subjects. In order to ensure the balanced development of the adolescents, total personality the curriculum at this stage should provide half the time to the languages and one-fourth to physical education, arts and phd thesis front page, crafts, moral and university, spiritual education. After the recommendations of Kothari Commission, following measures were taken during 4th plan for the qualitative improvement of page, secondary education.
(i) Enrichment of the ritual the nacirema content of secondary education by phd thesis latex, adding one more class to the high school and making it higher secondary course of corruption, 11 year duration. (ii) Implementation of a long range programme of examination reform aiming at a closer integration of educational objectives, learning process and methods of evaluation. (iii) Conversion of high schools into higher secondary and multi-purpose schools. Besides, improvement of science education, implementation of the front latex pilot projects for the introduction of educational term, work experience and vocationalisation, development of school complex etc. were some of the measures undertaken during 4th plan period. As a result of the different measures, the number of schools at phd thesis page latex the secondary level increased considerably. By the year 1973-74, 74.40% boys and 29.60% girls were reading at the secondary stage. Different states accepted the new-pattern of education and introduced this system according to their own convenience. Though there is a lot of confusion and feeling of anxiety in the minds of the educational term people regarding the latex practical application of the new pattern, yet in the overall interest of the student population and for national integration there is great need of a uniform pattern of education.
So steps were taken to accelerate the pace of progress in implementing the new scheme. It was not only for educational psychology term, the sake of uniformity that the new structural pattern was introduced, but it was meant to provide definite stages for pupils to phd thesis page, branch off from the in research academic streams. If provision would not be made for students to branch off to vocational courses after completion of the particular stage of education, the change of pattern would only partially achieve the objectives and students who would do better in phd thesis latex vocational courses would tend to go in for writing service victoria, general education. During 5th plan, the objective in this sector was consolidated and controlled expansion. In order to raise the phd thesis page standard of education reorganisation of the curriculum, improvement of the methods of teaching, reforms in the system of examination, development of instructional materials and avoiding papers, text books were undertaken during 5th plan period. Even then the front latex achievement in this sector was not encouraging. So there were concerted efforts to achieve predetermined targets and objectives within the stipulated period. English. In the 6th plan, for the success of the new education policy of 10+2+3 necessary changes were made in the curriculum at the school stage in order to relieve the burden on the child and phd thesis front page latex, make it realistic. It was expected that enrolment in secondary schools during the plan would be about plagiarism in research 30 lakhs.
It had been proposed to achieve this objective by better and efficient utilisation of present secondary schools instead of opening new ones. However, the target would be fulfilled only through hard and sustained work, original and creative thinking, devotion and involvement of personnel associated with the planning and implementation of the new-pattern of education. The country had formally adopted a uniform pattern of page, education viz, the duke 10+2+3 pattern, consisting of 10 year school education followed by front page latex, a two years higher-secondary or equivalent and !a three year degree course. Oedipus Rex Essays. Yet there was no uniformity in page the number of years one spent in the three stages of school education; primary, upper-primary and secondary. However, classes VI to VIII were taken as components of the upper-primary stage.
When the first and second All India Educational Surveys were conducted in the years 1957 and 1965, respectively, a distance of resume writing service victoria bc, three miles or approximately 5 kilometers was considered to be a convenient walking distance for children in classes VI to VIII. Gradually, the front page latex distance limit was brought down to three kilometers. Besides, the pattern of upper primary schools prevailing in oedipus on pride respective states and union territories varies. Therefore, the facilities for page latex, higher-primary education were available in different types of schools. Some secondary and higher-secondary schools also had upper-primary classes attached to them.
Unlike primary schools, the upper- primary schools were also managed by the government, local bodies, private bodies etc. As the government had been giving a major thrust to the expansion of education in rural areas, private managements had been playing a dominant role in urban areas. However, the overall annual increase in enrolment at the upper primary stage between the third and fourth survey was found to be 5.75 percent while that of between the fourth and fifth survey was 6.8 percent. An encouraging feature was that the rate of psychology term paper, increase in enrolment had been more in rural areas than in urban areas. The period between the first and the second survey witnessed a sharp increase in the percentage of habitations which had access to secondary stage education either within the page latex habitation or up to on pride, a distance of eight kilometers (five miles). But it was reduced to five kilometers by the time of the third survey.
The fourth survey (1978) revealed that 72.54% habitations were served by secondary education within eight kilometers, which was increased to 78.92% by the fifth survey. In fact, it revealed that the facilities of front page, secondary education had been extended to in research papers, a larger number of habitations covering a higher proportion of rural population. As such, there were 52,560 secondary schools in India by 1986. Of these, 38,862 were located in rural acres and the remaining 13,698 in urban areas. At the time of 1978 (fourth survey) the number of secondary schools was 36,675. It may be mentioned that the increase in the number of phd thesis page latex, secondary schools during the period between 1973 and 1978 was only 3.5%. The sixth five year plan envisaged for the extended educational facilities in rural and ritual among the nacirema, backward areas specially for weaker section of the community in the field of secondary and higher secondary education.
During this plan period greater facilities for secondary education had to provide due to the expansion of the phd thesis base of education at rex essays the elementary stage. Since secondary education is considered as the means of social mobility and economic independence, particularly among the socially disadvantaged. Besides, the plan emphasized the importance of paying special attention to the quality of education at this stage and to improve the internal efficiency of the system and enhancing the employability of its products. Heathen, there was great need for more sustained and planned effort for the qualitative improvement of education at this level. Gradually the demand for secondary education had been growing.
The expansion of educational institution at the ground level provided a further impetus to phd thesis page, this growth. For instance the number of upper-primary schools had increased from 1.35 lakhs to educational psychology term, 1.46 laks from 1985-86 to phd thesis page, 1990-91, respectively. Therefore, during seventh plan provision was made for promoting distance learning techniques and open school systems. As a result, unplanned growth of high and higher secondary school was checked. On Body Ritual Among The Nacirema. Norms for the establishment of secondary school were evolved and strictly observed in phd thesis order to avoid proliferation of economically nonviable and educationally inefficient institutions.
In expanding the facilities, special attention was paid to the needs of backward areas of under privileged sections of the community. The teaching of science and mathematics at high and educational, higher secondary stage was strengthened and made universal. Moreover, efforts were made to update and modernize science curricula, improvement of latex, laboratories and libraries in schools and ensure the quality of science teachers through large-scale in service training programmes. In-fact, the progressive outlook of the authority is clearly evident from the introduction of environmental education in the courses of study which formed an duke university sex thesis important aspect of science education during this plan period. As such, the Socially Useful Productive Work (Work Experience) programme component constituted a link between work and education for the development of phd thesis front latex, positive work ethics and work habits in learners. During sixth plan, a small beginning was made in providing computer literacy to students in selected secondary schools. Based on this experience, steps were taken to extend the essay on body ritual among programme to cover different aspects of computer appreciation and application.
The NPE, 1986 laid down that “access to secondary education will be widened to cover areas unserved by it at present.” As such, it recommended for the strengthening of the State Board of Secondary Education, reorganization of teacher education along with in service training, examination reform, improvement and modification of the content of secondary education curriculum, strengthening of the open school system, provision of extended educational facilities, special arrangement for talented children with pronounced competence etc. However, there had been a significance increase in phd thesis front the number of secondary schools. It increased from 54,845 in 1987-88 to 59,468 in 90-91 and english, the quality of education at this stage was enhanced. Because the key issues in secondary education, apart from access, were quality, modernisation and phd thesis page latex, diversification. Though a considerable degree of psychology term, uniformity had been achieved in regard to phd thesis page, common education structure of 10+2+3, there was a considerable diversity regarding the location of the +2 stage. In quite a few states it was not a part of the school system. The secondary stage was divided in to two very distinct sub-stages- Secondary (up to class X) which was the duke university stage of general education and higher secondary (class XI and XIl) which was marked by differentiation and diversification. For the national system of education the NPE envisaged a national curriculum frame work. The work of phd thesis page, curriculum revision for the secondary stage was undertaken in almost all the states and the UTs in the light of the guide-lines prepared by NCERT. Further, necessary steps were taken by extending the access to secondary education by opening new schools in the un-served areas and by extending and consolidating the existing facilities with particular emphasis on ensuring substantially increased enrolment of girls and the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes.
Besides, greater autonomy was given to the Board of paper, Secondary Education of different states for strengthening their structure and composition. Quality improvement programmes were under taken relating to teacher- education by according statutory and autonomous status to NCTE, strengthening and upgrading the teacher-training colleges to Institute of Advanced studies (IASE) and College of Teacher Education. Moreover, pre-service and phd thesis latex, in-service teacher training programmes were designed and open school system at this level was extended. As time went on, the number of avoiding in research, secondary schools increased enormously from 59,468 in 1990-91 to 90761 by 2002- 2003. The number of teacher at teacher at this sage was 996054 and teacher pupil ratio was 1:30 by 2002-03. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages:
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essay example mba EssayEdge offers all users free access to over 100 admissions essays accepted by the United States' top undergraduate, graduate, and professional programs. The following Sample Admissions Essays are for phd thesis page latex, Wharton, Tuck and Columbia. Sample MBA Admissions Essays - Content provided by EssayEdge's Harvard Editors. This section contains three pages of content: Prompt: What one nonprofessional activity do you find most inspirational and why? (Wharton) A little over two years ago I began tutoring high school students in duke university, several types of mathematics, including preparation for the S.A.T. Test. Phd Thesis Page Latex? While I did this initially to service victoria, earn money, I have continued to tutor (often pro bono) because I enjoy the front page latex material and the contact with the students. I have always enjoyed math tremendously.
I can remember riding in university sex thesis, a car for long distances as a child and continuously calculating average speeds and page percentages of distances covered as we traveled. Educational Psychology? In college I took upper division math classes such as Real Analysis and Game Theory (and placed near the top of the curve) though they were not required for my major. All this time spent playing with math has left me with a deep understanding of the way numbers work and the many ways in which problems can be solved. When I first began tutoring I was stunned to find that most of the kids I worked with, although very bright, not only lacked the ability to solve complex problems, they were very uncomfortable with some of the basic principles of math. This discomfort led to fear and front page avoidance, and the avoidance led to plagiarism in research papers, more discomfort. A vicious cycle began.
Instead of seeing math as a beautiful system in which arithmetic, algebra and geometry all worked together to phd thesis front latex, allow one to solve problems, they saw it as a bunch of jumbled rules which made little sense that they were forced to memorize. As a tutor, I found that it was important when starting with a new student to find out where his/her discomfort with math began. Resume Service Victoria Bc? Often, this meant going back several years in their education to explain important basic concepts. For some students, fractions and decimals were the page latex point at which math stopped making sense. For many others, it was the introduction of letters to represent numbers in algebra. Some students found that identifying their weaknesses was an embarrassing process. Duke University Sex Thesis? I explained to latex, them that it was not their fault. Everyone comes to essays, understand new concepts in page, math in a slightly different way, and the problem was that no teacher had taken the time to explain their problem area in a way which would make sense to them.
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Someone who applies such standards of accountability to his extracurricular life is sure to bring the front page latex same standards to educational psychology paper, school and business. Prompt: Describe the characteristics of an exceptional manager by page latex examining someone whom you have observed or with whom you have worked. Illustrate how his or her management style has influenced you. (Tuck) In management consulting, strong analytical skills are valued as much as, if not more than, effective managerial and leadership skills. Unfortunately, for some consultants, these characteristics, at times, are mutually exclusive. I was fortunate, however, to work with [name] on essay on body among, my first major project at [consulting firm]. As my projectmanager, he demonstrated a superior combination of leadership, managerial, and communication skills.
As a result of our interaction, I learned several important lessons and phd thesis tools that I used on subsequent projects to improve my effectiveness as a team leader. To begin, [name] is a true leader who exhibits courage and dedication. A powerful trait rarely found in english essays corruption, the realm of business, courage is unique in its ability to front, unify and motivate people. Moreover, his courage is writing service, balanced appropriately with professionalism, strong values, and phd thesis front page humility. He is sensitive to others’ feelings and recognizes that different people require different types of direction and english essays treatment. Although he often works with diverse and front difficult groups, he always seems able to reach consensus and essays corruption create a shared vision and purpose. Furthermore, he excels at establishing priorities and phd thesis page latex proactively setting direction. As an effective manager, [name] also is able to translate his broad direction into discrete, tangible tasks. Since consultants often use difficult or creative analytical approaches, clearly articulating tasks and defining outputs is very important. In addition, he exercises the appropriate level of supervision.
Rather than micro-managing his team members, [name] establishes clear accountabilities and expectations and pushes work down to on pride, the correct level. As a result, he creates a strong sense of ownership and leverages the skills of his team members. Phd Thesis? Furthermore, he excels at creating a supportive environment and, when necessary, coaching team members to help them develop new skills. Finally, [name] is a masterful communicator. He is the only project manager I have had who gave me consistent and duke constructive feedback, importantly, both positive and negative.
Such feedback not only provides clear developmental objectives, but also signals to others that he values their contributions. Phd Thesis Front Page Latex? This type of balanced and open communication quickly forms the foundation of mutual trust and respect. Furthermore, [name] excels in the art of negotiation and debate. He states his points with remarkable precision and is expert at remaining objective and english recognizing all sides of an phd thesis page, argument. And, regardless of the volatility of a situation or the strength of plagiarism papers his feelings, he always listens to all positions patiently and effectively controls his demonstration of emotion, thereby gaining the respect of others and lending additional credibility to phd thesis front latex, his positions. Given my limited experience managing teams, my exposure to [name] was central to avoiding plagiarism papers, my early success at [consulting firm]. For example, although I had considered myself a leader in athletics, I had not learned to translate those skills into the business arena. [Name] taught me several effective methods to lead teams.
Admittedly, as a highly motivated young analyst with very high work standards, I also lacked many of the skills required for effective team leadership. However, I quickly learned the importance of flexibility and became more comfortable providing feedback and directing the work of phd thesis front latex others. Furthermore, through his example, [name] taught me the importance of objectivity and the utility of on pride several effective communication techniques. For example, I learned to use my sense of humor as an effective tool to persuade, disarm, or motivate others. Early in my career at [consulting firm], I had several rare opportunities to lead client teams.
In part due to the lessons I learned from [name], these projects were a great success. As a result, I went on to manage a half dozen diverseand difficult client teams that ranged in latex, membership. With each project, I further refined the lessons I learned from [name] and psychology developed new techniques for phd thesis front, leading and managing teams. Educational Term Paper? Due to my rapid development, I was promoted to [position], a managerial, post-M.B.A. position at [consulting firm], signifying that I can progress to the partner level. Although I realize my tool kit is far from complete, these skills will be invaluable both in business school and beyond.
** ADMISSIONS COMMITTEE COMMENTS: ** This is another essay that stands out because of its solid writing and superior organization. It starts with a bold assertion to phd thesis front page latex, catch the reader’ s attention and then uses the assertion to introduce the mentor’ s most outstanding quality. Each of the next three paragraphs clearly asserts and describes an additional supporting quality. The essay concludes with examples of how the mentor’ s influence has tangibly affected the writer’ s actions and work performance, resulting in rapid promotion. Prompt: Describe the two accomplishments that occurred in the last five years of which you are most proud. (Columbia) Strategic Advisory for American Savings Bank. In January 1994,my group was engaged by educational Robert Bass' Keystone Partners to evaluate their investment in California company, the culminating point of phd thesis a five-year banking relationship.
Keystone Partner however, engaged Goldman Sachs as co-advisor, thereby infuriating the Lehman team. We swore to keep control of the valuation process by writing victoria solely handling the modeling work including complex simulations and page latex projections, which I was solely responsible for. I quickly drafted a couple of pages that I distributed to oedipus rex essays on pride, both teams. Front Page Latex? Overnight, the oedipus on pride Goldman team reproduced them line by line and sent them directly to the client as their work. Front Latex? It was a great strike against our team. I decided to design a completely different model, and to draw upon the information that I could gather from a long and fruitful client relationship with Lehman Brothers. I convinced the avoiding in research senior vice president, vice president and phd thesis front page associate who had covered the company for years to pass on the nacirema, their knowledge, persuaded them to be available for 36 hours straight to answer all my questions, and for four more hours to be trained by me on front latex, the model. I designed a 23 page model, stuffed with information, that we presented to the 42 person working team, gathered at our request.
The presentation, led by essay on body ritual the nacirema myself for technical explanations and the senior vice president for strategic conclusions, was a great success. The Goldman Senior Partner, recognizing the front latex excellency of our model, proposed that I remain in charge of all the number. I value this experience because I gained respect from the senior executives at all three firms. But most of all, although one of the most junior banker, I was able to inspire a cohesive spirit to our team in pursuing our goal to produce a high quality presentation. Learning to ritual, Surf. My move to Los Angeles in August 1992 represented not only a great professional challenge-to work with only two senior bankers and cover all California financial institutions-but also a personal opportunity, a chance to broaden my horizons.
I grew up in Paris and lived in the capital for 21 years before moving to phd thesis, New York; I definitely was a city girl! Los Angeles demanded however that I adapted to a whole different world, where sport rather than opera rhythms the season. Educational Psychology Term? I knew that my first year in the Los Angeles office would be extremely busy due to the small size of my group. In fact I averaged 90 hours of work per week that year. To keep my sanity and maintain a good spirit, I resolved to try and phd thesis page learn a sport that had always fascinated me: surfing. Thus I bought a brand new wetsuit and longboard and started the essays experience bright and phd thesis front page latex early on educational psychology term, a sunny Saturday afternoon under the merciless scrutiny of the local surfers, all males, who did not hide their contempt for phd thesis front, my pale skin and weak arms so typical of investment banking Corporate Analysts. Surfing seemed at first an impossible mission: my board always mysteriously rebounded on my head, while the waves would break exactly where I was paddling. At work, there was an explosion of laughter when I proudly exposed my (only) personal project: why, a twenty-six year old Parisian, surfing? This had to be French humor! I resolved however to practice every week-end before coming into corruption the office. Last summer, I finally stood up on page, my board and rode the wave to the beach.
It was one of the most exhilarating moments of my life and although I still surf regularly, nothing matches my first wave nor the pride that I felt. On Body Ritual? Because I received little help and encouragement but prevailed, I cherish this experience which was actually a tremendous confidence builder. ** ADMISSIONS COMMITTEE COMMENTS: ** The writer demonstrates a nice balance between her professional and her personal achievements. Her first accomplishment shows the essayist to be a savvy business professional and highlights her good political sense, dedication, and technical skill. The second accomplishment rounds out the phd thesis latex image by painting a picture of a young, healthy, active woman willing to take risks and learn new skills at the expense of laughter and embarrassment.
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