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10 Awesome Business Ideas For Teen Entrepreneurs. Many of the weight essays, most successful people in business today started out as teenage entrepreneurs. For many teens, the realization that building something of your own beats working for of descriptive €śthe man€ť comes to them naturally, but coming up with the right idea isn€™t always easy.. Weight! So here are 10 ideas to get your creative juices flowing. Most can be started by custome writing anyone, and weight a few will require some specialized knowledge, but might get you on custome writing, the right path or spark another idea, even if you don€™t have that knowledge right now. And if you€™re at all worried about being taken seriously as a teen business person, take a look at our recent post on the subject.
Click here to see the business ideas †’ Whatever business you decide to weight, start, know this: if you€™re a teen reading this post, you€™re already far ahead of 90 percent of other people your age, and way ahead of the vast majority of people of any age. To enter the world of entrepreneurship can be challenging at times, but those of us who do it know that all the hard work, setbacks, and 2 kinds essay challenges that come are nothing compared to the rewards of starting and growing your own business. So don€™t let anything slow you down. If being in business for yourself is your dream, go for it with all you€™ve got! Click here to essays, see the business ideas †’ Wherever you live, there are bound to tiho hannover dissertationen, be senior citizens who need help with errands. The errands you€™ll run can range from grocery shopping to picking up dry cleaning and essays going to the post office.. If you don€™t yet have wheels, there are plenty of ways to hannover, help seniors around the house too, like washing the car, making minor repairs, or helping out with yard work.
As the fasted growing segment of the weight essays, population, it makes a lot of use of business sense to serve seniors, and it will feel good to know you€™re helping someone who really needs it. Weight Essays! Garage Cleaning/Organizing Service. Have you ever walked past an open garage that was so cluttered with stuff the tiho, family couldn€™t fit their car inside? Those are your potential clients. Cleaning out the garage is essays a chore no one enjoys (unless they€™re getting paid like you will), so convincing people to hire you won€™t be that hard €“ especially if you€™re polite and balancing chemical professional and your rates are reasonable. Your startup costs will be minimal with this business €“ chances are you have most if not all of your supplies at home already. Essays! All you€™ll need are a good push broom, some cleaning supplies and lots of chemical essay elbow grease.. To get customers, make up some flyers and go door-to-door around your neighborhood. It might be intimidating at first, but before long, you€™ll get your pitch down, and essays it will be well worth the effort. If you have a pickup, or know someone who has one and wants to be a partner, consider starting a haul-away service. Whether it€™s in their back yard, in their garage, or under their stairs, people all over the world have lots of junk. Chemical Reaction Essay! nd many are willing to pay someone else to haul it away..
Figure in the cost of gas, maintenance, and weight insurance on the vehicle you use when coming up with rates, and business make sure to find out if your local dump charges to weight, drop off there. Another great thing about this business is that what one person calls junk, another might want. Custome Writing Essays! You€™d be surprised at what some people get rid of, and there might be an opportunity there to weight, sell some of quotes this €śjunk€ť in the classifieds, eBay, etc.. To market this business, go door to door, or post flyers at your local grocery store, or laundromat€™s community bulletin board. Are you handy with all things mechanical? Can you take apart just about anything and put it back together? If you have the skills, some tools and a garage you can work in, there is a market for a small engine repair service.. From lawn mowers to snow blowers, your neighbors are bound to have something they need fixed. For the weight, price of a few flyers, you can be in business fast. As you prove yourself, your customers are sure to tell others, and you€™ll be busy as a professional tinkerer before you know it! Ok, so mowing lawns for the summer isn€™t a very original idea.
But who says you have to limit yourself in this category. Why not think big? Start out by mowing lawns in the summer and clearing snow in the winter, but rather than spending your earnings on the latest video game system or car stereo, use your revenue to stein essay picasso, expand your services to other kinds of weight essays yard work.. Trimming hedges, killing weeds, and planting flowerbeds are just a few of the gertrude picasso, services you could add, without spending much at all on additional equipment. As demand for your business grows, hire friends to essays, help you out.
Before you know it, you could be running a full-fledged landscaping business. If you€™re in your teens, chances are very good you know your stuff when it comes to using Facebook, Twitter, Foursquare, and other social networks. But did you know this stuff is big business? Well it absolutely is. There are entire consulting firms dedicated to helping their clients maximize their social media efforts, and some of them probably don€™t have as much experience at it as you do.. Step one is to find out all you can about essay, using social media for business. There are tons of essays online resources for this, so that part€™s a breeze. Next, decide what services you€™ll offer and business environment analysis essay if you€™ll specialize in weight, a particular area €“ Facebook fan pages, for balancing instance. Then get out there on weight, social media and make it known that you€™re available as a consultant.. Also consider visiting local businesses that see the value in social media but might not know how to gertrude stein, get started.
There is essays a huge market for this right now. You just have to plan it out and go for it! For less than $100 in wax and equipment, anyone can be in business for themselves making candles. If you€™re creative and willing to do the 2 kinds essay, necessary legwork, you can do well as a candle maker, and you€™ll have fun too. Weight! First, you€™ll want to decide which kind of candles you want to tiho hannover, make. There are beeswax candles, colored candles, scented candles, or aromatherapy candles, to name a few. Then you€™ve got to decide where you€™ll sell your finished candles. There are lots of options, such as eBay, craft fairs or direct sales to local shops €“ or all of the above.
If you can come up with a unique design or presentation for your candles, this business can blossom into a company that will keep you busy well beyond high school! Like candle making, this business is for those with a creative flare. It might take a little more to get started, both in weight, money and know-how, but you don€™t need tons of chemical reaction training, and weight essays if you use materials like beads and silver rather than gold and diamonds, starting a custom jewelry business doesn€™t have to cost a lot. Of Descriptive! To get started, you can learn most of what you need to know from books on the subject. Weight! Then it€™s a matter of practicing until you€™re good. If your stuff is attractive, you€™ll find a market eager to snatch up your pieces €“ often for a premium price. This is one business where you really should have some training and gertrude stein a lot of practice to get started. Yes, there are many people out there calling themselves web designers who just use templates and have only a basic html background, but you don€™t want to be one of those.. Weight! The real money in this field is stein made by those who know what they€™re doing.
If it€™s something that interests you, it won€™t take that long to learn, and weight you can do very well from referrals and return business. And this is another business that can take you far beyond your high school years. Use Of! Are you an essays, expert in a particular area, like social media or high school algebra? Are you an entertaining writer, or simply have a great sense of balancing chemical reaction essay humor?. If you can get people to read what you have to say, you can make money at it by starting a blog. There are thousands of weight essays affiliate programs that will pay you when people click through from your blog to their sites and make a purchase. You€™ll want to read lots of articles (like these) about hannover dissertationen, how to do this right, but once you figure it out, it can mean making way more than your friends working at essays, the taco place! Follow in the young founders' footsteps of this successful startup. T-Shirt Startup Threadless's Offices: Almost As Cool As Its Profitable, Multi-Million Dollar Business †’ Read the original article on Young Entrepreneur.
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sam watkins essay 1. Sam Watkins, Confederate Private. I recently read a Civil War memoir, Company Aytch by Sam Watkins. It’s a delightful book; Margaret Mitchell, author of Gone With the weight, Wind , said “A better book there never was.” 1 Watkins’ light-hearted tone and tiho dissertationen, colloquial language have reminded many readers of Mark Twain. Essays! Watkins describes the war in the Western Theater Shiloh, Chickamauga, Atlanta, etc. After the balancing, war, Watkins had eight children; his children remembered him writing late at weight night and early in the morning, sometimes laughing as he wrote, sometimes crying. Occasionally Watkins tells the reader how he feels at balancing chemical essay the time of essays writing; for business example, when he describes the sacking of essays General Johnston, he says, “I lay down my pen; I can write no more; my heart is too full. Custome Essays! Reader, this is the saddest chapter I ever wrote.” Sometimes he worries that the essays, reader may be getting bored, as when he describes being sent to Montgomery, Alabama, with other wounded soldiers, to rest and recuperate: “Kind friends, I fear that I have wearied you with my visit to Montgomery, but I am going back to camp now, and will not leave it again until our banner is furled, never to be again unfurled.” Watkins describes how Confederate soldiers, at least those in the Western theater, became demoralized. Initially they thought war was a great adventure, and they thought they’d beat the business essay, Yankees quickly.
In fact, they worried that the war would be over before they could get in it. Then the grim reality set in: cold, hunger, death, etc. Essays! They initially enlisted for one year, but at the end of the tiho, year, the government conscripted them forced them to remain in the army. The soldiers became hostile to the government, to weight, the Confederate cause, and to their commanders (especially Braxton Bragg). Custome Writing! Deserters were shot on a daily basis, but still desertion was common. When Trotsky was in charge of the weight, Red Army, he placed machine guns in use of quotes, the rear of his forces, to shoot any soldiers who tried to flee.
A similar tactic was used in the Confederate army: Though Confederate morale was sometimes low, there were also times when morale was high, especially after Joseph E. Johnston replaced the unpopular Braxton Bragg. Though Watkins occasionally loses faith in the Confederate cause, he usually says that the cause was just, states are sovereign, Confederate principles are consistent with the Constitution and the Declaration, etc. Weight Essays! 2. If states are sovereign, however, they aren’t obliged to obey the Confederate government in Richmond, and this was a problem for the Confederacy.
How could the Confederate central government maintain Confederate unity if the Confederate nation was based on the principle of state sovereignty? And what about regions within a state do they also have the custome essays, right to essays, secede from in essays a state, and form their own state? Where does the principle of weight secession end? Does it end with every individual being a law unto himself? The question of state power vs. federal power is a murky one, a question not completely settled in the Constitution, a question that has been debated throughout U.S. history. It’s not unreasonable to believe that, if states joined the Union voluntarily, they have the chemical, right to secede from the Union. 3 Virginia was opposed to secession until it was asked for essays its quota of troops, troops that would be used to stein picasso, compel seceding states to come back into the Union. Surely many Virginians were sincere in believing that the principled course, at this point, was to secede. One might say that Virginia seceded for the sake of honor, seceded to save face (in an earlier issue, I said that Socrates died to save face, died because he was “too proud to publicly bow down to weight, his enemies”). 4 It wasn’t yet a war over slavery; Lincoln’s war aims, at chemical reaction this point, didn’t include abolishing slavery.
So at this point, it looks like a war over principles, a war over weight, different political theories, different interpretations of the Constitution. But it can also be argued that the Civil War wasn’t fought over the principle of state sovereignty, or over any other principle. The South would have been content with a Union in which they were a majority, or a Union in which they had equal power with the chemical essay, North. Weight! But they were opposed to a Union in business analysis, which they were a minority, a Union in essays, which the majority was hostile to their interests and their institutions. And doubtless many Southerners felt that the North wouldn’t fight to preserve the Union, or would fight ineffectively. So secession was tempting to the South. It can be argued that the Civil War was a collision of interests and institutions, not a collision of principles.
In the absence of slavery, the South and North would still have been divided, would still have had different interests, since the South emphasized agriculture, the North industry. Slavery hardened the division, made it a moral issue, engendered hatred, and made compromise more difficult. So it could be said that the war was fought over slavery. Perhaps we should conclude that the tiho dissertationen, war was both a war of principles and weight, a war of interests. Perhaps we should conclude this discussion as we’ve concluded so many discussions in this e-zine: truth is essays, contradictory, truth is weight essays, “both/and”. Or perhaps we should say that the root cause was slavery and other economic differences, the surface cause was different political theories, and the immediate cause (proximate cause) was honor, saving face. 5. Confederate soldiers marching through Frederick, Maryland, September 12, 1862. When people are in an excited state, psychic phenomena often occur, hence we often find psychic phenomena in war, athletics, etc. Not surprisingly, Watkins mentions psychic phenomena in Company Aytch ; he describes these phenomena as concisely, tastefully, and charmingly as he describes other things.
He says that soldiers sometimes had a hunch, a presentiment, that they would die soon: Watkins then describes a case of death-anticipation: After a day of fighting, The editor of this edition of 2 kinds Company Aytch , Philip Leigh, adds other examples of death-anticipation: A Union officer, Edward Cross, anticipated his death at Gettysburg, and wore a black bandana into battle, instead of his usual red bandana. In November, 1863, about essays, 18 months before the end of the essay, war, Union forces defeated the Confederates at Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge.
The Confederates, who had been besieging Chattanooga, began retreating toward Atlanta. Weight! Their commander, Braxton Bragg, was replaced by Joseph E. Johnston, who was far more popular than Bragg. Watkins has high praise for Johnston: After Grant broke through the Confederate siege at Chattanooga, Lincoln promoted him to commander of all Union armies, and he went east to gertrude essay, confront Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia, leaving Sherman in charge in the West. Sherman avoided directly confronting Johnston’s army, preferring instead to go around it. Watkins is scornful: Finally Sherman makes a frontal assault at Kennesaw Mountain, about 15 miles northwest of Atlanta. Here’s how Watkins describes the essays, Battle of Kennesaw Mountain: I have heard men say that if they ever killed a Yankee during the war they were not aware of it. I am satisfied that on this memorable day, every man in our regiment killed from one score to four score, yea, five score men. I mean from twenty to chemical reaction, one hundred each.
All that was necessary was to load and shoot. In fact, I will ever think that the reason they did not capture our works was the impossibility of their living men passing over weight, the bodies of balancing reaction essay their dead. The ground was piled up with one solid mass of dead and wounded Yankees. I learned afterwards from the burying squad that in some places they were piled up like cord wood, twelve deep. When the tide of battle was in their favor, as it was at Kennesaw Mountain, Watkins and his fellow soldiers would become elated, break into song, refuse reinforcements, etc., even though their own casualties were high.
They knew the Yankees were trying to tunnel under their lines, but they were still elated: “When they had dug a tunnel under us to blow us up, we laughed, yea, even rejoiced, at the fact of soon being blown sky high. Yet, not a single man was willing to leave his post.” The thrill of weight victory was so intense that the Confederates were willing to custome, die to experience that thrill: “It is a singular fanaticism, and weight essays, curious fact, that enters the mind of a soldier, that it is a grand and custome, glorious death to die on a victorious battlefield.” Does this “fanaticism” throw light on the psychology of the modern suicide bomber? Does this help to explain why the suicide bomber is nonchalant, even elated? 9. One might suppose that war is about killing your enemies before they kill you. Weight Essays! But sometimes violence is replaced by the threat of violence, and sometimes violence is abandoned completely, and replaced by balancing chemical reaction socializing. Sam says that pickets rarely shot each other; more often, they chatted with each other, even warned each other of impending danger. Late in the war, Sam is given the job of scout, and he moves forward to the Union army, or rather to its advance units, and begins socializing: They had come to relieve the cavalry. It was a detail of Negro soldiers, headed by weight the meanest looking white man as their captain, I ever saw.
In very abrupt words he told the cavalry that he had come to take their place, and custome writing, they were ordered to report back to their command. Happening to catch sight of me, he asked, “What is this Rebel doing here?” One of the men spoke up and tried to essays, say something in my favor, but the more he said the more the captain. would get mad. He started toward me two or three times. He was starting, I could see by the flush of his face, to take hold of me, anyhow. The cavalrymen tried to protest, and said a few cuss words. The captain. looks back very mad at the cavalry.
Here was my opportunity, now or never. I took up my gun very gently and cocked it. I had the gentleman. I had made up my mind if he advanced one step further, that he was a dead man. When he turned to look again, it was a look of surprise. Hannover! His face was as red as a scalded beet, but in a moment was as white as a sheet. He was afraid to turn his head to give a command.
The cavalry motioned their hands at me, as much as to weight essays, say, “Run, Johnny, run.” The captain. fell upon his face, and I broke and ran like a quarter-horse. I never saw or heard any more of the captain. Quotes! or his guard afterward. Montaigne said that he was fond of history, and that his favorite kind of history was eyewitness history. Company Aytch is excellent eyewitness history. Watkins is essays, neither a great stylist nor a deep thinker, but he carries the reader back among the Confederate soldiers as they’re marching, fighting, stealing food, etc. Balancing! It’s easy to see why Margaret Mitchell said, “A better book there never was.” This is a photo of my neighbor, Nancy Alice Messinger, in weight, the Rhode Island State House, with a Civil War cannon, and various battle flags. Nancy was born in 1945.
Her father, Norman Allen Messinger, was born in 1893. Norman’s father, George Eli Leslie Messinger, was born in 1842. 10 George fought for the Union during the hannover, Civil War. When he became ill, his father joined his company in order to help him; his father was Eli Messinger (1815-1867). This is George Messinger (left), and his father, Eli, in their Civil War uniforms. How many Americans can say that their grandfather fought in the Civil War? Very few, perhaps less than ten. George contracted typhoid fever and pneumonia.
His will-power seemed to save him: “One evening I heard the doctor tell [my parents] that I could not live until morning. That made me determined to get well and during the weight, night the use of in essays, change came for the better.” George was in the war’s first battle, Bull Run, which was a Confederate victory, followed by a disorderly Union retreat. During the retreat, George found the tent where he had slept the previous night. Something similar happened to weight essays, Sam Watkins after the Battle of Lookout Mountain. He ended up in a sea of Union soldiers: 3. Quotes! Momigliano on Modern Historians. In the last issue, I said that I was impressed with the writing of Arnaldo Momigliano. I decided to weight, read a 1961 essay by Momigliano called “Historicism in Contemporary Thought.” 11 One might define historicism as the 2 kinds of descriptive essay, view that man is the product of history, of a particular historical period, and ideas are also the product of history, of a particular historical period. Historicism is closely linked with the philosophy of weight essays history, and closely linked with Hegel, an tiho dissertationen, important philosopher of history. Since my most original theory is a philosophy of history, and essays, since I was influenced by Hegel, one might say that my work is a kind of hannover dissertationen historicism.
But I would be wary of weight putting such a label on myself because it may carry with it beliefs that I don’t share, such as the belief that all truth is relative, the custome writing, belief that free will doesn’t exist, etc. Momigliano seems to have little interest in what I call the philosophy of history. He pays short shrift to Spengler: he says that Spengler contended that “man cannot escape the weight essays, destiny imposed on him by hannover the civilization to weight, which he belongs.” 12 In my view, however, Spengler’s key argument is that all civilizations go through a phase of hannover dissertationen decline, and then die; according to Spengler, our civilization is declining, and is on the road to death. I disagree with Spengler’s view. Weight Essays! Momigliano neither agrees nor disagrees. Perhaps he doesn’t understand the philosophy of history, perhaps he doesn’t think any philosophy of history is possible.
Hegel was once the leader of historicism, but according to writing, Momigliano, this position is now occupied by two German thinkers, Max Weber and essays, Wilhelm Dilthey. Hegel’s philosophy of history talked about the evolution of the idea of use of in essays God; it was intertwined with Protestant theology. Momigliano says that Weber and Dilthey have a secular historicism, “a historicism liberated from metaphysical presuppositions.” 13 He distinguishes this secular historicism from that of weight essays Benedetto Croce, which “carried with it a theological inheritance of Hegelian origin.” 14 He says that Raymond Aron attempted a synthesis of Weber and Dilthey in his Introduction to the Philosophy of dissertationen History . 15 The central question of Momigliano’s essay is, How much influence does the new brand of German historicism the Weber-Dilthey brand have over weight essays, historians? Momigliano’s essay is essentially a survey of modern historians. Momigliano argues that most modern historians haven’t been influenced by Weber and Dilthey; he speaks of, “a resistance to business environment essay, German historicism.” 16 But before I discuss Momigliano’s survey, I’d like to say at the outset that I don’t think Hegel’s philosophy of history should be quickly dismissed, and I’m not convinced that Weber and Dilthey should be called philosophers of weight history. Hegel understood the importance of the dialectic, the importance of the conflict of balancing essay opposites what Heraclitus called enantiodromia , running toward the opposite. This notion of dialectic is, in my view, an eternal truth, a truth that will never be obsolete. It plays an important role in weight essays, Eastern philosophy, in Jungian psychology, etc.
I’m not convinced that either Weber or Dilthey understood this idea, and I’m certain that they didn’t go past it. And this isn’t all that Hegel understood. When he talks about the evolution of the stein essay, God idea, he’s also talking about the evolution of the human mind, consciousness, personality. So his remarks are psychological as well as theological. His ideas on evolution resemble the ideas of Freud and weight, Jung on the evolution of the mind. For example, Jung’s Answer to use of in essays, Job deals with the weight, evolution of the idea of God among the use of in essays, ancient Hebrews. Jung agrees with Hegel that the mind develops over the centuries.
Does he agree with Hegel’s view that history has a goal? Jung felt that the development of the individual has a goal (creating a balanced personality, in which the various elements of the mind can express themselves). So it’s not far-fetched to assume that Jung would be sympathetic to essays, Hegel’s view that history has a goal. Hannover! In conclusion, I don’t think we should dismiss Hegel’s philosophy of history simply because he brings God into history, and because he justifies the religion and government of his own time. Should Weber and Dilthey be regarded as philosophers of history? I read some of Weber’s books many years ago, and I found his remarks on Protestant civilization and Chinese civilization enlightening.
But I don’t recall anything in Weber about the weight, issue of renaissance and decadence, which I regard as the most important issue in the philosophy of history. If Weber has influenced some historians, as Momigliano suggests, then perhaps that points to a convergence between history and sociology; modern history, instead of focusing on kings and generals, is dealing with society as a whole. As for Dilthey, I haven’t read him. What I’ve heard about him doesn’t lead me to regard him as a philosopher of history. Now let’s turn to Momigliano’s survey of modern historians. In each European country, he identifies the leading historian, and his most important disciples. Hannover! Many of the leading historians we’ve discussed in this e-zine. Momigliano says that contemporary Dutch historians are “All in the shadow of their great Huizinga.” According to Momigliano, the leading British historian is Lewis Namier; Momigliano says that Namier influenced a generation of British historians. Namier made a close analysis of the essays, British ruling class more specifically, the British Parliament in the 1700s. Momigliano thinks that Namier influenced Ronald Syme, who discussed the Roman ruling class in his Roman Revolution . Namier’s work on the British Parliament has been compared with Charles Beard’s work on the Founding Fathers.
The study of a ruling class might be called “group biography” or prosopography. One of Namier’s best-known disciples was A.J.P. Taylor. Namier himself was influenced by Pareto, who wrote about the nature of elites; when Namier was a young student in Switzerland, he heard Pareto lecture. The leading French historian, according to Momigliano, is Marc Bloch, who steered his disciples toward rural history and social history. The researches of this school are carried out with “the utmost minuteness.” Momigliano mentions German historians who were influenced, not by a historian, sociologist, or philosopher, but by a poet, Stefan George.
Momigliano speaks of “the cult of the hero-leader in the circle of Stefan George,” and he says that George started a movement “to reinterpret the writing essays, whole of European history in terms of great personalities.” 17 The historian Ernst Kantorowicz was influenced by weight George, and was a member of balancing reaction essay his circle. 18. Momigliano says that Werner Jaeger was a leader of a German movement to develop a new humanism sometimes called the “third humanism” (I suppose the first was Greek, the second Renaissance). This movement disappeared soon after the Nazis came to power. Jaeger is weight, best known for his three-volume work Paideia , a study of Greek culture and education (Momigliano calls it “a history of use of Greek thought” 19). Momigliano sometimes goes beyond history, and mentions psychologists like Jung, and philosophers like Heidegger. He says that with Heidegger, “the theory of history was introduced into an existentialist philosophy.” 20 Momigliano mentions my old nemesis Leo Strauss: “In his Chair at Chicago [Strauss] has carried out a penetrating critique of historicism with the object of reviving the weight, idea of natural law.” 21 Momigliano mentions Mircea Eliade, and says that his writing on the history of religion “produced brilliant generalizations on of descriptive essay, insufficient and sometimes refractory material.” 22. 4. Thucydides on the Causes of War.
I also read an essay by Momigliano called “Some Observations On Causes of War in Ancient Historiography.” In this essay, he says that both Herodotus and Thucydides wrote about war: Herodotus wrote about the Persian Wars, Thucydides about the Peloponnesian War. Thucydides sticks to his main topic, while Herodotus seizes any excuse to essays, digress. Momigliano says that Thucydides is business essay, adept at weight essays describing constitutional changes, changes in the internal structure of hannover dissertationen a city-state, perhaps because the Sophists of his time focused on constitutional changes. Momigliano says that Thucydides isn’t very good at describing the causes of foreign wars, such as the Peloponnesian War. Thucydides overlooks the essays, “traditions and interests which were involved in the fight. Gertrude Stein Picasso! [Thucydides] is weight essays, much less convincing than Herodotus in discovering the remote origins of the war.” 23. This weakness in Thucydides is, according to Momigliano, a weakness that he shares with ancient historians in general. Ancient historians were clumsy at explaining the of descriptive, causes of war because they accepted war as a “natural fact. about which nothing could be done.” This attitude persisted into modern times because ancient historians influenced later historians.
It was only in weight essays, the 19th century, says Momigliano, that historians began to balancing reaction essay, take a deeper view of war, and “histories of essays wars began to become less technical and more deeply concerned with political and business analysis essay, social implications.” 24. When Momigliano discusses different kinds of causes, he quotes the Greek terms used by essays Thucydides. Since I don’t know Greek, I went on of descriptive essay, the Internet to find a translation of weight essays these terms. I came across an essay called “Thucydides on the Causes of the Peloponnesian War,” by P. Business Essay! J. Rhodes. 25 Rhodes doesn’t mention Momigliano, but he seems to agree with Momigliano’s contention that Thucydides does a poor job of explaining root causes. Rhodes says that Thucydides is a partisan, an apologist for Athens: Was the essays, real cause of the war Athenian hubris? Rhodes says that Athens wanted war, and felt that this was a good time for it: So while Thucydides puts the blame on Sparta, Rhodes puts the blame on 2 kinds essay, Athens on the immoderate ambitions of weight Athens. L. James Hammond 2014. “The Southerners honestly believed in the right of secession, not merely as a revolutionary, but as a constitutional right.
They not only held that whenever any people finds the government under which it is living oppressive and subversive of the gertrude stein essay, ends for which it was instituted, it is essays, both the right and the duty of that people to throw off the government and establish a new one in its stead; but they believed also that every State in reaction, the Union held the reserved right, under the weight, constitution, to withdraw peaceably from the Union at 2 kinds pleasure. “They believed that every man’s allegiance was due to his State only, and that it was only by weight virtue of the State’s continuance in of descriptive, the Union that any allegiance was due to the general government at all; wherefore the withdrawal of a State from the Union would of itself absolve all the essays, citizens of that State from whatever obligations they were under to maintain and respect the Federal constitution. In other words, patriotism, as the dissertationen, South understood it, meant devotion to one’s State, and only a secondary and consequential devotion to the Union, existing as a result of the State’s action in making itself a part of the Union, and terminable at any time by the State’s withdrawal. “They were as truly and purely patriotic in their secession and in essays, the fighting which followed, as were the gertrude, people of the North in their adherence to the Union itself. The difference was one of opinion as to weight, what the duties of a patriot were, and not at all a difference in of descriptive essay, the degree of essays patriotism existing in the two sections. You, reader, who shouldered your musket and essays, fought like the hero you are, for the Union and the old flag, if you had been bred at the South, and had understood your duty as the Southerners did theirs, would have fought quite as bravely for secession as you did against it; and essays, you would have been quite as truly a hero in the one case as in the other, because in 2 kinds, either you would have risked your life for the sake of that which you held to be the right.”( A Rebel’s Recollections ) Eggleston makes the Southern case better than Watkins does; he has more literary polish than Watkins, he’s better-educated, and weight essays, he’s a deeper thinker. But Watkins is a master of the humble detail, the charming anecdote, and business essay, his battle descriptions are superb. back. Eggleston says, “Virginia did not want to secede, and her decision to this effect was given in essays, the election of a convention composed for the most part of men strongly opposed to secession. The Virginians believed they had both a moral and a constitutional right to withdraw voluntarily from a Union into which they had voluntarily gone, but the majority of them preferred to use of in essays, remain as they were. They did not feel themselves particularly aggrieved or threatened by the election of essays Mr.
Lincoln, and so, while they never doubted that they had an unquestionable right to secede at use of in essays will, they decided by their votes not to do anything of the kind. This decision was given in essays, the most unmistakable way, by heavy majorities, in an election which involved no other issue whatever.” Should Lincoln have attempted appeasement? Did the Virginians really want to stay in the Union? It has been argued that, “Sparta was eager for dissertationen war, because of her fear of essays Athenian power, but did not decide to embark on the war until her allies presented her with a suitable occasion for it.”(P. J. Rhodes) Is this also true of Virginia?
Was Virginia “eager for 2 kinds of descriptive essay war” but waiting for a “suitable occasion”? back. Has anyone ever compared the Peloponnesian War to essays, the Civil War? Sparta’s economy was based on slavery and agriculture, so Sparta might be compared to the South. The Athenian economy was based on manufacturing, commerce, and tribute from subject cities. Perhaps the Civil War was fought in in essays, order to weight essays, give historians a vacation they don’t have to work hard to find the root cause, it’s clear that slavery is the root cause. As Lincoln put it in business environment analysis essay, his 2nd Inaugural, “Slaves constituted a peculiar and weight essays, powerful interest. Essay! All knew that this interest was somehow the weight, cause of the war.” Rarely has there been a major war whose root cause was so obvious. back.
An example of someone who had a hunch that they would survive is Napoleon. Napoleon felt sure that, until he had performed his destined role, any attempt to gertrude picasso, assassinate him was bound to fail: “They used to try and scare me with the story that Georges was dogging my footsteps in weight essays, order to assassinate me. The utmost he could do however was to balancing chemical reaction essay, murder my aide-de-camp. It was impossible to murder me at the time. Had I already fulfilled my destiny? I feel as if I am being driven towards an essays, unknown goal. Balancing Chemical Reaction Essay! As soon as it is attained and there will no longer be any use for me, an atom will be sufficient to annihilate me; but until then, all human efforts whether in Paris or in essays, the army will be powerless to prevail against me.”( Napoleon the Man , by Dmitri Merezhkovsky, Ch.
9) back. The FindAGrave article says that George “is at present engaged in the manufacture of pottery at East Brookfield, Mass.” But Dave Adams, a descendant of hannover dissertationen George, tells me that the pottery was in weight essays, Cambridge (A. H. Hews), that George owned an inn at West Brookfield, Massachusetts, and that George is listed in quotes in essays, the 1907 Providence city directory as the owner of an inn at Providence (11 West Park Street). back.
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Writer’s Writer and weight, Writer’s Writer’s Writer. If you go to the website of the restaurant L’Huitriere (3, rue des Chats Bossus, Lille) and hannover dissertationen, click on ‘translate’, the zealous automaton you have stirred up will instantly render everything into English, including the address. And it comes out as ‘3 street cats humped’. Translation is essays, clearly too important a task to be left to machines. 2 Kinds Of Descriptive Essay. But what sort of human should it be given to? Imagine that you are about to read a great French novel for the first time, and can only weight do so in your native English. The book itself is more than 150 years old. What would/ should/do you want? The impossible, of course. But what sort of impossible? For a start, you would probably want it not to gertrude stein, read like ‘a translation’.
You want it to essays, read as if it had originally been written in English – even if, necessarily, by an author deeply knowledgable about chemical essay, France. Essays. You would want it not to essay, clank and whirr as it dutifully renders every single nuance, turning the text into the exposition of weight, a novel rather than a novel itself. You would want it to provoke in you most of the same reactions as it would provoke in a French reader (though you would also want some sense of hannover, distance, and the pleasure of exploring a different world). But what sort of French reader? One from the late 1850s, or the early 2010s? Would you want the essays, novel to have its original effect, or an effect coloured by the later history of French fiction, including the consequences of this very novel’s existence? Ideally, you would want to gertrude picasso, understand every period reference – for instance, to Trafalgar pudding, Ignorantine friars or Mathieu Laensberg – without needing to flick downwards or onwards to footnotes. Finally, if you want the essays, book in ‘English’, what sort of English do you choose? Put simply, on the novel’s first page, do you want the schoolboy Charles Bovary’s trousers to tiho dissertationen, be held up by braces, or do you want his pants to be held up by weight essays suspenders? The decisions, and the colouration, are irrevocable. So we might fantasise the translator of our dreams: someone, naturally, who admires the environment, novel and its author, and who sympathises with its heroine; a woman, perhaps, to help us better navigate the weight, sexual politics of the environment essay, time; someone with excellent French and better English, perhaps with a little experience of translating in the opposite direction as well.
Then we make a key decision: should this translator be ancient or modern? Flaubert’s contemporary, or ours? After a little thought, we might plump for weight, an Englishwoman of Flaubert’s time, whose prose would inevitably be free of anachronism or other style-jarringness. And if she was of the dissertationen, time, then might we not reasonably imagine the author helping her? Let’s push it further: the translator not only knows the weight, author, but lives in his house, able to observe his spoken as well as his written French. Custome Writing Essays. They might work side by side on the text for as long as it takes. And now let’s push it to the limit: the female English translator might become the Frenchman’s lover – they always say that the best way to learn a language is through pillow talk. As it happens, this dream was once a reality.
The first known translation of Madame Bovary was undertaken from a fair copy of the manuscript by Juliet Herbert, governess to Flaubert’s niece Caroline, in essays 1856-57. Writing Essays. Quite possibly, she was Gustave’s lover; certainly, she gave him English lessons. ‘In six months, I will read Shakespeare like an open book,’ he boasted; and together they translated Byron’s ‘The Prisoner of Chillon’ into French. (Back in 1844, Flaubert claimed to his friend Louis de Cormenin that he had translated Candide into weight essays, English.) In May 1857, Flaubert wrote to Michel Levy, the custome essays, Parisian publisher of Madame Bovary , that ‘an English translation which fully satisfies me is being made under my eyes. Essays. If one is 2 kinds of descriptive, going to appear in England, I want it to weight, be this one and not any other one.’ Five years later, he was to call Juliet Herbert’s work ‘a masterpiece’. But by this time it – and she – were beginning to disappear from literary history. Though Flaubert had asked Levy to fix Juliet up with an English publisher, and believed he had written to 2 kinds of descriptive essay, Richard Bentley Sons about the weight essays, matter, no such letter from Paris survives in gertrude the Bentley archives (perhaps because Levy objected to the idea and declined to act on it).
The manuscript was lost, and so – more or less – was Juliet Herbert, until her resurrection by Hermia Oliver in Flaubert and essays, an English Governess (1980).[*] If Juliet’s ‘masterpiece’ were ever to gertrude essay picasso, resurface, we should hope it comes attached to the lost Flaubert-Herbert correspondence, and to a photograph of Juliet, of whom no known image has survived. The translation of Candide has also been lost. Weight. As for Flaubert and Shakespeare: it’s not clear if he ever achieved fluency in gertrude English – with or without Juliet – but his library contained the works of weight essays, ‘le grand William’ in both English and French. So the British reader had to wait another three decades – until 1886, six years after the author’s death – for the first published translation of custome essays, Madame Bovary . It too was made by weight essays a woman, Eleanor Marx Aveling (Marx’s daughter – a quiet irony, given Flaubert’s caustic views on the Commune), as is the very latest, by the American short-story writer – and Proust translator – Lydia Davis. In between, most of the hannover, 15 or more versions have been made by men. Weight. The best-known of hannover, them are Francis Steegmuller and Gerard Hopkins; and though Steegmuller did write some fiction – including mysteries under the essays, name of David Keith – it’s a fair bet that Davis is the best fiction writer ever to translate the novel.
Which suggests a further question to the opening list: would you rather have your great novel translated by hannover a good writer or a less good one? This is not as idle a question as it seems. Weight. That perfect translator must be a writer able to subsume him or herself into the greater writer’s text and identity. Hannover Dissertationen. Writer-translators with their own style and worldview might become fretful at the necessary self-abnegation; on weight essays the other hand, disguising oneself as another writer is an act of the imagination, and custome writing essays, perhaps easier for the better writer. So if Rick Moody tells us that Lydia Davis is ‘the best prose stylist in America’, and Jonathan Franzen that ‘few writers now working make the words on the page matter more,’ does this make her better or worse equipped to render the best prose stylist of 19th-century France into 21st-century American English? Davis’s stories, typically from two or three lines to two or three pages, are decidedly unFlaubertian in scope and extent; they vary from the wry episode and rapt reverie to weight essays, the slightly cute apercu; and if there is French influence around it is from a later date (thus Davis’s ‘The Race of the Patient Motorcyclists’ seems to business environment analysis essay, owe a debt to Jarry).[†] Her own life is clearly the basis for some of the stories, whereas Flaubert’s aesthetic was famously based on self-exclusion. On the other hand, Davis’s work shares the Flaubertian virtues of essays, compression, irony and environment analysis essay, an extreme sense of control. And if Flaubert in his monasticism and exemplary pertinacity is a writer’s writer, Davis was described to me recently by an American novelist as a ‘writer’s writer’s writer’. That her translation of Madame Bovary was deemed worthy of serialisation by Playboy magazine – which puffed it as ‘the most scandalous novel of all time’ on the cover – is a noisier irony of which Flaubert might well have approved.
The publicity sheet for the US edition calls Emma ‘the original desperate housewife’, which, cheesy though it sounds, isn’t far off the mark. Madame Bovary is many things – a perfect piece of fictional machinery, the essays, pinnacle of realism, the slaughterer of 2 kinds of descriptive essay, Romanticism, a complex study of failure – but it is also the first great shopping and fucking novel. At least none of those 15 translators has needed to recast its title; problems start, rather, with the subtitle, ‘Moeurs de province’. You can have ‘Provincial Manners’ (Marx Aveling), ‘Life in a Country Town’ (Hopkins, 1948), ‘A Story of Provincial Life’ (Alan Russell, 1950), ‘Provincial Lives’ (Geoffrey Wall, 1992), or ‘Provincial Ways’ (Lydia Davis). No one, as far as I can see, has adopted the cousinly subtitle of Middlemarch, ‘A Study of essays, Provincial Life’. Several translators simply delete it – even, surprisingly, Steegmuller (1957); though this could have been the publisher’s initial dereliction, since more recent editions contain his nicely emphatic ‘Patterns of Provincial Life’. Subtitles can seem fussy and old-fashioned (thus the cover of the current Penguin Middlemarch dispenses with Eliot’s five subsidiary words), but omission seems a little perverse. Many translators (or publishers) also omit the next words in the novel – the dedication to Maitre Senard, who got Flaubert off the charge of outraging morality and religion when the novel, still in serial form, was prosecuted.
Davis, an essay impressive completist, includes both this and weight, the other, and more important, dedicatory page of the first edition, to Flaubert’s partner-in-literature Louis Bouilhet. Though – to enter the 2 kinds of descriptive, world of micro-pedantry – she (or her publisher) prints the weight essays, two dedications in writing essays reverse order to the original French edition. But then translation involves micro-pedantry as much as the full yet controlled use of the linguistic imagination. The plainest sentence is full of hazard; often the choices available seem to be between different percentages of loss. It’s no surprise that Davis took nearly three years to essays, translate Madame Bovary : some translations need as long as the book itself took to write, a few even longer.
John Rutherford’s magisterial version of Leopoldo Alas’s La Regenta – a kind of Spanish Bovary – cost him, according to his calculation, five times as many hours to translate as it had taken Alas to write. ‘Translation is a strange business,’ Rutherford noted in his introduction, ‘which sensible people no doubt avoid.’ Take a simple sentence from the first pages of Flaubert’s novel. In his early years, Charles Bovary is allowed by his parents to run wild. He follows the ploughmen, throwing clods of earth at the crows; he minds turkeys and does a little bell-ringing. Flaubert awards such activities a paragraph, and business, then summarises the consequences of this pre-adolescent life in two short sentences which he pointedly sets out as a separate paragraph: ‘Aussi poussa-t-il comme un chene. Il acquit de fortes mains, de belles couleurs.’ The meaning is quite clear; there are no hidden traps or false friends. If you want to try putting this into weight essays, English yourself first, look away now. Here are six attempts from the gertrude stein picasso, last 125 years to essays, translate yet not traduce:
1) Meanwhile he grew like an oak; he was strong of tiho hannover dissertationen, hand, fresh of weight essays, colour. 2) And so he grew like an oak-tree, and business environment analysis, acquired a strong pair of hands and a fresh colour. 3) He grew like a young oak-tree. Weight Essays. He acquired strong hands and a good colour. 4) He throve like an oak.
His hands grew strong and writing, his complexion ruddy. 5) And so he grew up like an oak. Essays. He had strong hands, a good colour. 6) And so he grew like an oak. He acquired strong hands, good colour. All contain the same information, but only the words ‘he’, ‘like’ and ‘strong’ are consistent to all six. Some of the matters these translators would have considered (on a scale from pertinent reflection to gut feel) would include: Whether to lay the paragraph out as two sentences or one; if the latter, then whether the break should be marked by a comma or a semicolon. Whether, indeed, to lay it out as a separate paragraph anyway: thus 1) chooses to run it on at the stein picasso, end of the previous paragraph, which makes its summarising effect less pointed.
Whether poussa implies more vigour than the English ‘grew’: hence 4)’s ‘throve’ and 5)’s addition of the intensifying ‘up’. Whether acquit is best rendered by a neutral word like ‘had’ or ‘was’; or whether it is essays, a verb indicating a kind of action, intended to parallel poussa . Balancing Chemical. Hence ‘acquired’ or ‘grew’ – though if you have ‘grew’ here, you need a different verb in the first sentence: hence ‘throve’. Whether you need to essays, – or can – keep the balance of ‘de fortes mains, de belles couleurs’. Only 1) does this by putting them both in the singular; the rest introduce an balancing chemical essay imbalance of number. What to do about belles couleurs . Essays. All five translators agree that there is no way of custome writing, preserving the plural form. Weight. But a) do you need to unpack this a little, and indicate that the young lad is acquiring a ‘fresh’ or ‘ruddy’ colour, or indeed ‘complexion’ (which decides that couleurs is limited to the face – though reference has already been made, on the novel’s first page, to his ‘red wrists’); or b) is essays, it self-evident where the essays, lad is, and what is happening to his skin, so a non-specific ‘good’ echoes a non-specific belles ? All these six versions – given in chronological order – have their virtues; none is obviously superior. 1) is Marx Aveling, a version which, as Davis notes in her introduction, caused Nabokov ‘much indignation in his marginal notations but to balancing essay, which he resorted in teaching the weight, novel’; 2) is Russell; 3) Hopkins; 4) which, even on quotes in essays this short evidence, looks freer than the others, is Steegmuller; 5) is Wall; and 6) Davis. Wall and essays, Davis are the two who stick closest to the original sentence structure and are least ‘interpretative’. There is a slightly pretentious term in wine tasting and wine writing called ‘mouthfeel’. (It is also slightly baffling: where else might you feel wine if not in your mouth?
On your foot?) The Oxford Companion to Wine calls it a ‘non-specific tasting term, used particularly for red wines, to indicate those textural attributes, such as smoothness, that produce tactile sensations on business essay the surface of the oral cavity’. Essays. There is similar mouthfeel about translation. Its general development over the last century and more has been away from smoothness and towards authenticity, away from a reorganising interpretativeness which aims for of descriptive essay, the flow of English prose, towards a close-reading fidelity – enjoy those tannins! – which seeks to echo the original language. We no longer use the verb ‘to English’ – it sounds proprietorial, even imperialist – but when Flaubert was first being translated it was still current: thus the first London and New York edition of Salammbo – published in essays 1886, the same year as Marx Aveling’s Madame Bovary – is stein, described on its title page as having been ‘Englished’ by (wait for it) ‘M. French Sheldon’. This progress away from ‘Englishing’ can be seen in the six versions of Charles’s growing (up) quoted above.
Similarly, in Chekhov translation, Constance Garnett has been succeeded by Ronald Hingley. Succeeded, and yet not supplanted: some of us continue to weight, read the Garnett translations. Mainly because they do the time-travelling work instantly, and give a better illusion of being a reader back then, rather than a reader now inspecting a text from long ago through precision optical instruments. It may be, however, that something different, or additional, is going on: a kind of balancing reaction essay, imprinting. The first translation we read of a classic novel, like the first recording we hear of a piece of essays, classical music, ‘is’ and remains that novel, that symphony.
Subsequent interpreters may have a better grasp of the language, or play the piece on period instruments, but that initial version always takes some shifting. The authentic rendering of every last nuance of meaning cannot be the sole purpose of translation. Balancing Essay. Because if it becomes so, it leads to the act of eccentric defiance that is Nabokov’s Eugene Onegin . In his 1955 poem ‘On Translating Eugene Onegin ’, Nabokov, addressing Pushkin, writes of weight, turning ‘Your stanza patterned on a sonnet,/Into my honest roadside prose –/All thorn, but cousin to your rose.’ When Nabokov’s version of the poem came out in 1964, it was prose laid out in stanza form, and more woody stalk than thorn. Readers of the poem in of descriptive English are best advised to have the two volumes of Nabokov’s headmasterly commentary to hand while apprehending the essays, poem’s dance and flow through, say, Charles Johnston’s version. An even weirder example of dissertationen, fidelity leading to perversity is weight essays, Dillwyn Knox’s 1929 translation of Herodas for the Loeb Classical Library.
Knox’s brilliant niece Penelope Fitzgerald describes the outcome in custome writing The Knox Brothers with a sympathetic glee: The language of the Mimes is precious, with unpleasant affected archaisms, and an honest translation, it seemed to Dilly, must be the weight, same. Cloistered in his study . . In Essays. . Dilly worked out his English equivalent to Herodas. ‘La no reke hath she of weight, what I say, but standeth goggling at me more agape than a crab’ is a typical sentence, while ‘Why can’t you tell me what they cost?’ comes out as ‘Why mumblest ne freetongued descryest the price?’ Satisfied, Dilly corrected his proofs; he read the reviews, all of which praised the balancing chemical, accuracy of the text but considered the translation a complete failure, with indifference. Essays. ‘If I am unintelligible,’ he wrote, ‘it is because Herodas was.’ Davis, in her introduction, notes that Gerard (not, as she has it, ‘Gerald’) Hopkins’s version has ‘added material in almost every sentence’; while Steegmuller produced a ‘nicely written, engaging version, smoother than Flaubert’s, with regular restructuring of the stein picasso, sentences and judicious omissions and additions’. Does this sound a trifle patronising to America’s greatest Flaubertian? Here is a typical addition (or rather, substitution) which will act as a good test of what a reader requires.
When Leon goes to meet Emma inside Rouen cathedral, he first has to get past a verger standing in the left-hand doorway beneath a statue that Flaubert refers to as ‘Marianne dansant’. Weight. This was the popular nickname for a carving of Salome dancing on of descriptive essay her hands before Herod. What do you do about this? Almost all translators render it as ‘Marianne Dancing’ or ‘The Dancing Marianne’. If you leave these words unannotated, readers will naturally imagine some cheery folkloric image. If you annotate them, then you divert the weight, reader away for a guidebook moment – as elbow-tugging as the intrusive verger will prove to stein, be to Leon and Emma. (You can half-solve it, as Davis does, by having notes at weight, the back but without indication in essays the text of their existence; so readers may find the solution, but perhaps not at weight, the right time.) Or, as Steegmuller alone does, in his unannotated version, you can cut to the chase and write: ‘The verger was just then standing in the left doorway, under the figure of the dancing Salome.’ This is use of, instantly comprehensible, and has the additional virtue of pointing up this image of lasciviousness beneath which Leon passes on essays his way to the tryst. (Inside the cathedral, this theme is essays, continued: when the verger reaches the tomb of the Comte de Breze, he solemnly points out Diane de Poitiers as a grieving widow, while the rest of us know her as a king’s mistress – and essays, also, as Emma is soon to be, the lover of a younger man.) Given that there is probably no one in tiho hannover Rouen who still refers to the statue as ‘Marianne dansant’, there is much to be said for Steegmuller’s solution. But some would find it overly interventionist. The root feature of Davis’s translation is essays, a close attention to Flaubert’s grammar and sentence structure, and an attempt to 2 kinds of descriptive essay, mirror it in English. For instance, observance of the essays, ‘comma splice’ – where two main clauses are connected by a comma rather than an environment analysis essay ‘and’ – or of subtle tense changes imperceptible to others (and sometimes imperceptible in English).
In the earlier example (‘Il acquit de fortes mains, de belles couleurs’), she writes the essays, boy had ‘good colour’ where Wall has the boy had ‘a good colour’: dropping the article retains the original plain adjective-noun balance. In her introduction, Davis castigates some of her predecessors for writing, wanting ‘simply to weight essays, tell this engrossing story in their own preferred manner’. Interviewed by the Times , she expanded on this: ‘I’ve found that the ones that are written with some flair and 2 kinds essay, some life to them are not all that close to weight essays, the original; the 2 kinds of descriptive essay, ones that are more faithful may be kind of clunky.’ This is the paradox and bind of translation. Weight. If to writing essays, be ‘faithful’ is to be ‘clunky’, then it is also to be unfaithful, because Flaubert was not a ‘clunky’ writer. Essays. He moves between registers; he cuts into the lyric with the prosaic; but this is gertrude picasso, French prose whose every syllable has been tested aloud again and again.
Flaubert said that a line of prose should be as rhythmical, sonorous and unchangeable as a line of poetry. He said that he aimed only at beauty, and wrote Madame Bovary because he hated realism (an exasperated, self-deluding claim, but still). He said that prose was like hair: it shines with combing. He combed all the time. As for those imprecise translators who nevertheless bring ‘flair’ and essays, ‘life’ to gertrude essay picasso, the novel: where does that flair and life come from, if not the novel itself? Davis concludes: ‘So what I’m trying to weight essays, do is what I think hasn’t been done, which is to create a well-written translation that’s also very close, very faithful to the French.’ This is a high claim; though I doubt any of those previous translators would have thought they were trying to do anything very different. Davis’s quest to be ‘very close, very faithful’ to the French works best when the quotes in essays, Flaubertian sentence is plain and declaratory. Take that great moment of delinquent self-awareness: ‘Emma retrouvait dans l’adultere toutes les platitudes du mariage.’ Davis’s ‘Emma was rediscovering in adultery all the weight essays, platitudes of marriage’ exactly reproduces the French, and has exactly the same effect. Custome. You might think hers is the obvious translation until you compare other versions. Both Steegmuller and Hopkins diminish the line by recasting it, and even Wall, who is closest to Davis, misses out the weight essays, necessary, intensifying ‘all’.
On the 2 kinds, other hand, a page or two later there is weight essays, this equally key sentence: ‘Tout et elle-meme lui etaient insupportables.’ This is an unusual sentence. Gertrude Stein. A usual sentence might be ‘Tout lui etait insupportable; elle-meme comprise’ or ‘y compris elle-meme’. Flaubert specifically links the ‘Tout et elle-meme’ and it is a mistake to decouple them, as Davis does, into ‘Everything seemed unbearable to her, even herself’ (which adds the clunk of essays, a repeated ‘her’). Wall also goes awry here: ‘It was quite unbearable, beginning with herself.’ Hopkins unpacks it perhaps too much: ‘She hated everything and everyone, including herself.’ Steegmuller is best, with: ‘She loathed everything, including herself.’ But even this doesn’t convey the full effect of that simple et – which is to indicate a separation of self from world which will culminate in the deed which finally does separate Emma’s self from the world. So Davis’s division of previous translators into stein essay picasso, flair-bringers and clunkheads doesn’t really hold; nor does her claim to weight essays, offer the best of both worlds. Two further examples.
After Emma’s seduction by Rodolphe, there is a paragraph describing her post-coital, semi-pantheistic experience of the forest surrounding her, with which she is for the moment in 2 kinds of descriptive essay harmony. But with the last sentence, Flaubert cuts this mood brutally: ‘Rodolphe, le cigare aux dents, raccommodait avec son canif une des deux brides cassee.’ This great anti-romantic moment has Rodolphe turning both to another physical pleasure (as Gurov will with his watermelon in essays Chekhov’s ‘The Lady with the Little Dog’), and to masculine, practical matters. All the use of, versions cited here begin, unsurprisingly, with ‘Rodolphe, a cigar between his teeth . Weight Essays. . .’ Wall goes on: was mending one of the two broken reins with his little knife. was mending a broken bridle with his penknife. was busy with his knife, mending a break in one of the bridles. was mending with his penknife one of the bridles, which had broken. Rein or bridle?
Knife, little knife or penknife? The difference is gertrude stein essay picasso, slight; all the versions contain the same information. Flaubert’s sentence does its business by not drawing attention to itself; its very downbeatness is the point, after the more rhapsodic prose that has preceded it. Wall, Steegmuller and essays, Hopkins all get this. Reaction Essay. Davis doesn’t. Instead, she ‘faithfully’ sticks to Flaubert’s sentence structure. But English grammar is not French grammar, and so the quiet cassee (which for all its quietness also hints at Rodolphe’s ‘breaking’ of Emma) has to be unpacked into a ‘which had broken’ – a phrase which now seems pretty redundant, as what would he mend that wasn’t broken? The sentence has a clunkiness which is imported, rather than faithfully transmitted, and quite unFlaubertian. The second example comes during Charles and essays, Emma’s visit to the opera in 2 kinds of descriptive Rouen – that greatest of the three great antiphonally constructed scenes in the novel – with Emma’s inner emotional life, her hopes and memories, being played off against the extravagantly exteriorised emotions of Lucia di Lammermoor . As her thoughts and essays, feelings swirl, Emma comes to recognise that both art and life are inadequate in their different ways. This is a key sentence in balancing reaction essay the novel: ‘Elle connaissait a present la petitesse des passions que l’art exagerait.’ It is a calm, balanced sentence, in three parts, with a triple alliteration, the part containing the second and third ‘p’ making up the central phrase. The choice for petitesse lies normally between ‘paltriness’ and ‘pettiness’, neither of which is weight, perfect, as they have a slightly more disapproving tinge than petitesse . Wall’s version has the weight and progress of the original:
For now she knew the custome writing essays, pettiness of the passions that art exaggerates. Hopkins takes the alliteration elsewhere: She knew now the triviality of those passions which art paints so much larger than life. Steegmuller retains the essays, triple alliteration: Now she well knew the true paltriness of the passions that art painted so large. She knew, now, how paltry were the business analysis, passions exaggerated by art. She needlessly turns the first major noun into essays, an adjective, then reverses the grammar of the final phrase. But the main failing of the sentence lies in those first three words: ‘knew’, ‘now’, ‘how’ – both a wail of assonance and balancing essay, a stuttering of rhythm far from the original. A translation can’t be read before the period in weight which it is use of in essays, written: this is both obvious, and a kind of brute annoyance. And it can’t – or at least shouldn’t – be written in a pastiche of the original work’s period. It must be written for the contemporary reader, yet give that reader the weight essays, same, or a similar, ease or difficulty as an business environment essay original reader would have had.
And just as there can be delinquent looseness, so there can be misguided over-accuracy. It is essays, very difficult to business essay, suggest (except in footnotes and introduction) the general literary context in which a book is written, which is often central to the writer. Essays. Books are often written against – against romanticism, against authorial ego and writing, intervention, against the notion that some themes are ‘higher’ than others. There is a linguistic context too: thus Michael Hofmann, introducing his translation of Metamorphosis , quotes Klaus Wagenbach to the effect that ‘the characteristic purity of Kafka, the weight, sober construction of business, his sentences and the paucity of his vocabulary are not understandable without his background in Prague German.’ Further, no two languages’ grammars match, and weight essays, their vocabularies diverge (English having many more words and choices than French). Even punctuations have different weights: thus the English exclamation mark is environment, shoutier than the French, so some of Flaubert’s have to be excised; Wall cuts more than Davis, who, at times, adds extra ones.
Nor do languages develop over time at the same rate. So, in essays the case of Madame Bovary , you are having to juggle the French writer then, the French reader then and now, the English translator now, the English reader then and now. At least nowadays some books are translated with less of a time-lag ( La Regenta was first published in 1884-85, but not ‘Englished’ until 1984). Hannover Dissertationen. Translators can quiz writers about what they mean, by weight essays email, or even in person: Don DeLillo had a London conference for tiho hannover, his European translators of Underworld , who not surprisingly faced a few problems in weight essays a novel which opens with a 60-page baseball game. 2 Kinds Of Descriptive. But translation is not always, or necessarily, about managing loss.
When my novel Flaubert’s Parrot was being translated into German, my editor in Zurich modestly suggested some additional flourishes: for essays, instance, a pun on gertrude picasso Flaubert as a ‘flea-bear’, and a German slang phrase for masturbation which literally means ‘to shake from the palm tree’. Weight Essays. Since Flaubert, at this point of my novel, was being masturbated in Egypt, this felt like a happy improvement on the English text. Adding something extra for German readers seemed a kind of fair-trade translation. But this advantage encloses a new danger: that of the writer anticipating this amiable to and fro with translator or foreign editor. I remember hearing a well-known British novelist admit in custome essays a radio interview that he had paused at essays, one point in his writing, thought of the pain he might be inflicting on his Scandinavian translators, and decided to make things easier for them. Apart from tiho hannover dissertationen this being a denial of your own language, it can easily lead to weight, the sort of international prose that is like an airline meal: it feeds all, doesn’t actually poison anyone, but isn’t noticeably nutritious. To compare several different versions of Madame Bovary is not to observe a process of accumulation, some gradual but inevitable progress towards certainty and authority (except in the occasional discarding of error); rather, it is to gaze at a sequence of approximations, a set of deliquescences. Tiho Dissertationen. How could it be otherwise when almost every word of the French can be rendered in several different ways? Consider the moment when Emma, Charles and Leon are eating ice-cream in a cafe by the harbour, having walked out essays, before the picasso, final scene of Lucia . Charles naively suggests that his wife stay on in the weight, city to essay, catch the weight essays, next performance – an balancing chemical reaction action which precipitates her affair with Leon.
Charles addresses his wife (the banality of phrase contrasting with the essays, recent flourishes of Donizetti) as ‘mon petit chat’. Chemical Essay. Marx Aveling has ‘pussy’, Mildred Marmur (1964) ‘my kitten’, Wall ‘my pussy-cat’, Hopkins ‘darling’, Steegmuller ‘sweetheart’, Russell and Davis ‘my pet’. Marx Aveling’s endearment would work then but sadly not now; Marmur’s is good; Wall’s brings in weight essays the slightly unwanted flavour of a bad Dean Martin movie; Steegmuller and custome, Hopkins deliberately duck the felinity (you could argue that the weight, French is already drained of environment analysis, it anyway); while Russell and Davis, mixing banality and distant animality, have found the best solution. Probably. At least for the moment. You can understand why Rutherford called translation a ‘strange business’ which ‘sensible people’ should best avoid. Davis’s Madame Bovary is essays, a linguistically careful version, in the modern style, rendered into an unobtrusively American English. At its best, it conveys the essay picasso, precision – which some think dryness – of weight, Flaubert’s prose in this novel, while its syntactical mirroring of the French sometimes brings us closer to Flaubert. At its worst, it takes us too far away from English, and makes us less aware of Flaubert’s prose than of Davis being aware of use of quotes in essays, Flaubert’s prose.
And such defects come from something very old-fashioned: a lack of love for essays, the work being translated. In her Times interview, Lydia Davis explained: I was asked to do the Flaubert, and it was hard to say no to another great book – so-called. I didn’t actually like Madame Bovary . Business Environment Analysis Essay. . . Weight. I find what he does with the language really interesting; but I wouldn’t say that I warm to it as a book . . . And I like a heroine who thinks and feels . . . well, I don’t find Emma Bovary admirable or likeable – but Flaubert didn’t either. I do a lot of use of, things that people don’t think a translator does. They think: ‘She loves Madame Bovary , she’s read it three times in French, she’s always wanted to translate it and she’s urging publishers to do another translation, and she’s done all the background reading . . .’ but none of that is true. Perhaps some of this is the translator’s equivalent of being demob-happy – three years slogging across Occupied France, it’s no wonder she throws her cap in the air at having come out alive. What does Davis mean by saying that Emma Bovary doesn’t think or feel?
The novel is weight, all about the essay picasso, perils of (wrong) thinking and (false) feeling. Perhaps she means ‘doesn’t think or feel in a way that I approve of’. As for complaining that Emma isn’t ‘admirable or likeable’ – this sounds like the most basic book-group objection. Lydia Davis’s Madame Bovary shows that it’s possible to produce a more than acceptable version of a book with which you are profoundly out of weight essays, sympathy. In that sense, it confirms that translation requires an act of the imagination as well as a technician’s proficiency. 2 Kinds Of Descriptive Essay. If you want a freer translation, Steegmuller is best; for a tighter one, go to Wall. And perhaps one day Juliet Herbert’s lost ‘masterpiece’ will turn up, and we shall be able to compare it to its successors – and see a new way of weight, necessarily falling short. [*] This exemplary work will shortly appear in French: Flaubert et une gouvernante anglaise: a la recherche de Juliet Herbert translated by Gillian Pink (Publications des universites de Rouen et du Havre, 2011). [†] Lydia Davis’s Collected Stories were reviewed by Clancy Martin in the LRB of 22 July. Julian Barnes has translated Alphonse Daudet’s In the Land of Pain . His collection of stories, Pulse , will be published in January.
Contact us for rights and issues enquiries. It is use of in essays, a pity that Julian Barnes in his piece on the new Penguin edition of Madame Bovary doesn’t mention the excellent translation by weight essays Margaret Mauldon ( LRB , 18 November). One of its many virtues is that it corrects the misprint all the translations he does mention fail to writing, notice. The first edition of Madame Bovary , published by Levy, was copied out weight essays, before publication by a certain Dubois. Dissertationen. Anyone who has seen the brouillons in the Bibliotheque Municipale in Rouen knows how hard a job he had. Weight. All the same, the hannover dissertationen, first edition, whatever inaccuracies it may have contained, didn’t have the misprint in Part 2, Chapter 14 that crept into later editions and has been preserved in most translations. Emma is at the height of weight, her nervous crisis after the end of the affair with Rodolphe. She calls for communion.
She feels something overcoming her. Then comes the misprint. Marx Aveling renders it: ‘Her body, relieved, no longer thought.’ Steegmuller goes for: ‘Her flesh had been relieved of its burdens, even the burden of thought.’ Russell and Wall get it wrong too. In French the misprint reads: ‘Sa chair allegee ne pensait plus. ’ A simple error given Flaubert’s atrocious handwriting. It should read: ‘Sa chair allegee ne pesait plus.’ ‘Her lightened flesh no longer had any weight.’ This was pointed out to me as a student in tiho hannover dissertationen 1979.
Lydia Davis, like Mauldon, is weight essays, one of the 2 kinds of descriptive, few who get it right.
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14 Reasons Why Living in Seoul, Korea is Awesome! If you#8217;re thinking about moving to Korea, you might just be making the best decision of your life! Obviously, we#8217;re biased over weight essays, here at Seoulistic, but here#8217;s a list of reasons why living in Seoul, Korea might be for you! Transportation in Seoul is very affordable. The 1050 won (approximately $1USD) base fare is the envy of commuters in other major cities with more expensive public transportation systems. Plus, public transportation in Seoul is super convenient.
You can get to quotes in essays pretty much every corner of Seoul only relying on subways and buses. Public transportation is also very safe in Korea. Sure there#8217;s a few crazies here and there, and some lines do tend to get more crowded than others, but that goes for any public transportation system in a major city. The majority of Seoul commuters are exhausted businessmen and students that just want to go home in peace. Weight Essays? If you#8217;re already living in Seoul, you know how valuable public transportation has been to you. Essay? Most major cities around the world have access to nature within city borders, and Seoul is no exception. If you live in weight essays, Seoul, you have Bukhan Mountain, a national park that can be climbed in less than a day for some of the best views of Seoul. There#8217;s also countless other smaller neighborhood mountains that can be climbed. If you#8217;re more of a water person, the Han River is one of the quotes in essays best places to go in Seoul. You can ride a bike, jog or even windsurf.
The major parks in Seoul are kept clean, and they#8217;re very accessible, even with public transportation. Weight? If you need a nature break from looking at a computer all day, Seoul#8217;s got tons to offer. The Han River is stein, one of the best places to visit in Seoul. See our post on 15 Activities Along the weight essays Han River! Korea is not home to custome essays any 3-star Michelin restaurants, but that doesn#8217;t mean the food isn#8217;t good. Go to any average restaurant in Seoul, and you#8217;ll have Korean comfort foods like kimchi jjigae and seolleongtang make you feel like you grew up with your very own Korean grandma. It#8217;s also affordable for everyone; you can get lunches and weight essays dinner for 6,000 won. Plus, Korean food is very well-balanced with a good amount of vegetables and essay meat in every meal. Living in weight, Korea will change your diet, and it#8217;s probably for the better. Living in Korea, you#8217;ll be spoiled by super fast internet speeds. And in practical terms, that equals download large music albums, movies and programs in minutes and business environment essay sometimes even less (when downloading from Korea-based servers).
But more than speed, you#8217;ll love the weight fact that you#8217;re always connected. Busses, subways and high speed trains all have wifi. 2 Kinds Of Descriptive Essay? You can also go to the many cafes that offer their wifi for free. or even latch on weight essays to the plethora of unprotected wifi spots. Living in Korea can be very affordable for those looking to save money. If you happen to get a job here, many companies pay for your housing. And that#8217;s a huge money saver. But even if you#8217;re paying rent on chemical essay your own, rents can go as low as 300,000 won for small studio apartments.
Hanging out with friends doesn#8217;t have to be expensive either. A night of singing at weight essays a noraebang or watching a movie can be less than 10,000 won. Essays? Although Korea is one of the richest nations in the world, the prices are still very affordable for many. Generally speaking, Korea is a very safe place. And although there are cases of theft, rape and murder just like in any other country, it#8217;s not very common, nor are people afraid of these crimes. Weight? Many people will leave their laptops, mobile phones and bags and go to the bathroom with complete faith that their stuff will be there when they come back. And they#8217;re usually right! Women walking home alone past midnight is also a very common sight. The only thing you might be worried about is North Korea. And you shouldn#8217;t be. Here#8217;s why: The delivery culture in Korea has been around for a while, and its developed its own unique benefits.
When ordering food delivery, plates and bowls are provided by restaurants so you don#8217;t have all that trash. They come back to pick it up. Both the environment and garbagemen rejoice. Also, delivery goes to places without addresses. You can order delivery while having a picnic on the Han River between the 2 kinds baseball field and swimming pools. And delivery is not limited to essays food.
If you#8217;re going to an important meeting but forgot your notes, you can have that delivered to you in less than an hour, too! August 2017: Things to Do in Seoul Events and Festivals. July 2017: Things to Do in Seoul Events and Festivals. June 2017: Things to Do in balancing reaction, Seoul Events and Festivals. Special Opening: Changyeonggung Royal Palace at Night. I am planning on checking out about moving there. I feel I need an adventurous change in essays, my like.
Fear it maybe too late though. Can#8217;t wait til next September. ? everything about your site and vids! I want to move to but I don#8217;t know how! lol. If it would be ranked, food should be the FIRST one. Stein Picasso? Great page#8230;. Weight? helped a lot during my preperation for Korea. Business Environment? I wish after I finish my studies to be able to move to weight essays Seoul. What I know about Seoul so far makes it my no.1 destination. #128578; I think in general South Korea is a great country to gertrude stein essay picasso live in. I#8217;ve been living here for weight, five months and i must say i am mightily impressed by this country. 2 Kinds Of Descriptive? You#8217;re so lucky:) how did you manage to move there?
Most foreigners are teachers right? Don#8217;t forget cheap college tuition! One of my brothers favorite memories from his late winter/early spring trip to Seoul was watching nice ajeossis playing Yut in a park. Weight? We#8217;re hoping to move there by tiho dissertationen, the end of January. I laughed so hard at that last pic. Thanks for the post! Well, I am a loving korean fan. I wish I can live in seoul even just for once. Weight? #128512; US$300 for an apartment in Seoul? I have heard horror stories that Seoul is as expensive as Manhattan?
I just got orders to be there on 8-Feb, so I am rushing to get ready. Any tips? Visa? Shots? Language? Girl Friends? Taxis? Any tips would be awesome! What is the date of quotes this article? Thanks. my name is muhamad. i live in iran.we have economic relations with your companies[lg-samsung-daewoo-hundai-#8230;] your country is very beautiful. i love korean foods. i think people of south korea in their mind[they think] that iran is enemy with south korea.but north korea has not muslims. north korea have not believe god and Prophets.but we are friend of n.korea because they help us to weight have missiles to fire and launch 20 missile to military bases in iraq .and saddam decrease his missile attacks to tehran.because in war with saddam[iraq] suppported with eurpoa and china ,soviet and arabs and lanch 300 scud missile to gertrude our country. powerfull countries in west that support saddam against iran ,Unfortunately,they support israel[arsenal of nuclear and chemical weapons] against iran this time .they are supporting of Israel that has War criminal leaders isreal send terrorists to kill iranian big scientistes. but iran is weight, quiet country beacause god helped us against all threats[for sample united stated#8217;s attack against of descriptive essay, iran in Operation Eagle Claw in tabas].
I invite you to travel to essays my country iran. Monuments : the capital of Achaemenid Empire at of descriptive essay Persepolis, 2,500 years ago. Essays? Statue of 2 kinds Xerxes Empire that defeat Roman Empire is bow in Kermanshah city. The city burnt in 5000 years ago in east of iran. 2000-year-old temple in Yazd city and Isfahan city that is famous and most beautiful city in middle east . Iran has The varied natures: Kish island with beautiful beach and warm waters in weight essays, the Persian Gulf, Caspian Sea and beautiful forests in northern Iran, Iranian beautiful wilderness in the East and South, do you know the hottest spot on earth is use of quotes, located in weight essays, Iran. Religious shrines : tomp of the prophets in iran, for 2 kinds of descriptive essay, sample the Prophet Daniel in Susa, Imam Reza in Mashhad that has fifty million pilgrims a year and even pakistan#8217;s Christians went to pilgrimage and healing. Delicious and essays colorful foods :Because the different ethnic groups in Iran have customs and cuisine of their own. Iran has popular Persian poets in the world , Saadi and Hafez in shraiz city and Ferdowsi in mashhad city. with best wishes for writing essays, you. I am a Korean and I lived in Korea for 7 years.
Korea especially Seoul has best transportation in weight, the world. If you have chance to go to tiho Seoul, use subway to move around, it is weight essays, sooooooo cool. Cheap, clean and most importantly Free-wifi. And also Korea is extremely easy to get a job if you are an English speaker. There is a lot of #8216;English Preschools#8217; and all of them has a lot of money.
And that means they pay teachers very high. My local Korean restaurant (Meekak [Hangul plz]) has the button. My family loves it!
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Essay Depot Essays and Research Papers. Home Depot STRENGTHS - Strong market position - Higher returns than competitors - Balanced brand mix - WEAKNESSES Sub optimal . capital structure - Product recall OPPORTUNITIES - International presence - Growing popularity of power tools - Increasing online sales THREATS - Intense competition - Slowdown in US housing market - Rising labor wages in the US |The Home Depot Inc. (HD) . Retailing , Robert Nardelli , The Home Depot 1722 Words | 7 Pages. Team Project #1 Home Depot , Inc. in the New Millennium (HBS 9-101-117) Question 1. Assess Home Depot’s financial performance from 1986 . to 1999. Weight. What explains the tiho, decline in weight, performance in 2000? (See Question #1 Exhibit) The slowing economy in 2000 combined with Home Depot’s aggressive expansion efforts was the reason for Home Depot’s poor financial performance. Between June 1999 and May 2000, the FED had raised interest rates six times – or a total of 1.75 percentage points – in custome, an effort. Cash flow , Cash flow statement , Corporate finance 1438 Words | 6 Pages. ?David McGee Jr. BUS 482 Strategic Analysis Professor Bevensee The Home Depot The Home Depot , Inc. Weight. (The Home . Depot ), based in Georgia, US, is a home improvement retailer. Use Of. The Company operates The Home Depot stores, which are full-service, warehouse-style stores.
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his team dynamics (Cutajar, 2012).” But many leaders tend to use and abuse these leadership styles to their best advantage, with any regard for business environment analysis others, . former CEO of weight essays, Home Depot Robert Nardelli is a great example. Robert Nardelli was heavily criticized for his leadership style and methods he used during his tenure as CEO of Home Depot . Stein Picasso. The purpose of the paper below is describe his style of weight, leadership and take a position on whether I feel his actions rose to the level of being unethical. The paper will. Fiedler contingency model , Fred Fiedler , Leadership 2073 Words | 7 Pages. ?Home Depot Case Study Bernie Marcus and custome essays Arthur Blank opened the first Home Depot in weight essays, Atlanta, Georgia in 1979. They had big . plans for the hardware and home improvement industry. Balancing. Today, Home Depot is extremely successful with over essays 22 million customers shopping weekly and 66 billion in 2 kinds essay, revenue, which makes them the largest home improvement retailer in essays, the world. Home Depot employs over essays 300,000 people and operates over essays 2200 stores in the US, Mexico, Puerto Rico, China, the writing essays, Virgin Islands, Guam and. Better , Customer , Customer service 1216 Words | 4 Pages. Home Depot was founded in 1978 by essays Bernie Marcus and Arthur Blank in 2 kinds, Atlanta, Georgia.
With their store, Marcus and weight Blank revolutionized the . do-it-yourself home improvement market in the United States. Gertrude Essay. Home Depot began as a very basic store, operated in a large, no-frills warehouse. Home Depot carries over 35,000 products, with national brand names along with the Home Depot brand. At the start, Home Depot was able to offer exceptional customer service with knowledgeable employees who could guide. Chief executive officer , Customer service , Frank Blake 1759 Words | 5 Pages. HOME DEPOT ANALYSIS In this case analyses we have a good example of different kinds of leadership and how leaders can change their . organization's preferences. Weight. This report gives a detailed example about two CEOs for Home Depot ; Bob Nardelli and Frank Black. Dissertationen. The previous Leaders for Home Depot before these two CEOs did very well by challenging the market and exploring the weight essays, customer needs and the way of grabbing the customer attention. Balancing Essay. They established special character to weight essays Home Depot and hannover their.
Customer , Customer service , Frank Blake 2212 Words | 6 Pages. The Home Depot You Can Do It. Weight Essays. We Can Help. History of custome writing essays, The Home Depot As you can see the essays, stock that we charted for this . 2 Kinds. project was the Home Depot's stock. The Home Depot was founded by two men Bernie Marcus and Arthur Blank. Their original partnership was called MB associates and they officially incorporated on June 29, 1978. They did change their company name obviously to The Home Depot . They opened their first store on weight essays, June 22, 1979 in Atlanta Georgia. They have been growing ever since then.
Arthur Blank , Expense , Frank Blake 914 Words | 3 Pages. Home Depot Case Study 1. In what ways can (a) decentralizing and balancing chemical reaction (b) centralizing authority help an weight organization like Home . Depot to improve its performance? The case of Home Depot brings about the opportunity for one to view both the business environment analysis essay, benefits of centralized and weight decentralized authority and picasso the benefits that it brings to an organization. As noted by the success of the essays, Home Depot , it is vital that mangers in businesses know which form of of descriptive, authority is weight essays, appropriate during certain stages of the. Decentralization , Decision making , Home improvement 1441 Words | 4 Pages. the problems that were easy to point out and also the essay, ones that weren’t apparent to weight other employees. Nardelli needed to rebuild an organization that could . easily compete with other big names, and this was relatively easy because the balancing chemical, people at weight, Home Depot knew the tiho dissertationen, importance of taking advantage of its growing size. Nardelli did this by implementing a three strategy plan that involved enhancing the core, extending the business, and expanding the market.
Nardelli’s first step in the process was enhancing. Anthropology , Culture , Entrepreneurship 1784 Words | 5 Pages. Centralizing Business - Home Depot. A Centralized Structure Transforms Home Depot 1. Essays. In what ways can (a) decentralizing and (b) centralizing authority help an of descriptive organization . like Home Depot to improve its performance? From 2000 to 2007, Robert Nardelli, a former senior executive at GE (General Electric), served as CEO of Home Depot . Almost immediately, he transformed Home Depot’s logistics and leadership structure from decentralized to centralized. It was one way to respond to weight essays the pressures of competition from the gertrude essay picasso, Internet. Bureaucracy , Cerberus Capital Management , Chief executive officer 1261 Words | 4 Pages.
Strengths Home Depot has many competitive strengths that make them a very difficult company to compete against. Home Depot’s strengths . include: • Business model • Well known brand name • Extensive product offerings • Ability to grow Home Depot’s business model, the first of essays, its kind in the home improvement industry has revolutionized the way customers shop for essay home improvement products. Their business model is simple. Sell home improvement products and services to DIY, BIY, and professional. BQ , Brand , Customer 672 Words | 3 Pages. Business Analysis of weight, Home Depot Inc. Lowell Adkins MGT/521 April 18 2012 Jeff Jordan Business Analysis of Home Depot Inc. . The Home Depot was founded in 1978 by Bernie Marcus and Arthur Blank. Along with investment banker Ken Langone and tiho dissertationen merchandising guru Pat Farrah, the founders’ vision of one-stop shopping for the do-it-yourselfer came to fruition when they opened the first two Home Depot stores on weight essays, June 22, 1979, in Atlanta, Georgia (“The Home Depot ”, 2011). From the start, associates.
Customer , Customer service , Home 742 Words | 3 Pages. Home Depot Case Analysis Andrew Stovall MKTG 6301.01 Dr. Rajaratnam September 27, 2012 Home Depot Case Analysis Summary . The Home Depot Case takes place in dissertationen, 2007 during a time when the former chairman and weight essays CEO Robert Nardelli had recently announced his “mutually agreed” upon resignation from the company. Essay. Nardelli started at weight, Home Depot in 2000 and produced rapid growth for the company because of dissertationen, his cost-cutting measures and centralized purchasing strategies. Weight. However, even though the profits. Company , Customer , Customer service 975 Words | 4 Pages.
Home Depot vs. Business Environment Essay. Lowe’s Retail Home Improvement Financial Analysis Background Introduction The home improvement sector of the economy . is large with two major players in the industry and essays with many smaller local and regional competitors. These two major competitors are Home Depot and stein picasso Lowe’s. Essays. These two companies account for over $110 billion in total sales each year. Balancing Chemical. Even though sales have gone down over the past few years due to weight the downturn in the economy they have not gone down nearly. Balance sheet , Financial ratio , Financial ratios 1164 Words | 5 Pages. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of writing written from an author's personal point of view, but the definition is vague, overlapping with . Balancing Chemical Reaction. those of an article, a pamphlet and a short story. Essays can consist of a number of essays, elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author.
Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages. Home Depot Retail Research Project. The Home Depot Jonathan Stiffler MKTG 1010 June 27th, 2013 Bernie Marcus and Arthur Blank founded the Home . Depot in 1978. Business Environment Analysis. Along with investment banker Ken Langone and merchandising expert Pat Farrah, the founder’s vision of one-stop shopping for the do-it-yourselfer became a reality when they opened the first two Home Depot stores on June 22, 1979, in essays, Atlanta, Georgia.
The first stores, at business analysis, around 60,000 square feet each, were enormous warehouses that dwarfed the competition. Home improvement , Lowe's , Marketing 1767 Words | 5 Pages. The Home Depot Case Analysis The Home Depot NYSE: HD, headquartered in Vinings, Georgia, is a home improvement retailer that . aims for both the do-it-yourself consumer and weight the professional in home improvement and construction. It is the second largest retailer in the United States, behind Wal-Mart; and use of quotes in essays the third largest retailer in the world, behind Wal-Mart and French company Carrefour. The Home Depot operates about weight 1,900 stores across North America. The company operates stores in the United. Cobb County, Georgia , Customer , Customer service 1815 Words | 6 Pages. 1. What is your assessment of Nardelli’s changes at Home Depot ? Which of the changes had the greatest impact? In my opinion Nardelli, . during the years he was The Home Depot’s CEO, did an hannover dissertationen overall great job. The changes he introduced to the business model were necessary to help The Home Depot to weight keep growing in the right direction. Custome Essays. The Home Depot , at the time Nardelli was appointed CEO, was a company with an old style management and operations that could have compromised the weight essays, future of the company.
Consultative selling , Customer , Customer service 665 Words | 3 Pages. ?Abstract Home Depot went through many changes as a result of new CEO Frank Blake and Vice President of essays, Human Resources, Tim Crow. The culture . inherited by both Executives from their predecessors went through a transformation process for essays the business to thrive once again. Blake and Crow justified laying off 1,200 workers as a result of their vision to enhance Home Depot’s position in the market and to go back to the organizations foundations embedded by founders Arthur Blank and Bernard Marcus. Frank Blake , Human resource management , Human resources 1606 Words | 7 Pages.
Home Depot Environmental Analysis. Home Depot Environmental Analysis Home Depot Environmental Analysis An organizations external environment consists of three . interrelated sets of factors that play a principal role in determining the chemical reaction essay, opportunities, threats, and constraints that the company will face. The first factor is the remote environment that comprises of factors originating beyond any organizations operating situation such as economic and essays technological factors. The second factor is industry environment. This more directly. Better , Competition , Home 949 Words | 3 Pages. ?Executive Summary -The Home Depot The Home Depot (Ticker: HD) is the world’s largest home-improvement retailer along with being . an custome writing essays American Fortune 50 company.
The company operates 2,259 retail building supply/home improvement “warehouse” type stores all across the United States, Canada and weight essays Mexico. The Home Depot has over 340,000 team members and balancing reaction essay is based in weight essays, Atlanta, Georgia. The average store size is just over 100,000 square feet along with an additional 24,000 square feet set aside for seasonal. Chief executive officer , Customer , Customer service 797 Words | 2 Pages. The Home Depot-Leadership in Crisis Management. The Home Depot : Leadership in Crisis Management Introduction Established in 1979, The Home Depot has proved to be a . leading retail company founded upon providing excellent products at competitive prices sold from knowledgeable sales representatives. Through this concept, The Home Depot has dominated both professional and hannover dissertationen do-it-yourself sales across the world.
In 1992, The Home Depot was faced with a new challenge. Hurricane Andrew struck with vengeance and devastated 75,000 homes across. Bias , Crisis , Crisis management 2096 Words | 6 Pages. Home Depot A. Executive Summary * Introduction * The Home Depot Story - First Stage (1979-2000) * The Home . Depot Story – Second Stage (2000 – 2006) * Problem Identification * Case Questions Introduction * Home Depot was founded in essays, 1978 in Atlanta, Georgia by Bernie Marcus and Arthur Blank. * Both of them worked at Home Improvement Company in California and were fire by this company. * So instead of looking for a new job they decide to start up their own business. Customer , Customer service , Frank Blake 1495 Words | 6 Pages. Home Depot Case Study Fabian Gonzalez Great Basin College Line and staff relationships consist of hannover, two . types of authorities that work hand in hand in order for a company to work in weight, an efficient manner. Line authority deals with the ability to make decisions over use of in essays production, sales, or finance, while staff authority deals with the assisting of those who have line authority, by helping with the performance expected by workers (Certo). Weight. In the Home Depot case, the.
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The Home Depot , Incorporated. Internal Environment Home Depot is a large-scale home improvement retail store. Weight. The company was . founded by Bernard Marcus, Arthur Blank (CEO), and Kenneth G. Lagone in 2 kinds, Atlanta, GA during 1979. Funding for this company came from an investment firm Invemed of essays, New York among several other private investors. Within the next eleven years HD started its horizontal growth by balancing reaction expanding to Florida in weight essays, 1981.
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?Practice Essay This writing exercise will help your instructor discover who you are as a writer. The essay will be used to . help you identify your strengths and weaknesses as a writer, and it wil allow the instructor the essays, opportunity to identify grammatical, stylistic, and mechanical problems specific to each student. Do not fret over the idea that grammar, style, and mechanics will be evaluated in this assignment. This writing exercise is merely one way to take a look at any particular patterns. Academia , Composition studies , Essay 1153 Words | 4 Pages.
There will be two long (30-minute) essays on the College Board AP Art History Exam. Gertrude Essay Picasso. In each case, you will have to compare two works of art of . Essays. your own choosing. One essay will require that you include an use of artwork from outside the European tradition in your selection. Choosing Works to Compare. It is important to select appropriate works that will allow for thoughtful comparison and contrast. You might want to take note of works that relate to weight essays some of the themes discussed earlier so that you have. Art , Art critic , Essay 1976 Words | 6 Pages. Narrative Essay Vs. Descriptive Essay. ? Narrative Essays Are a Great Read Name ENG121 Professor June 16, 2014 Narrative Essays Are a . Great Read Narrative essays and of descriptive essay Descriptive essays can be similar but they are different in weight, nature.
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Guidelines for writing a literature review. by Helen Mongan-Rallis. Last updated: November 21, 2014. [Note: For these guidelines, in some sections I have quoted directly some of the the steps from: Galvan, J. Weight! (2006). Business Essay! Writing literature reviews: a guide for essays students of the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.) . Glendale, CA: Pyrczak Publishing. ] A literature review is not an annotated bibliography in analysis essay, which you summarize briefly each article that you have reviewed. While a summary of the what you have read is contained within the literature review, it goes well beyond merely summarizing professional literature. It focuses on weight essays a specific topic of interest to you and includes a critical analysis of the relationship among different works, and relating this research to your work.
It may be written as a stand-alone paper or to provide a theoretical framework and rationale for gertrude stein a research study (such as a thesis or dissertation). These guidelines are adapted primarily from Galvan (2006). Galvan outlines a very clear, step-by-step approach that is very useful to essays, use as you write your review. I have integrated some other tips within this guide, particularly in suggesting different technology tools that you might want to essay, consider in helping you organize your review. In the sections from weight Step 6-9 what I have included is the outline of reaction essay, those steps exactly as described by Galvan. I also provide links at essays, the end of tiho hannover, this guide to resources that you should use in order to weight essays, search the literature and tiho hannover dissertationen as you write your review.
In addition to essays, using the step-by-step guide that I have provided below, I also recommend that you (a) locate examples of literature reviews in your field of study and skim over these to get a feel for what a literature review is and how these are written (I have also provided links to a couple of examples at the end of these guidelines (b) read over other guides to writing literature reviews so that you see different perspectives and approaches: Some examples are: Read through the links provided below on use of quotes APA guidelines so that you become familiar with the common core elements of how to weight essays, write in business analysis, APA style: in weight essays, particular, pay attention to general document guidelines (e.g. Quotes In Essays! font, margins, spacing), title page, abstract, body, text citations, quotations. It will help you considerably if your topic for your literature review is the one on which you intend to do your final M.Ed. project, or is in some way related to weight essays, the topic of essay, your final project. However, you may pick any scholarly topic. Step 3: Identify the literature that you will review : Familiarize yourself with online databases (see UMD library resource links below for weight essays help with this), identifying relevant databases in your field of study.
Using relevant databases, search for literature sources using Google Scholar and also searching using Furl (search all sources, including the Furl accounts of other Furl members). Some tips for use of in essays identifying suitable literature and weight narrowing your search : Start with a general descriptor from the database thesaurus or one that you know is already a well defined descriptor based on past work that you have done in custome, this field. You will need to essays, experiment with different searches, such as limiting your search to descriptors that appear only in the document titles, or in both the document title and in the abstract. Redefine your topic if needed: as you search you will quickly find out if the topic that you are reviewing is too broad. Try to narrow it to a specific area of interest within the broad area that you have chosen (remember: this is merely an introductory literature review for quotes Educ 7001). It is a good idea, as part of your literature search, to look for existing literature reviews that have already been written on this topic. As part of your search, be sure to identify landmark or classic studies and weight theorists as these provide you with a framework/context for your study. Import your references into your RefWorks account (see: Refworks Import Directions for guide on how to stein, do this from different databases). You can also enter references manually into RefWorks if you need to. Once you have identified and located the essays, articles for your review, you need to analyze them and chemical reaction organize them before you begin writing:
Overview the articles : Skim the articles to get an weight essays idea of the general purpose and content of the article (focus your reading here on the abstract, introduction and first few paragraphs, the conclusion of each article. Tip: as you skim the articles, you may want to record the notes that you take on each directly into gertrude picasso RefWorks in the box for User 1. You can take notes onto note cards or into a word processing document instead or as well as using RefWorks, but having your notes in RefWorks makes it easy to organize your notes later. Group the articles into categories (e.g. into weight topics and subtopics and chronologically within each subtopic). Once again, it's useful to enter this information into your RefWorks record. You can record the topics in the same box as before (User 1) or use User 2 box for the topic(s) under which you have chosen to tiho hannover, place this article. Take notes : Decide on weight the format in which you will take notes as you read the custome writing essays, articles (as mentioned above, you can do this in RefWorks. You can also do this using a Word Processor, or a concept mapping program like Inspiration (free 30 trial download), a data base program (e.g.
Access or File Maker Pro), in essays, an Excel spreadsheet, or the old-fashioned way of using note cards. Be consistent in how you record notes. Define key terms: look for differences in the way keys terms are defined (note these differences). Balancing Chemical! Note key statistics that you may want to use in the introduction to your review. Select useful quotes that you may want to include in your review. Important : If you copy the exact words from an article, be sure to cite the page number as you will need this should you decide to use the quote when you write your review (as direct quotes must always be accompanied by page references). To ensure that you have quoted accurately (and to save time in note taking), if you are accessing the article in weight, a format that allows this, you can copy and paste using your computer edit -- copy -- paste functions. Note: although you may collect a large number of quotes during the note taking phase of your review, when you write the essay, review, use quotes very sparingly. The rule I follow is to quote only when when some key meaning would be lost in translation if I were to paraphrase the original author's words, or if using the original words adds special emphasis to a point that I am making. Note emphases, strengths weaknesses: Since different research studies focus on different aspects of the issue being studied, each article that you read will have different emphases, strengths. and weaknesses. Your role as a reviewer is to evaluate what you read, so that your review is not a mere description of different articles, but rather a critical analysis that makes sense of the collection of articles that you are reviewing.
Critique the research methodologies used in the studies, and essays distinguish between assertions (the author's opinion) and actual research findings (derived from empirical evidence). Identify major trends or patterns: As you read a range of articles on your topic, you should make note of trends and patterns over time as reported in the literature. This step requires you to gertrude stein essay, synthesize and weight essays make sense of what you read, since these patterns and trends may not be spelled out in the literature, but rather become apparent to you as you review the essay picasso, big picture that has emerged over time. Your analysis can make generalizations across a majority of studies, but should also note inconsistencies across studies and over time. Identify gaps in the literature, and essays reflect on why these might exist (based on the understandings that you have gained by reading literature in this field of study). These gaps will be important for you to address as you plan and write your review. Identify relationships among studies: note relationships among studies, such as which studies were landmark ones that led to subsequent studies in the same area. Tiho Dissertationen! You may also note that studies fall into different categories (categories that you see emerging or ones that are already discussed in essays, the literature). When you write your review, you should address these relationships and tiho dissertationen different categories and discuss relevant studies using this as a framework. Keep your review focused on your topic: make sure that the articles you find are relevant and weight essays directly related to your topic. As you take notes, record which specific aspects of the article you are reading are relevant to gertrude essay picasso, your topic (as you read you will come up with key descriptors that you can record in your notes that will help you organize your findings when you come to write up your review).
If you are using an electronic form of note taking, you might note these descriptors in a separate field (e.g. in RefWorks, put these under User 2 or User 3; in weight essays, Excel have a separate column for each descriptor; if you use Inspiration, you might attach a separate note for key descriptors. Evaluate your references for currency and coverage: Although you can always find more articles on your topic, you have to decide at what point you are finished with collecting new resources so that you can focus on writing up your findings. However, before you begin writing, you must evaluate your reference list to ensure that it is business environment up to date and has reported the most current work. Typically a review will cover the last five years, but should also refer to any landmark studies prior to this time if they have significance in shaping the direction of the field. If you include studies prior to weight essays, the past five years that are not landmark studies, you should defend why you have chosen these rather than more current ones.
Step 5: Summarize the literature in use of quotes, table or concept map format. Galvan (2006) recommends building tables as a key way to help you overview, organize, and essays summarize your findings, and balancing chemical suggests that including one or more of the tables that you create may be helpful in your literature review. If you do include tables as part of your review each must be accompanied by an analysis that summarizes, interprets and synthesizes the literature that you have charted in the table. You can plan your table or do the weight essays, entire summary chart of your literature using a concept map (such as using Inspiration) You can create the table using the table feature within Microsoft Word, or can create it initially in Excel and then copy and paste/import the the Excel sheet into Word once you have completed the table in stein picasso, Excel. Essays! The advantage of using Excel is that it enables you to tiho, sort your findings according to a variety of factors (e.g. sort by date, and then by author; sort by methodology and then date) Examples of tables that may be relevant to your review: Definitions of key terms and weight concepts. Research methods Summary of research results. Step 6: Synthesize the literature prior to writing your review. Using the notes that you have taken and summary tables, develop an outline of your final review.
The following are the key steps as outlined by Galvan (2006: 71-79) Consider your purpose and voice before beginning to quotes, write. Weight Essays! In the case of this Educ 7001 introductory literature review, your initial purpose is to provide an overview of the business analysis, topic that is of interest to you, demonstrating your understanding of key works and essays concepts within your chosen area of focus. You are also developing skills in reviewing and writing, to provide a foundation on which you will build in subsequent courses within your M.Ed. and ultimately in your final project. In your final project your literature review should demonstrate your command of your field of quotes, study and/or establishing context for a study that you have done.
Consider how you reassemble your notes: plan how you will organize your findings into a unique analysis of the essays, picture that you have captured in your notes. Chemical Reaction! Important: A literature review is weight not series of annotations (like an annotated bibliography). Galvan (2006:72) captures the difference between an annotated bibliography and 2 kinds a literature review very well: . in essence, like describing trees when you really should be describing a forest. In the case of weight, a literature review, you are really creating a new forest, which you will build by using the trees you found in the literature you read. Create a topic outline that traces your argument: first explain to of descriptive, the reader your line or argument (or thesis); then your narrative that follows should explain and justify your line of essays, argument. You may find the program Inspiration useful in mapping out tiho dissertationen your argument (and once you have created this in a concept map form, Inspiration enables you to convert this to weight essays, a text outline merely by clicking on the outline button). Business Analysis! This can then be exported into a Microsoft Word document. Reorganize your notes according to the path of weight essays, your argument Within each topic heading, note differences among studies.
Within each topic heading, look for obvious gaps or areas needing more research. Plan to custome, describe relevant theories. Plan to discuss how individual studies relate to weight essays, and advance theory Plan to summarize periodically and, again near the environment analysis, end of the review Plan to present conclusions and essays implications Plan to suggest specific directions for future research near the hannover, end of the review Flesh out your outline with details from your analysis. Step 7: Writing the essays, review (Galvan, 2006: 81-90) Identify the use of quotes in essays, broad problem area, but avoid global statements Early in weight essays, the review, indicate why the topic being reviewed is balancing chemical important Distinguish between research finding and other sources of information Indicate why certain studies are important If you are commenting on the timeliness of a topic, be specific in weight, describing the tiho, time frame If citing a classic or landmark study, identify it as such If a landmark study was replicated, mention that and indicate the weight, results of the replication Discuss other literature reviews on your topic Refer the reader to other reviews on issues that you will not be discussing in details Justify comments such as, no studies were found. Avoid long lists of nonspecific references If the results of previous studies are inconsistent or widely varying, cite them separately Cite all relevant references in the review section of thesis, dissertation, or journal article. Step 8: Developing a coherent essay (Galvan, 2006: 91-96) If your review is long, provide an overview near the beginning of the tiho hannover dissertationen, review Near the essays, beginning of a review, state explicitly what will and stein will not be covered Specify your point of view early in essays, the review: this serves as the thesis statement of the review. Aim for a clear and tiho hannover cohesive essay that integrates the key details of the literature and communicates your point of view (a literature is not a series of annotated articles). Use subheadings, especially in weight, long reviews Use transitions to help trace your argument If your topic teaches across disciplines, consider reviewing studies from each discipline separately Write a conclusion for the end of the review: Provide closure so that the path of the argument ends with a conclusion of some kind. How you end the review, however, will depend on your reason for writing it.
If the review was written to stand alone, as is the case of a term paper or a review article for publication, the use of in essays, conclusion needs to make clear how the weight, material in the body of the review has supported the assertion or proposition presented in writing, the introduction. On the other hand, a review in a thesis, dissertation, or journal article presenting original research usually leads to the research questions that will be addressed. Check the flow of your argument for coherence. Galvan, J. Essays! (2006). Writing literature reviews: a guide for students of the behavioral sciences ( 3rd ed.).
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