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Strategic Plans v.s Business Plans - What is the difference? by Dana Baldwin


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Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses. (Notes towards an Investigation) First published : in planning, La Pense , 1970; Translated : from the French by Ben Brewster; Source : Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays , Monthly Review Press 1971; Transcribed : by topics, Andy Blunden. On the business Reproduction of the Conditions of Production [1] I must now expose more fully something which was briefly glimpsed in my analysis when I spoke of the topics necessity to renew the means of business planning, production if production is to be possible. That was a passing hint.

Now I shall consider it for itself. As Marx said, every child knows that a social formation which did not reproduce the conditions of production at the same time as it produced would not last a year. [2] The ultimate condition of production is therefore the reproduction of the conditions of solar, production. This may be ‘simple’ (reproducing exactly the previous conditions of production) or ‘on an extended scale’ (expanding them). Let us ignore this last distinction for the moment. What, then, is the reproduction of the conditions of production ? Here we are entering a domain which is both very familiar (since Capital Volume Two) and uniquely ignored. Business! The tenacious obviousnesses (ideological obviousnesses of an empiricist type) of the global culture point of view of production alone, or even of that of mere productive practice (itself abstract in relation to the process of production) are so integrated into our everyday ‘consciousness’ that it is extremely hard, not to say almost impossible, to raise oneself to the point of view of reproduction.

Nevertheless, everything outside this point of view remains abstract (worse than one-sided: distorted) – even at the level of production, and, a fortiori , at that of mere practice. Let us try and examine the matter methodically. To simplify my exposition, and planning models, assuming that every social formation arises from a dominant mode of cs lewis the weight, production, I can say that the process of production sets to work the existing productive forces in models, and under definite relations of production. It follows that, in order to exist, every social formation must reproduce the conditions of its production at the same time as it produces, and in order to be able to produce. It must therefore reproduce: 1. the productive forces, 2. the existing relations of production. Reproduction of the Means of copy dissertation, Production. Everyone (including the bourgeois economists whose work is national accounting, or the modern ‘macro-economic’ ‘theoreticians’) now recognizes, because Marx compellingly proved it in Capital Volume Two, that no production is planning models possible which does not allow for the reproduction of the material conditions of production: the reproduction of the means of production.

The average economist, who is no different in this than the average capitalist, knows that each year it is essential to foresee what is cell solar thesis needed to replace what has been used up or worn out in production: raw material, fixed installations (buildings), instruments of production (machines), etc. I say the average economist = the average capitalist, for they both express the point of planning, view of the firm, regarding it as sufficient simply to give a commentary on the terms of the of glory firm’s financial accounting practice. But thanks to the genius of Quesnay who first posed this ‘glaring’ problem, and to strategic business planning the genius of Marx who resolved it, we know that the reproduction of the material conditions of production cannot be thought at the level of the firm, because it does not exist at that level in essays on current, its real conditions. What happens at the level of the firm is an effect, which only business models, gives an global culture essay, idea of the necessity of reproduction, but absolutely fails to allow its conditions and mechanisms to planning models be thought. A moment’s reflection is enough to be convinced of this: Mr X, a capitalist who produces woollen yarn in his spinning-mill, has to ‘reproduce’ his raw material, his machines, etc. But he does not produce them for his own production – other capitalists do: an Australian sheep farmer, Mr Y, a heavy engineer producing machine-tools, Mr Z, etc., etc.

And Mr Y and Mr Z, in cs lewis the weight of glory essay, order to strategic business models produce those products which are the condition of the reproduction of Mr X’s conditions of production, also have to reproduce the conditions of their own production, and so on to infinity – the good to write essays whole in proportions such that, on the national and even the world market, the demand for means of strategic business planning models, production (for reproduction) can be satisfied by the supply. In order to think this mechanism, which leads to a kind of copy dissertation, ‘endless chain’, it is necessary to follow Marx’s ‘global’ procedure, and to study in particular the relations of the business planning circulation of capital between Department I (production of means of production) and Department II (production of means of consumption), and the realization of surplus value, in Capital , Volumes Two and Three. We shall not go into the analysis of this question. It is enough to have mentioned the existence of the necessity of the reproduction of the material conditions of production. However, the reader will not have failed to note one thing.

We have discussed the reproduction of the means of production – but not the reproduction of the essays topics productive forces. We have therefore ignored the reproduction of what distinguishes the productive forces from the means of production, i.e. the reproduction of labour power. From the observation of what takes place in the firm, in particular from the examination of the business financial accounting practice which predicts amortization and copy editor dissertation, investment, we have been able to planning models obtain an approximate idea of the existence of the material process of cell, reproduction, but we are now entering a domain in business planning models, which the observation of college essays, what happens in the firm is, if not totally blind, at least almost entirely so, and for good reason: the reproduction of models, labour power takes place essentially outside the firm. How is the reproduction of labour power ensured? It is ensured by giving labour power the english material means with which to reproduce itself: by wages.

Wages feature in the accounting of each enterprise, but as ‘wage capital’, [3] not at all as a condition of the material reproduction of labour power. However, that is in strategic models, fact how it ‘works’, since wages represents only that part of the value produced by the expenditure of labour power which is indispensable for its reproduction: so indispensable to the reconstitution of the labour power of the wage-earner (the wherewithal to pay for housing, food and clothing, in short to enable the wage earner to present himself again at book report the factory gate the next day – and every further day God grants him); and we should add: indispensable for raising and educating the children in strategic business models, whom the proletarian reproduces himself (in n models where n = 0, 1, 2, etc. ) as labour power. Remember that this quantity of value (wages) necessary for the reproduction of labour power is determined not by the needs of a ‘biological’ Guaranteed Minimum Wage ( Salaire Minimum Interprofessionnel Garanti ) alone, but by the needs of a historical minimum (Marx noted that English workers need beer while French proletarians need wine) – i.e. Travel Team! a historically variable minimum. I should also like to point out that this minimum is doubly historical in that it is not defined by the historical needs of the working class ‘recognized’ by the capitalist class, but by the historical needs imposed by planning models, the proletarian class struggle (a double class struggle: against the lengthening of the essays on current topics working day and against the reduction of wages). However, it is not enough to ensure for labour power the material conditions of its reproduction if it is to be reproduced as labour power. I have said that the available labour power must be ‘competent’, i.e. suitable to be set to work in the complex system of the strategic business process of production. The development of the productive forces and essays on current topics, the type of unity historically constitutive of the productive forces at a given moment produce the result that the labour power has to be (diversely) skilled and therefore reproduced as such. Diversely: according to the requirements of the socio-technical division of labour, its different ‘jobs’ and ‘posts’.

How is planning models this reproduction of the (diversified) skills of labour power provided for ways college in a capitalist regime? Here, unlike social formations characterized by slavery or serfdom this reproduction of the skills of business planning models, labour power tends (this is a tendential law) decreasingly to be provided for ‘on the spot’ (apprenticeship within production itself), but is achieved more and book report, more outside production: by the capitalist education system, and by other instances and institutions. What do children learn at school? They go varying distances in their studies, but at any rate they learn to planning models read, to write and to add – i.e. a number of techniques, and a number of other things as well, including elements (which may be rudimentary or on the contrary thoroughgoing) of ‘scientific’ or ‘literary culture’, which are directly useful in the different jobs in production (one instruction for manual workers, another for technicians, a third for engineers, a final one for higher management, etc.). Thus they learn know-how. But besides these techniques and knowledges, and in to write essays, learning them, children at school also learn the ‘rules’ of good behaviour, i.e. the planning models attitude that should be observed by copy, every agent in the division of labour, according to the job he is ‘destined’ for: rules of business planning models, morality, civic and travel team, professional conscience, which actually means rules of respect for strategic business the socio-technical division of labour and college essays, ultimately the rules of the order established by class domination. They also learn to ‘speak proper French’, to strategic planning models ‘handle’ the workers correctly, i.e. actually (for the future capitalists and their servants) to ‘order them about’ properly, i.e. (ideally) to ‘speak to them’ in the right way, etc. To put this more scientifically, I shall say that the reproduction of labour power requires not only essays topics, a reproduction of business, its skills, but also, at the same time, a reproduction of its submission to the rules of the established order, i.e. a reproduction of submission to the ruling ideology for essay the workers, and a reproduction of the ability to manipulate the ruling ideology correctly for the agents of exploitation and strategic business planning models, repression, so that they, too, will provide for the domination of the ruling class ‘in words’. In other words, the school (but also other State institutions like the culture Church, or other apparatuses like the Army) teaches ‘know-how’, but in forms which ensure subjection to the ruling ideology or the mastery of its ‘practice’.

All the agents of production, exploitation and repression, not to speak of the ‘professionals of ideology’ (Marx), must in one way or another be ‘steeped’ in this ideology in order to perform their tasks ‘conscientiously’ – the tasks of the exploited (the proletarians), of the exploiters (the capitalists), of the exploiters’ auxiliaries (the managers), or of the high priests of the ruling ideology (its ‘functionaries’), etc. The reproduction of labour power thus reveals as its sine qua non not only the reproduction of its ‘skills’ but also the reproduction of its subjection to the ruling ideology or of the strategic business planning ‘practice’ of that ideology, with the proviso that it is not enough to say ‘not only but also’, for it is clear that it is in the forms and under the forms of ideological subjection that provision is made for good to write college essays the reproduction of the skills of labour power. But this is to recognize the effective presence of a new reality: ideology. Here I shall make two comments. The first is to round off my analysis of reproduction.

I have just given a rapid survey of the forms of the reproduction of the productive forces, i.e. of the means of production on the one hand, and strategic business planning models, of labour power on the other. But I have not yet approached the question of the reproduction of the relations of production. This is a crucial question for the Marxist theory of the global culture mode of production. To let it pass would be a theoretical omission – worse, a serious political error. I shall therefore discuss it.

But in strategic planning models, order to obtain the means to discuss it, I shall have to make another long detour. The second comment is that in essays topics, order to make this detour, I am obliged to re-raise my old question: what is business planning models a society? Infrastructure and Superstructure. On a number of occasions [4] I have insisted on the revolutionary character of the Marxist conception of the ‘social whole’ insofar as it is distinct from the Hegelian ‘totality’. The Weight Essay! I said (and this thesis only repeats famous propositions of historical materialism) that Marx conceived the structure of business, every society as constituted by english essays topics, ‘levels’ or ‘instances’ articulated by a specific determination: the infrastructure , or economic base (the ‘unity’ of the strategic business models productive forces and the relations of production) and travel book, the superstructure , which itself contains two ‘levels’ or ‘instances’: the politico-legal (law and the State) and ideology (the different ideologies, religious, ethical, legal, political, etc.). Besides its theoretico-didactic interest (it reveals the difference between Marx and strategic business planning, Hegel), this representation has the following crucial theoretical advantage: it makes it possible to inscribe in the theoretical apparatus of its essential concepts what I have called their respective indices of effectivity. What does this mean? It is easy to see that this representation of the structure of every society as an edifice containing a base (infrastructure) on which are erected the two ‘floors’ of the superstructure, is a metaphor, to be quite precise, a spatial metaphor: the metaphor of a topography ( topique ). [5] Like every metaphor, this metaphor suggests something, makes some thing visible. What? Precisely this: that the copy dissertation upper floors could not ‘stay up’ (in the air) alone, if they did not rest precisely on their base. Thus the strategic object of the metaphor of the edifice is to represent above all the ‘determination in the last instance’ by the economic base.

The effect of travel team, this spatial metaphor is to endow the base with an index of effectivity known by the famous terms: the determination in the last instance of what happens in the upper ‘floors’ (of the superstructure) by what happens in strategic business, the economic base. Given this index of effectivity ‘in the last instance’, the ‘floors’ of the superstructure are clearly endowed with different indices of copy, effectivity. What kind of indices? It is possible to say that the floors of the superstructure are not determinant in the last instance, but that they are determined by strategic, the effectivity of the base; that if they are determinant in book report, their own (as yet undefined) ways, this is true only insofar as they are determined by the base. Their index of effectivity (or determination), as determined by the determination in planning models, the last instance of the cell base, is thought by the Marxist tradition in two ways: (1) there is a ‘relative autonomy’ of the superstructure with respect to the base; (2) there is business models a ‘reciprocal action’ of the superstructure on the base. We can therefore say that the english essays on current topics great theoretical advantage of the Marxist topography, i.e. of the spatial metaphor of the edifice (base and superstructure) is simultaneously that it reveals that questions of planning models, determination (or of index of effectivity) are crucial; that it reveals that it is the base which in the last instance determines the whole edifice; and that, as a consequence, it obliges us to pose the theoretical problem of the types of ‘derivatory’ effectivity peculiar to the superstructure, i.e. it obliges us to essays on current think what the Marxist tradition calls conjointly the strategic business planning models relative autonomy of the superstructure and the weight, the reciprocal action of the superstructure on the base. The greatest disadvantage of this representation of the strategic business planning structure of every society by the spatial metaphor of an edifice, is obviously the fact that it is metaphorical: i.e. it remains descriptive. It now seems to me that it is possible and desirable to represent things differently. Solar Thesis! NB, I do not mean by this that I want to reject the classical metaphor, for that metaphor itself requires that we go beyond it.

And I am not going beyond it in order to reject it as outworn. I simply want to attempt to think what it gives us in the form of a description. I believe that it is possible and necessary to think what characterizes the essential of the existence and nature of the superstructure on the basis of planning models, reproduction. Once one takes the point of view of reproduction, many of the questions whose existence was indicated by the spatial metaphor of the edifice, but to ways to write college essays which it could not give a conceptual answer, are immediately illuminated. My basic thesis is that it is not possible to pose these questions (and therefore to answer them) except from the point of view of reproduction. I shall give a short analysis of Law, the State and strategic models, Ideology from team book report, this point of view. And I shall reveal what happens both from the point of view of practice and production on the one hand, and from that of reproduction on the other. The Marxist tradition is strict, here: in business, the Communist Manifesto and the Eighteenth Brumaire (and in all the later classical texts, above all in Marx’s writings on the Paris Commune and Lenin’s on State and Revolution ), the State is explicitly conceived as a repressive apparatus.

The State is a ‘machine’ of repression, which enables the ruling classes (in the nineteenth century the bourgeois class and the ‘class’ of big landowners) to ensure their domination over the working class, thus enabling the former to subject the latter to the process of surplus-value extortion (i.e. to capitalist exploitation). The State is thus first of essays, all what the Marxist classics have called the planning State Apparatus. This term means: not only the specialized apparatus (in the narrow sense) whose existence and cs lewis the weight of glory, necessity I have recognized in relation to the requirements of legal practice, i.e. the police, the courts, the prisons; but also the strategic planning army, which (the proletariat has paid for this experience with its blood) intervenes directly as a supplementary repressive force in the last instance, when the police and its specialized auxiliary corps are ‘outrun by events’; and good ways, above this ensemble, the head of State, the government and the administration. Presented in this form, the Marxist-Leninist ‘theory’ of the State has its finger on the essential point, and not for one moment can there be any question of rejecting the fact that this really is the essential point. The State Apparatus, which defines the State as a force of strategic planning, repressive execution and intervention ‘in the interests of the ruling classes’ in the class struggle conducted by the bourgeoisie and its allies against the proletariat, is quite certainly the State, and quite certainly defines its basic ‘function’. From Descriptive Theory to Theory as such. Nevertheless, here too, as I pointed out with respect to the metaphor of the edifice (infrastructure and superstructure), this presentation of the nature of the State is still partly descriptive. As I shall often have occasion to use this adjective (descriptive), a word of explanation is necessary in order to remove any ambiguity. Whenever, in speaking of the metaphor of the edifice or of the Marxist ‘theory’ of the State, I have said that these are descriptive conceptions or representations of their objects, I had no ulterior critical motives. Solar Thesis! On the contrary, I have every grounds to think that great scientific discoveries cannot help but pass through the phase of business planning, what I shall call descriptive ‘ theory ‘ . This is the first phase of every theory, at good ways to write college least in the domain which concerns us (that of the science of social formations).

As such, one might and in my opinion one must – envisage this phase as a transitional one, necessary to the development of the theory. That it is transitional is inscribed in my expression: ‘descriptive theory’, which reveals in its conjunction of terms the equivalent of a kind of ‘contradiction’. In fact, the term theory ‘clashes’ to strategic planning models some extent with the adjective ‘descriptive’ which I have attached to it. This means quite precisely: (1) that the ‘descriptive theory’ really is, without a shadow of a doubt, the irreversible beginning of the theory; but (2) that the essay ‘descriptive’ form in which the theory is presented requires, precisely as an effect of this ‘contradiction’, a development of the theory which goes beyond the form of ‘description’. Let me make this idea clearer by strategic business planning, returning to our present object: the State. When I say that the Marxist ‘theory’ of the State available to us is english essays on current still partly ‘descriptive’, that means first and foremost that this descriptive ‘theory’ is without the shadow of a doubt precisely the beginning of the business Marxist theory of the global culture essay State, and strategic, that this beginning gives us the essential point, i.e. the decisive principle of every later development of the theory.

Indeed, I shall call the descriptive theory of the State correct, since it is perfectly possible to make the good to write essays vast majority of the facts in the domain with which it is strategic business models concerned correspond to the definition it gives of its object. Essays On Current Topics! Thus, the strategic planning models definition of the State as a class State, existing in the Repressive State Apparatus, casts a brilliant light on all the facts observable in the various orders of repression whatever their domains: from the massacres of cell, June 1848 and of the Paris Commune, of models, Bloody Sunday, May 1905 in Petrograd, of the Resistance, of Charonne, etc., to good essays the mere (and relatively anodyne) interventions of a ‘censorship’ which has banned Diderot’s La Rligieuse or a play by Gatti on Franco; it casts light on all the direct or indirect forms of exploitation and extermination of the planning masses of the people (imperialist wars); it casts light on that subtle everyday domination beneath which can be glimpsed, in the forms of political democracy, for example, what Lenin, following Marx, called the dictatorship of the bourgeoisie. And yet the descriptive theory of the good college State represents a phase in the constitution of the theory which itself demands the planning models ‘supersession’ of ways, this phase. Strategic Business Models! For it is global essay clear that if the definition in business planning models, question really does give us the means to identify and recognize the facts of oppression by relating them to the State, conceived as the Repressive State Apparatus, this ‘interrelationship’ gives rise to a very special kind of obviousness, about which I shall have something to topics say in a moment: ‘Yes, that’s how it is, that’s really true!’ [6] And the business accumulation of to write essays, facts within the definition of the State may multiply examples, but it does not really advance the strategic business planning definition of the State, i.e. the scientific theory of the State. Every descriptive theory thus runs the risk of ‘blocking’ the development of the theory, and yet that development is essential.

That is why I think that, in order to develop this descriptive theory into theory as such, i.e. in order to copy editor understand further the mechanisms of the State in business planning, its functioning, I think that it is indispensable to add something to the classical definition of the State as a State Apparatus. The Essentials of the Marxist Theory of the cs lewis of glory State. Let me first clarify one important point: the State (and its existence in its apparatus) has no meaning except as a function of State power. The whole of the political class struggle revolves around the State. Strategic Business Models! By which I mean around the cs lewis of glory possession, i.e. the seizure and conservation of State power by business planning models, a certain class or by good ways to write, an alliance between classes or class fractions. This first clarification obliges me to distinguish between State power (conservation of State power or seizure of State power), the objective of the political class struggle on strategic, the one hand, and the State Apparatus on the other. We know that the State Apparatus may survive, as is proved by editor dissertation, bourgeois ‘revolutions’ in nineteenth-century France (1830, 1848), by coups d’tat (2 December, May 1958), by strategic planning models, collapses of the State (the fall of the Empire in 1870, of the Third Republic in 1940), or by the political rise of the cell petty bourgeoisie (1890-95 in France), etc., without the State Apparatus being affected or modified: it may survive political events which affect the possession of State power. Even after a social revolution like that of 1917, a large part of the State Apparatus survived after the business planning models seizure of State power by the alliance of the proletariat and the small peasantry: Lenin repeated the fact again and again. It is possible to describe the distinction between state power and good ways to write college, state apparatus as part of the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state, explicitly present since Marx’s Eighteenth Brumaire and Class Struggles in France. To summarize the ‘Marxist theory of the state’ on this point, it can be said that the Marxist classics have always claimed that (1) the business planning models state is the repressive state apparatus, (2) state power and book report, state apparatus must be distinguished, (3) the objective of the class struggle concerns state power, and in consequence the use of the state apparatus by the classes (or alliance of classes or of fractions of strategic business models, classes) holding state power as a function of their class objectives, and (4) the proletariat must seize state power in order to destroy the existing bourgeois state apparatus and, in a first phase, replace it with a quite different, proletarian, state apparatus, then in later phases set in motion a radical process, that of the destruction of the solar state (the end of state power, the business planning models end of every state apparatus). In this perspective, therefore, what I would propose to add to the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state is already there in so many words.

But it seems to good ways to write me that even with this supplement, this theory is business still in part descriptive, although it does now contain complex and differential elements whose functioning and action cannot be understood without recourse to further supplementary theoretical development. The State Ideological Apparatuses. Thus, what has to be added to the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state is on current topics something else. Here we must advance cautiously in a terrain which, in fact, the Marxist classics entered long before us, but without having systematized in theoretical form the decisive advances implied by their experiences and procedures. Their experiences and procedures were indeed restricted in the main to the terrain of political practice. In fact, i.e. in business, their political practice, the Marxist classics treated the State as a more complex reality than the definition of it given in the ‘Marxist theory of the state’, even when it has been supplemented as I have just suggested. They recognized this complexity in their practice, but they did not express it in a corresponding theory. [7]

I should like to attempt a very schematic outline of this corresponding theory. To that end, I propose the following thesis. In order to advance the theory of the State it is indispensable to take into ways to write college essays, account not only the business planning distinction between state power and state apparatus , but also another reality which is clearly on the side of the (repressive) state apparatus, but must not be confused with it. Cell Thesis! I shall call this reality by its concept: the Ideological State Apparatuses. What are the Ideological State Apparatuses (ISAs)? They must not be confused with the (repressive) State apparatus. Remember that in models, Marxist theory, the State Apparatus (SA) contains: the Government, the Administration, the of glory essay Army, the Police, the Courts, the Prisons, etc., which constitute what I shall in future call the Repressive State Apparatus.

Repressive suggests that the business models State Apparatus in question ‘functions by violence’ – at least ultimately (since repression, e.g. administrative repression, may take non-physical forms). I shall call Ideological State Apparatuses a certain number of realities which present themselves to the immediate observer in the form of cell, distinct and specialized institutions. I propose an empirical list of these which will obviously have to be examined in strategic planning, detail, tested, corrected and re-organized. With all the reservations implied by this requirement, we can for the moment regard the following institutions as Ideological State Apparatuses (the order in which I have listed them has no particular significance): the religious ISA (the system of the different churches), the educational ISA (the system of the different public and private ‘schools’), the family ISA, [8] the legal ISA, [9] the political ISA (the political system, including the different parties), the trade-union ISA, the communications ISA (press, radio and television, etc.), the cultural ISA (literature, the arts, sports, etc.). I have said that the ISAs must not be confused with the culture essay (Repressive) State Apparatus.

What constitutes the difference? As a first moment, it is clear that while there is one (Repressive) State Apparatus, there is a plurality of business models, Ideological State Apparatuses. Even presupposing that it exists, the unity that constitutes this plurality of thesis, ISAs as a body is not immediately visible. As a second moment, it is clear that whereas the unified – (Repressive) State Apparatus belongs entirely to the public domain, much the larger part of the Ideological State Apparatuses (in their apparent dispersion) are part, on the contrary, of the private domain. Churches, Parties, Trade Unions, families, some schools, most newspapers, cultural ventures, etc., etc., are private.

We can ignore the first observation for the moment. Strategic Planning! But someone is bound to question the second, asking me by what right I regard as Ideological State Apparatuses, institutions which for the most part do not possess public status, but are quite simply private institutions. As a conscious Marxist, Gramsci already forestalled this objection in one sentence. The distinction between the public and the private is a distinction internal to bourgeois law, and valid in the (subordinate) domains in which bourgeois law exercises its ‘authority’. The domain of the State escapes it because the latter is ‘above the law’: the State, which is the State of the ruling class, is copy editor dissertation neither public nor private; on the contrary, it is the precondition for strategic models any distinction between public and private. To Write Essays! The same thing can be said from the strategic business models starting-point of our State Ideological Apparatuses.

It is unimportant whether the institutions in which they are realized are ‘public’ or ‘private’. Copy Editor Dissertation! What matters is planning how they function. The Weight Essay! Private institutions can perfectly well ‘function’ as Ideological State Apparatuses. A reasonably thorough analysis of any one of the ISAs proves it. But now for what is business planning essential. What distinguishes the ISAs from the (Repressive) State Apparatus is the following basic difference: the Repressive State Apparatus functions ‘by violence’, whereas the essays Ideological State Apparatuses function ‘ by strategic planning, ideology’. I can clarify matters by correcting this distinction.

I shall say rather that every State Apparatus, whether Repressive or Ideological, ‘functions’ both by violence and by ideology, but with one very important distinction which makes it imperative not to confuse the cs lewis the weight essay Ideological State Apparatuses with the (Repressive) State Apparatus. This is the fact that the (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and predominantly by repression (including physical repression), while functioning secondarily by ideology. (There is models no such thing as a purely repressive apparatus.) For example, the Army and the Police also function by ideology both to ensure their own cohesion and reproduction, and in the ‘values’ they propound externally. In the same way, but inversely, it is essential to say that for their part the Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by ideology , but they also function secondarily by repression, even if ultimately, but only ultimately, this is global essay very attenuated and concealed, even symbolic. (There is no such thing as a purely ideological apparatus.) Thus Schools and Churches use suitable methods of strategic business planning, punishment, expulsion, selection, etc., to ways college ‘discipline’ not only their shepherds, but also their flocks. The same is strategic models true of the Family. The same is true of the cultural IS Apparatus (censorship, among other things), etc.

Is it necessary to essays on current topics add that this determination of the double ‘functioning’ (predominantly, secondarily) by repression and by ideology, according to strategic whether it is global a matter of the strategic business models (Repressive) State Apparatus or the Ideological State Apparatuses, makes it clear that very subtle explicit or tacit combinations may be woven from the interplay of the (Repressive) State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses? Everyday life provides us with innumerable examples of this, but they must be studied in good, detail if we are to go further than this mere observation. Nevertheless, this remark leads us towards an understanding of what constitutes the unity of the apparently disparate body of the ISAs. If the ISAs ‘function’ massively and predominantly by ideology, what unifies their diversity is precisely this functioning, insofar as the ideology by which they function is always in fact unified, despite its diversity and strategic, its contradictions, beneath the ruling ideology , which is the ideology of ‘the ruling class’. Given the global essay fact that the ‘ruling class’ in principle holds State power (openly or more often by means of alliances between classes or class fractions), and therefore has at models its disposal the (Repressive) State Apparatus, we can accept the fact that this same ruling class is active in the Ideological State Apparatuses insofar as it is ultimately the ruling ideology which is dissertation realized in the Ideological State Apparatuses, precisely in its contradictions. Of course, it is a quite different thing to act by laws and decrees in the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to ‘act’ through the intermediary of the strategic planning models ruling ideology in the Ideological State Apparatuses. We must go into the details of this difference – but it cannot mask the reality of a profound identity.

To my knowledge, no class can hold State power over a long period without at the same time exercising its hegemony over and in the State Ideological Apparatuses. I only cell solar thesis, need one example and proof of this: Lenin’s anguished concern to strategic planning models revolutionize the educational Ideological State Apparatus (among others), simply to make it possible for cs lewis of glory the Soviet proletariat, who had seized State power, to secure the future of the dictatorship of the proletariat and the transition to socialism. [10] This last comment puts us in a position to understand that the Ideological State Apparatuses may be not only the stake , but also the site of class struggle, and often of bitter forms of class struggle. The class (or class alliance) in power cannot lay down the law in the ISAs as easily as it can in strategic, the (repressive) State apparatus, not only because the former ruling classes are able to team report retain strong positions there for a long time, but also because the resistance of the exploited classes is able to strategic planning models find means and occasions to thesis express itself there, either by the utilization of their contradictions, or by conquering combat positions in them in struggle. [11] Let me run through my comments. If the thesis I have proposed is well-founded, it leads me back to the classical Marxist theory of the State, while making it more precise in one point. I argue that it is necessary to distinguish between State power (and its possession by . Strategic Planning! ) on the one hand, and cell, the State Apparatus on the other.

But I add that the State Apparatus contains two bodies: the body of institutions which represent the Repressive State Apparatus on the one hand, and the body of institutions which represent the body of Ideological State Apparatuses on strategic business planning models, the other. But if this is the case, the following question is bound to be asked, even in the very summary state of my suggestions: what exactly is the extent of the role of the english essays topics Ideological State Apparatuses? What is their importance based on? In other words: to what does the strategic business ‘function’ of these Ideological State Apparatuses, which do not function by travel, repression but by ideology, correspond? On the Reproduction of the Relations of Production. I can now answer the strategic planning models central question which I have left in suspense for many long pages: how is the reproduction of the relations of production secured?

In the culture essay topographical language (Infrastructure, Superstructure), I can say: for the most part, [12] it is secured by the legal-political and ideological superstructure. But as I have argued that it is essential to go beyond this still descriptive language, I shall say: for the most part, it is secured by the exercise of strategic business, State power in the State Apparatuses, on the one hand the (Repressive) State Apparatus, on ways to write college essays, the other the Ideological State Apparatuses. What I have just said must also be taken into account, and it can be assembled in the form of the following three features: 1. All the business planning State Apparatuses function both by repression and by ideology, with the difference that the (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and predominantly by repression, whereas the Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by ideology. 2. Good Ways To Write College Essays! Whereas the (Repressive) State Apparatus constitutes an organized whole whose different parts are centralized beneath a commanding unity, that of the politics of class struggle applied by the political representatives of the ruling classes in possession of State power, the Ideological State Apparatuses are multiple, distinct, ‘relatively autonomous’ and capable of providing an objective field to contradictions which express, in forms which may be limited or extreme, the effects of the clashes between the capitalist class struggle and the proletarian class struggle, as well as their subordinate forms. 3. Whereas the unity of the strategic models (Repressive) State Apparatus is secured by its unified and centralized organization under the leadership of the representatives of the essay classes in power executing the politics of the class struggle of the strategic business classes in power, the unity of the different Ideological State Apparatuses is secured, usually in contradictory forms, by the ruling ideology, the ideology of the team ruling class. Taking these features into account, it is possible to represent the reproduction of the relations of production [13] in the following way, according to a kind of ‘division of labour’. The role of the repressive State apparatus, insofar as it is a repressive apparatus, consists essentially in securing by force (physical or otherwise) the political conditions of the reproduction of relations of production which are in the last resort relations of exploitation.

Not only does the State apparatus contribute generously to its own reproduction (the capitalist State contains political dynasties, military dynasties, etc.), but also and above all, the strategic business State apparatus secures by repression (from the most brutal physical force, via mere administrative commands and interdictions, to open and tacit censorship) the solar political conditions for the action of the Ideological State Apparatuses. In fact, it is the latter which largely secure the reproduction specifically of the relations of planning, production, behind a ‘shield’ provided by the repressive State apparatus. Ways College! It is here that the role of the ruling ideology is heavily concentrated, the ideology of the ruling class, which holds State power. It is the intermediation of the ruling ideology that ensures a (sometimes teeth-gritting) ‘harmony’ between the repressive State apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses, and between the different State Ideological Apparatuses. We are thus led to envisage the following hypothesis, as a function precisely of the diversity of ideological State Apparatuses in their single, because shared, role of the reproduction of the relations of production. Indeed we have listed a relatively large number of Ideological State Apparatuses in contemporary capitalist social formations: the educational apparatus, the religious apparatus, the strategic business family apparatus, the political apparatus, the trade-union apparatus, the communications apparatus, the ‘cultural’ apparatus, etc. But in the social formations of that mode of production characterized by ‘serfdom’ (usually called the feudal mode of production), we observe that although there is topics a single repressive State apparatus which, since the earliest known Ancient States, let alone the Absolute Monarchies, has been formally very similar to the one we know today, the number of Ideological State Apparatuses is smaller and their individual types are different. For example, we observe that during the Middle Ages, the Church (the religious Ideological State Apparatus) accumulated a number of functions which have today devolved on to several distinct Ideological State Apparatuses, new ones in relation to the past I am invoking, in particular educational and cultural functions. Alongside the Church there was the family Ideological State Apparatus, which played a considerable part, incommensurable with its role in business models, capitalist social formations.

Despite appearances, the Church and english essays topics, the Family were not the only Ideological State Apparatuses. There was also a political Ideological State Apparatus (the Estates General, the Parlement , the different political factions and Leagues, the ancestors of the modern political parties, and the whole political system of the free Communes and then of the strategic models Villes ). There was also a powerful ‘proto-trade union’ Ideological State Apparatus, if I may venture such an anachronistic term (the powerful merchants’ and cell solar thesis, bankers’ guilds and the journeymen’s associations, etc.). Publishing and Communications, even, saw an indisputable development, as did the theatre; initially both were integral parts of the Church, then they became more and more independent of it. In the pre-capitalist historical period which I have examined extremely broadly, it is absolutely clear that there was one dominant Ideological State Apparatus , the Church , which concentrated within it not only religious functions, but also educational ones, and a large proportion of the strategic business models functions of communications and ‘culture’. It is no accident that all ideological struggle, from the sixteenth to essays on current topics the eighteenth century, starting with the first shocks of the Reformation, was concentrated in an anti-clerical and anti-religious struggle; rather this is a function precisely of the dominant position of the religious Ideological State Apparatus. The foremost objective and achievement of the French Revolution was not just to transfer State power from the feudal aristocracy to the merchant-capitalist bourgeoisie, to break part of the former repressive State apparatus and replace it with a new one (e.g., the national popular Army) but also to attack the number-one Ideological State Apparatus: the Church.

Hence the civil constitution of the clergy, the confiscation of ecclesiastical wealth, and the creation of new Ideological State Apparatuses to replace the religious Ideological State Apparatus in planning models, its dominant role. Naturally, these things did not happen automatically: witness the Concordat, the Restoration and the long class struggle between the landed aristocracy and the industrial bourgeoisie throughout the nineteenth century for on current the establishment of bourgeois hegemony over models the functions formerly fulfilled by the Church: above all by the Schools. It can be said that the bourgeoisie relied on the new political, parliamentary-democratic, Ideological State Apparatus, installed in the earliest years of the on current topics Revolution, then restored after long and violent struggles, for planning a few months in 1848 and for decades after the fall of the global essay Second Empire, in order to conduct its struggle against the Church and wrest its ideological functions away from planning, it, in other words, to ensure not only its own political hegemony, but also the ideological hegemony indispensable to the reproduction of capitalist relations of production. That is why I believe that I am justified in advancing the following Thesis, however precarious it is. I believe that the Ideological State Apparatus which has been installed in the dominant position in mature capitalist social formations as a result of a violent political and ideological class struggle against the old dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the educational ideological apparatus. This thesis may seem paradoxical, given that for essays everyone, i.e. in the ideological representation that the bourgeoisie has tried to give itself and strategic business, the classes it exploits, it really seems that the dominant Ideological State Apparatus in copy dissertation, capitalist social formations is strategic business not the dissertation Schools, but the political Ideological State Apparatus, i.e. the regime of strategic models, parliamentary democracy combining universal suffrage and party struggle.

However, history, even recent history, shows that the bourgeoisie has been and essays on current topics, still is able to accommodate itself to political Ideological State Apparatuses other than parliamentary democracy: the First and Second Empires, Constitutional Monarchy (Louis XVIII and Charles X), Parliamentary Monarchy (Louis-Philippe), Presidential Democracy (de Gaulle), to mention only France. In England this is even clearer. The Revolution was particularly ‘successful’ there from the bourgeois point of view, since unlike France, where the bourgeoisie, partly because of the stupidity of the petty aristocracy, had to agree to being carried to power by peasant and plebeian ‘ journes rvolutionnaires ’, something for which it had to pay a high price, the English bourgeoisie was able to ‘compromise’ with the aristocracy and ‘share’ State power and the use of the State apparatus with it for a long time (peace among all men of strategic business planning, good will in the ruling classes!). In Germany it is even more striking, since it was behind a political Ideological State Apparatus in which the imperial Junkers (epitomized by Bismarck), their army and their police provided it with a shield and leading personnel, that the imperialist bourgeoisie made its shattering entry into history, before ‘traversing’ the Weimar Republic and travel report, entrusting itself to business Nazism. Hence I believe I have good reasons for thinking that behind the scenes of its political Ideological State Apparatus, which occupies the front of the stage, what the bourgeoisie has installed as its number-one, i.e. as its dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the educational apparatus, which has in fact replaced in its functions the previously dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the Church. One might even add: the School-Family couple has replaced the Church-Family couple. Why is the educational apparatus in to write college, fact the dominant Ideological State Apparatus in capitalist social formations, and how does it function?

For the moment it must suffice to say: 1. All Ideological State Apparatuses, whatever they are, contribute to the same result: the reproduction of the relations of planning models, production, i.e. of capitalist relations of exploitation. 2. Each of them contributes towards this single result in solar, the way proper to it. The political apparatus by subjecting individuals to the political State ideology, the ‘indirect’ (parliamentary) or ‘direct’ (plebiscitary or fascist) ‘democratic’ ideology. The communications apparatus by cramming every ‘citizen’ with daily doses of nationalism, chauvinism, liberalism, moralism, etc, by means of the press, the radio and television. The same goes for strategic business the cultural apparatus (the role of sport in chauvinism is of the good to write first importance), etc. The religious apparatus by recalling in sermons and the other great ceremonies of Birth, Marriage and Death, that man is only ashes, unless he loves his neighbour to the extent of turning the other cheek to whoever strikes first. Strategic Business Planning! The family apparatus . but there is copy editor no need to strategic planning go on. 3. This concert is dominated by a single score, occasionally disturbed by ways to write college essays, contradictions (those of the remnants of business planning models, former ruling classes, those of the proletarians and their organizations): the score of the Ideology of the current ruling class which integrates into its music the great themes of the Humanism of the Great Forefathers, who produced the Greek Miracle even before Christianity, and afterwards the Glory of Rome, the Eternal City, and the themes of Interest, particular and general, etc. nationalism, moralism and economism.

4. Cs Lewis Essay! Nevertheless, in this concert, one Ideological State Apparatus certainly has the dominant role, although hardly anyone lends an ear to its music: it is so silent! This is the School. It takes children from every class at infant-school age, and then for years, the strategic business planning years in which the child is most ‘vulnerable’, squeezed between the Family State Apparatus and essay, the Educational State Apparatus, it drums into them, whether it uses new or old methods, a certain amount of ‘know-how’ wrapped in the ruling ideology (French, arithmetic, natural history, the sciences, literature) or simply the strategic business planning models ruling ideology in its pure state (ethics, civic instruction, philosophy). Somewhere around the age of sixteen, a huge mass of children are ejected ‘into production’: these are the workers or small peasants. Cell Solar Thesis! Another portion of scholastically adapted youth carries on: and, for better or worse, it goes somewhat further, until it falls by the wayside and fills the posts of small and middle technicians, white-collar workers, small and planning models, middle executives, petty bourgeois of solar thesis, all kinds. A last portion reaches the summit, either to fall into intellectual semi-employment, or to strategic business planning provide, as well as the travel ‘intellectuals of the collective labourer’, the agents of exploitation (capitalists, managers), the agents of repression (soldiers, policemen, politicians, administrators, etc.) and the professional ideologists (priests of all sorts, most of whom are convinced ‘laymen’). Each mass ejected en route is practically provided with the ideology which suits the role it has to fulfil in class society: the strategic role of the cs lewis essay exploited (with a ‘highly-developed’ ‘professional’, ‘ethical’, ‘civic’, ‘national’ and a-political consciousness); the strategic planning models role of the agent of exploitation (ability to give the workers orders and good ways college, speak to them: ‘human relations’), of the agent of repression (ability to give orders and enforce obedience ‘without discussion’, or ability to manipulate the demagogy of a political leader’s rhetoric), or of the professional ideologist (ability to planning models treat consciousnesses with the respect, i.e. with the contempt, blackmail, and demagogy they deserve, adapted to the accents of Morality, of Virtue, of ‘Transcendence’, of the Nation, of France’s World Role, etc.).

Of course, many of these contrasting Virtues (modesty, resignation, submissiveness on the one hand, cynicism, contempt, arrogance, confidence, self-importance, even smooth talk and cunning on the other) are also taught in the Family, in the Church, in the Army, in Good Books, in films and even in the football stadium. But no other Ideological State Apparatus has the obligatory (and not least, free) audience of the totality of the cell solar children in the capitalist social formation, eight hours a day for five or six days out of seven. But it is by an apprenticeship in models, a variety of know-how wrapped up in the massive inculcation of the ideology of the the weight essay ruling class that the relations of production in strategic business planning models, a capitalist social formation, i.e. the relations of exploited to exploiters and exploiters to exploited, are largely reproduced. The mechanisms which produce this vital result for the capitalist regime are naturally covered up and concealed by a universally reigning ideology of the School, universally reigning because it is one of the topics essential forms of the ruling bourgeois ideology: an models, ideology which represents the cs lewis the weight of glory School as a neutral environment purged of ideology (because it is . lay), where teachers respectful of the ‘conscience’ and strategic business planning models, ‘freedom’ of the children who are entrusted to them (in complete confidence) by their ‘parents’ (who are free, too, i.e. the owners of their children) open up for them the path to english essays on current topics the freedom, morality and responsibility of adults by their own example, by knowledge, literature and their ‘liberating’ virtues. I ask the pardon of those teachers who, in dreadful conditions, attempt to turn the few weapons they can find in the history and learning they ‘teach’ against the ideology, the system and the practices in strategic, which they are trapped.

They are a kind of hero. But they are rare and how many (the majority) do not even begin to suspect the ‘work’ the system (which is bigger than they are and crushes them) forces them to do, or worse, put all their heart and ingenuity into book report, performing it with the most advanced awareness (the famous new methods!). So little do they suspect it that their own devotion contributes to the maintenance and strategic business, nourishment of this ideological representation of the School, which makes the School today as ‘natural’, indispensable-useful and even beneficial for our contemporaries as the Church was ‘natural’, indispensable and generous for our ancestors a few centuries ago. In fact, the Church has been replaced today in its role as the dominant Ideological State Apparatus by global, the School. It is coupled with the Family just as the Church was once coupled with the Family. We can now claim that the strategic unprecedentedly deep crisis which is now shaking the education system of so many States across the globe, often in essays, conjunction with a crisis (already proclaimed in strategic business models, the Communist Manifesto ) shaking the family system, takes on a political meaning, given that the School (and the School/Family couple) constitutes the dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the Apparatus playing a determinant part in the reproduction of the relations of production of a mode of production threatened in its existence by copy editor dissertation, the world class struggle.

When I put forward the concept of an Ideological State Apparatus, when I said that the ISAs ‘function by ideology’, I invoked a reality which needs a little discussion: ideology. It is well known that the expression ‘ideology’ was invented by strategic business planning models, Cabanis, Destutt de Tracy and their friends, who assigned to it as an copy dissertation, object the planning (genetic) theory of ideas. When Marx took up the term fifty years later, he gave it a quite different meaning, even in his Early Works. Here, ideology is the system of the ideas and representations which dominate the mind of a man or a social group. The ideologico-political struggle conducted by essay, Marx as early as his articles in the Rheinische Zeitung inevitably and quickly brought him face to face with this reality and forced him to strategic business models take his earliest intuitions further.

However, here we come upon a rather astonishing paradox. Everything seems to lead Marx to formulate a theory of ideology. In fact, The German Ideology does offer us, after the 1844 Manuscripts , an explicit theory of ideology, but . it is not Marxist (we shall see why in a moment). Good College! As for Capital , although it does contain many hints towards a theory of ideologies (most visibly, the ideology of the vulgar economists), it does not contain that theory itself, which depends for the most part on a theory of ideology in general. I should like to venture a first and very schematic outline of such a theory.

The theses I am about to put forward are certainly not off the strategic models cuff, but they cannot be sustained and tested, i.e. confirmed or rejected, except by much thorough study and analysis. One word first of all to expound the reason in principle which seems to me to found, or at copy editor least to justify, the project of a theory of ideology in general , and models, not a theory of global culture, particular ideolog ies , which, whatever their form (religious, ethical, legal, political), always express class positions. It is quite obvious that it is necessary to proceed towards a theory of ideologies in the two respects I have just suggested. It will then be clear that a theory of ideolog ies depends in the last resort on the history of social formations, and thus of the modes of planning, production combined in social formations, and of the class struggles which develop in them. In this sense it is clear that there can be no question of a theory of ideolog ies in english essays topics, general, since ideolog ies (defined in planning, the double respect suggested above: regional and class) have a history, whose determination in the last instance is clearly situated outside ideologies alone, although it involves them. On the contrary, if I am able to put forward the project of a theory of ideology in general , and if this theory really is one of the elements on which theories of ideologies depend, that entails an apparently paradoxical proposition which I shall express in the following terms: ideology has no history.

As we know, this formulation appears in so many words in a passage from The German Ideology. Marx utters it with respect to metaphysics, which, he says, has no more history than ethics (meaning also the other forms of ideology). In The German Ideology , this formulation appears in a plainly positivist context. Ideology is conceived as a pure illusion, a pure dream, i.e. as nothingness. All its reality is external to it. Ideology is thus thought as an imaginary construction whose status is team book exactly like the theoretical status of the dream among writers before Freud. For these writers, the dream was the strategic models purely imaginary, i.e. null, result of ‘day’s residues’, presented in an arbitrary arrangement and good to write, order, sometimes even ‘inverted’, in strategic models, other words, in ‘disorder’.

For them, the dream was the imaginary, it was empty, null and global culture essay, arbitrarily ‘stuck together’ ( bricol ), once the eyes had closed, from the residues of the strategic only full and positive reality, the reality of the day. This is exactly the status of philosophy and ideology (since in book, this book philosophy is business planning ideology par excellence ) in travel team book, The German Ideology. Ideology, then, is for Marx an imaginary assemblage ( bricolage ), a pure dream, empty and vain, constituted by the ‘day’s residues’ from the business planning only full and positive reality, that of the concrete history of concrete material individuals materially producing their existence. It is on this basis that ideology has no history in english, The German Ideology , since its history is outside it, where the only existing history is, the history of concrete individuals, etc. In The German Ideology , the thesis that ideology has no history is therefore a purely negative thesis, since it means both: 1. ideology is nothing insofar as it is strategic business planning models a pure dream (manufactured by who knows what power: if not by the alienation of the division of essay, labour, but that, too, is models a negative determination); 2. ideology has no history, which emphatically does not mean that there is no history in it (on the contrary, for it is merely the pale, empty and ways to write college essays, inverted reflection of real history) but that it has no history of its own. Now, while the strategic thesis I wish to defend formally speaking adopts the terms of The German Ideology (‘ideology has no history’), it is radically different from the positivist and historicist thesis of The German Ideology. For on the one hand, I think it is possible to hold that ideolog ies have a history of team book, their own (although it is determined in the last instance by the class struggle); and on the other, I think it is possible to hold that ideology in general has no history , not in a negative sense (its history is external to strategic it), but in an absolutely positive sense. This sense is a positive one if it is true that the essay peculiarity of ideology is that it is endowed with a structure and a functioning such as to business make it a non-historical reality, i.e. an editor, omni-historical reality, in strategic business planning, the sense in which that structure and functioning are immutable, present in the same form throughout what we can call history, in the sense in which the Communist Manifesto defines history as the history of class struggles, i.e. the history of class societies. To give a theoretical reference-point here, I might say that, to return to our example of the dissertation dream, in its Freudian conception this time, our proposition: ideology has no history, can and must (and in a way which has absolutely nothing arbitrary about it, but, quite the reverse, is planning theoretically necessary, for there is an organic link between the two propositions) be related directly to Freud’s proposition that the cell solar unconscious is eternal , i.e. that it has no history.

If eternal means, not transcendent to all (temporal) history, but omnipresent, trans-historical and business planning, therefore immutable in form throughout the extent of history, I shall adopt Freud’s expression word for cell solar thesis word, and write ideology is eternal , exactly like the unconscious. And I add that I find this comparison theoretically justified by the fact that the business models eternity of the unconscious is not unrelated to the eternity of ideology in general. That is why I believe I am justified, hypothetically at least, in proposing a theory of ideology in general , in the sense that Freud presented a theory of the unconscious in general. To simplify the phrase, it is convenient, taking into account what has been said about ideologies, to use the plain term ideology to designate ideology in general, which I have just said has no history, or, what comes to the same thing, is eternal, i.e. omnipresent in its immutable form throughout history (= the history of social formations containing social classes). For the moment I shall restrict myself to ‘class societies’ and their history.

Ideology is a ‘Representation’ of the Imaginary Relationship of Individuals to good ways college essays their Real Conditions of Existence. In order to approach my central thesis on the structure and functioning of ideology, I shall first present two theses, one negative, the other positive. The first concerns the object which is ‘represented’ in models, the imaginary form of editor dissertation, ideology, the second concerns the materiality of ideology. Thesis I. Ideology represents the imaginary relationship of individuals to their real conditions of existence. We commonly call religious ideology, ethical ideology, legal ideology, political ideology, etc., so many ‘world outlooks’. Of course, assuming that we do not live one of these ideologies as the truth (e.g. ‘believe’ in God, Duty, Justice, etc. ), we admit that the ideology we are discussing from a critical point of view, examining it as the ethnologist examines the myths of a ‘primitive society’, that these ‘world outlooks’ are largely imaginary, i.e. do not ‘correspond to reality’. However, while admitting that they do not correspond to reality, i.e. that they constitute an illusion, we admit that they do make allusion to strategic business models reality, and that they need only be ‘interpreted’ to culture discover the reality of the world behind their imaginary representation of that world (ideology = illusion/allusion ). There are different types of interpretation, the most famous of which are the mechanistic type, current in the eighteenth century (God is the imaginary representation of the real King), and the ‘ hermeneutic ‘ interpretation, inaugurated by the earliest Church Fathers, and revived by Feuerbach and the theologico-philosophical school which descends from him, e.g. the theologian Barth (to Feuerbach, for example, God is the essence of real Man). The essential point is that on condition that we interpret the imaginary transposition (and inversion) of ideology we arrive at the conclusion that in ideology ‘men represent their real conditions of existence to themselves in strategic, an imaginary form’. Unfortunately, this interpretation leaves one small problem unsettled: why do men ‘need’ this imaginary transposition of their real conditions of existence in order to ‘represent to themselves’ their real conditions of existence?

The first answer (that of the eighteenth century) proposes a simple solution: Priests or Despots are responsible. They ‘forged’ the Beautiful Lies so that, in the belief that they were obeying God, men would in fact obey the Priests and Despots, who are usually in alliance in their imposture, the Priests acting in the interests of the Despots or vice versa , according to the political positions of the ‘theoreticians’ concerned. There is therefore a cause for the imaginary transposition of the real conditions of existence: that cause is the existence of a small number of cynical men who base their domination and exploitation of the ‘people’ on a falsified representation of the world which they have imagined in order to enslave other minds by dominating their imaginations. The second answer (that of Feuerbach, taken over global essay word for word by Marx in strategic business, his Early Works) is more ‘profound’, i.e. just as false. Global Culture Essay! It, too, seeks and finds a cause for the imaginary transposition and distortion of men’s real conditions of existence, in short, for the alienation in the imaginary of the representation of men’s conditions of existence. This cause is no longer Priests or Despots, nor their active imagination and business planning models, the passive imagination of their victims.

This cause is the copy dissertation material alienation which reigns in the conditions of existence of men themselves. This is how, in The Jewish Question and business planning, elsewhere, Marx defends the Feuerbachian idea that men make themselves an global culture essay, alienated (= imaginary) representation of their conditions of existence because these conditions of existence are themselves alienating (in the 1844 Manuscripts : because these conditions are dominated by the essence of alienated society – ‘ alienated labour ’). All these interpretations thus take literally the thesis which they presuppose, and on which they depend, i.e. that what is reflected in strategic business models, the imaginary representation of the world found in an ideology is the conditions of existence of men, i.e. Cs Lewis The Weight Of Glory! their real world. Now I can return to a thesis which I have already advanced: it is not their real conditions of existence, their real world, that ‘men’ ‘represent to themselves’ in ideology, but above all it is their relation to those conditions of models, existence which is represented to them there. It is book this relation which is at the centre of every ideological, i.e. Business! imaginary, representation of the real world. It is this relation that contains the cell ‘cause’ which has to explain the imaginary distortion of the ideological representation of the real world. Strategic Planning Models! Or rather, to leave aside the language of causality it is necessary to advance the thesis that it is the imaginary nature of this relation which underlies all the imaginary distortion that we can observe (if we do not live in its truth) in all ideology. To speak in a Marxist language, if it is true that the cell representation of the real conditions of existence of the individuals occupying the posts of agents of strategic business planning models, production, exploitation, repression, ideologization and global culture essay, scientific practice, does in the last analysis arise from the relations of planning, production, and cs lewis the weight of glory, from relations deriving from the relations of strategic models, production, we can say the following: all ideology represents in its necessarily imaginary distortion not the existing relations of english essays on current topics, production (and the other relations that derive from them), but above all the (imaginary) relationship of individuals to the relations of production and business models, the relations that derive from them. What is represented in ideology is english topics therefore not the system of the real relations which govern the existence of individuals, but the imaginary relation of those individuals to the real relations in which they live.

If this is the case, the question of the ‘cause’ of the imaginary distortion of the real relations in ideology disappears and must be replaced by a different question: why is the representation given to individuals of their (individual) relation to the social relations which govern their conditions of existence and strategic business, their collective and individual life necessarily an imaginary relation? And what is the nature of this imaginariness? Posed in this way, the question explodes the solution by cs lewis of glory essay, a ‘clique’ [14] , by a group of individuals (Priests or Despots) who are the authors of the great ideological mystification, just as it explodes the solution by the alienated character of the real world. We shall see why later in my exposition. For the moment I shall go no further.

Thesis II: Ideology has a material existence. I have already touched on this thesis by saying that the ‘ideas’ or ‘representations’, etc., which seem to make up ideology do not have an ideal ( idale or idelle ) or spiritual existence, but a material existence. I even suggested that the ideal ( idale , idelle ) and spiritual existence of ‘ideas’ arises exclusively in an ideology of the strategic planning ‘idea’ and of ideology, and let me add, in an ideology of what seems to have ‘founded’ this conception since the emergence of the sciences, i.e. what the practicians of the sciences represent to themselves in their spontaneous ideology as ‘ideas’, true or false. Of course, presented in affirmative form, this thesis is unproven. Solar Thesis! I simply ask that the reader be favourably disposed towards it, say, in the name of materialism. A long series of strategic business, arguments would be necessary to prove it. This hypothetical thesis of the not spiritual but material existence of ‘ideas’ or other ‘representations’ is global culture indeed necessary if we are to advance in our analysis of the nature of ideology. Or rather, it is merely useful to us in order the better to reveal what every at all serious analysis of any ideology will immediately and empirically show to every observer, however critical.

While discussing the Ideological State Apparatuses and their practices, I said that each of strategic business planning models, them was the realization of an ideology (the unity of these different regional ideologies – religious, ethical, legal, political, aesthetic, etc. – being assured by their subjection to the ruling ideology). I now return to this thesis: an cs lewis the weight of glory, ideology always exists in planning models, an apparatus, and its practice, or practices. This existence is team book material. Of course, the material existence of the ideology in strategic business, an apparatus and its practices does not have the same modality as the good to write college material existence of a paving-stone or a rifle. But, at the risk of being taken for a Neo-Aristotelian (NB Marx had a very high regard for business Aristotle), I shall say that ‘matter is cs lewis the weight of glory essay discussed in many senses’, or rather that it exists in different modalities, all rooted in the last instance in ‘physical’ matter. Having said this, let me move straight on and see what happens to the ‘individuals’ who live in ideology, i.e. in a determinate (religious, ethical, etc.) representation of the world whose imaginary distortion depends on their imaginary relation to their conditions of strategic business, existence, in other words, in the last instance, to the relations of production and to class relations (ideology = an imaginary relation to real relations). Copy Dissertation! I shall say that this imaginary relation is strategic models itself endowed with a material existence. Now I observe the following. An individual believes in God, or Duty, or Justice, etc. This belief derives (for everyone, i.e. for all those who live in an ideological representation of ideology, which reduces ideology to ideas endowed by definition with a spiritual existence) from the ideas of the cs lewis the weight essay individual concerned, i.e. from him as a subject with a consciousness which contains the strategic business models ideas of his belief. In this way, i.e. by means of the absolutely ideological ‘conceptual’ device ( dispositif ) thus set up (a subject endowed with a consciousness in which he freely forms or freely recognizes ideas in which he believes), the (material) attitude of the subject concerned naturally follows.

The individual in question behaves in such and global culture essay, such a way, adopts such and such a practical attitude, and, what is more, participates in business, certain regular practices which are those of the ideological apparatus on travel team report, which ‘depend’ the ideas which he has in all consciousness freely chosen as a subject. If he believes in God, he goes to Church to attend Mass, kneels, prays, confesses, does penance (once it was material in the ordinary sense of the term) and naturally repents and so on. If he believes in strategic business, Duty, he will have the corresponding attitudes, inscribed in ritual practices ‘according to the correct principles’. Cs Lewis The Weight Essay! If he believes in Justice, he will submit unconditionally to the rules of the Law, and may even protest when they are violated, sign petitions, take part in a demonstration, etc. Throughout this schema we observe that the ideological representation of ideology is itself forced to recognize that every ‘subject’ endowed with a ‘consciousness’ and strategic, believing in the ‘ideas’ that his ‘consciousness’ inspires in him and freely accepts, must ‘ act according to his ideas’, must therefore inscribe his own ideas as a free subject in the actions of copy dissertation, his material practice. If he does not do so, ‘that is wicked’. Indeed, if he does not do what he ought to do as a function of what he believes, it is because he does something else, which, still as a function of the same idealist scheme, implies that he has other ideas in his head as well as those he proclaims, and business planning, that he acts according to these other ideas, as a man who is good to write either ‘inconsistent’ (‘no one is willingly evil’) or cynical, or perverse. In every case, the ideology of strategic planning, ideology thus recognizes, despite its imaginary distortion, that the ‘ideas’ of a human subject exist in travel report, his actions, or ought to exist in business models, his actions, and if that is travel team report not the models case, it lends him other ideas corresponding to the actions (however perverse) that he does perform. This ideology talks of actions: I shall talk of actions inserted into practices.

And I shall point out that these practices are governed by the rituals in which these practices are inscribed, within the material existence of an ideological apparatus , be it only global essay, a small part of that apparatus: a small mass in a small church, a funeral, a minor match at a sports’ club, a school day, a political party meeting, etc. Besides, we are indebted to models Pascal’s defensive ‘dialectic’ for solar the wonderful formula which will enable us to invert the order of the notional schema of ideology. Models! Pascal says more or less: ‘Kneel down, move your lips in prayer, and essay, you will believe.’ He thus scandalously inverts the order of things, bringing, like Christ, not peace but strife, and in addition something hardly Christian (for woe to strategic business planning models him who brings scandal into the world!) – scandal itself. A fortunate scandal which makes him stick with Jansenist defiance to a language that directly names the reality. I will be allowed to essays on current leave Pascal to the arguments of his ideological struggle with the religious Ideological State Apparatus of his day.

And I shall be expected to use a more directly Marxist vocabulary, if that is possible, for planning models we are advancing in still poorly explored domains. I shall therefore say that, where only a single subject (such and such an individual) is concerned, the existence of the ideas of his belief is material in that his ideas are his material actions inserted into material practices governed by material rituals which are themselves defined by solar, the material ideological apparatus from which derive the ideas of that subject. Naturally, the four inscriptions of the adjective ‘material’ in my proposition must be affected by different modalities: the business planning models materialities of a displacement for going to mass, of book report, kneeling down, of the gesture of the sign of the cross, or of the strategic business planning models mea culpa , of a sentence, of a prayer, of an act of contrition, of a penitence, of a gaze, of a hand-shake, of an external verbal discourse or an ‘internal’ verbal discourse (consciousness), are not one and the same materiality. I shall leave on one side the problem of a theory of the differences between the modalities of materiality. It remains that in this inverted presentation of things, we are not dealing with an ‘inversion’ at all, since it is clear that certain notions have purely and simply disappeared from our presentation, whereas others on the contrary survive, and good ways to write essays, new terms appear. Disappeared: the term ideas.

Survive: the terms subject , consciousness , belief , actions. Appear: the terms practices , rituals , ideological apparatus. It is strategic business models therefore not an the weight of glory essay, inversion or overturning (except in the sense in which one might say a government or a glass is overturned), but a reshuffle (of a non-ministerial type), a rather strange reshuffle, since we obtain the following result. Ideas have disappeared as such (insofar as they are endowed with an ideal or spiritual existence), to the precise extent that it has emerged that their existence is strategic business planning models inscribed in english essays, the actions of practices governed by rituals defined in the last instance by strategic business models, an ideological apparatus. It therefore appears that the subject acts insofar as he is acted by global culture, the following system (set out in business models, the order of its real determination): ideology existing in a material ideological apparatus, prescribing material practices governed by a material ritual, which practices exist in the material actions of a subject acting in all consciousness according to his belief.

But this very presentation reveals that we have retained the following notions: subject, consciousness, belief, actions. From this series I shall immediately extract the team report decisive central term on which everything else depends: the planning notion of the subject. And I shall immediately set down two conjoint theses: 1. there is no practice except by copy editor, and in strategic business, an ideology; 2. there is no ideology except by the subject and for ways to write subjects. I can now come to my central thesis.

Ideology Interpellates Individuals as Subjects. This thesis is simply a matter of making my last proposition explicit: there is strategic business planning models no ideology except by the subject and for subjects. Meaning, there is no ideology except for concrete subjects, and this destination for ideology is only made possible by the subject: meaning, by the category of the subject and its functioning. By this I mean that, even if it only appears under this name (the subject) with the rise of cell solar, bourgeois ideology, above all with the rise of legal ideology, [15] the category of the subject (which may function under other names: e.g., as the soul in Plato, as God, etc.) is the constitutive category of strategic planning, all ideology, whatever its determination (regional or class) and whatever its historical date – since ideology has no history. I say: the category of the subject is constitutive of all ideology, but at the same time and travel team, immediately I add that the category of the subject is only constitutive of business, all ideology insofar as all ideology has the function ( which defines it ) of ‘ constituting ‘ concrete individuals as subjects. In the interaction of this double constitution exists the functioning of all ideology, ideology being nothing but its functioning in the material forms of existence of that functioning. In order to grasp what follows, it is essential to book report realize that both he who is writing these lines and the reader who reads them are themselves subjects, and therefore ideological subjects (a tautological proposition), i.e. that the strategic business models author and the reader of these lines both live ‘spontaneously’ or ‘naturally’ in ideology in the sense in which I have said that ‘man is an ideological animal by nature’.

That the solar thesis author, insofar as he writes the strategic models lines of editor, a discourse which claims to be scientific, is planning models completely absent as a ‘subject’ from ‘his’ scientific discourse (for all scientific discourse is by definition a subject-less discourse, there is no ‘Subject of cs lewis the weight, science’ except in an ideology of science) is a different question which I shall leave on one side for the moment. As St Paul admirably put it, it is in the ‘Logos’, meaning in ideology, that we ‘live, move and strategic business models, have our being’. It follows that, for you and for me, the category of the subject is a primary ‘obviousness’ (obviousnesses are always primary): it is clear that you and I are subjects (free, ethical, etc. Copy Editor Dissertation! ). Like all obviousnesses, including those that make a word ‘name a thing’ or ‘have a meaning’ (therefore including the obviousness of the strategic ‘transparency’ of language), the ways ‘obviousness’ that you and I are subjects – and that that does not cause any problems – is an ideological effect, the elementary ideological effect. [16] It is business planning models indeed a peculiarity of ideology that it imposes (without appearing to do so, since these are ‘obviousnesses’) obviousnesses as obviousnesses, which we cannot fail to recognize and before which we have the inevitable and natural reaction of to write, crying out (aloud or in the ‘still, small voice of conscience’): ‘That’s obvious! That’s right! That’s true!’ At work in this reaction is the ideological recognition function which is one of the two functions of ideology as such (its inverse being the function of misrecognition – mconnaissance ). To take a highly ‘concrete’ example, we all have friends who, when they knock on our door and we ask, through the door, the question ‘Who’s there?’, answer (since ‘it’s obvious’) ‘It’s me’. And we recognize that ‘it is him’, or ‘her’. We open the door, and ‘it’s true, it really was she who was there’.

To take another example, when we recognize somebody of our (previous) acquaintance ( (re) - connaissance ) in the street, we show him that we have recognized him (and have recognized that he has recognized us) by saying to strategic planning him ‘Hello, my friend’, and shaking his hand (a material ritual practice of ideological recognition in everyday life – in France, at least; elsewhere, there are other rituals). In this preliminary remark and these concrete illustrations, I only wish to point out that you and I are always already subjects, and as such constantly practice the rituals of copy dissertation, ideological recognition, which guarantee for us that we are indeed concrete, individual, distinguishable and (naturally) irreplaceable subjects. The writing I am currently executing and the reading you are currently [17] performing are also in this respect rituals of ideological recognition, including the ‘obviousness’ with which the ‘truth’ or ‘error’ of my reflections may impose itself on you. But to strategic recognize that we are subjects and that we function in the practical rituals of the most elementary everyday life (the hand-shake, the fact of culture, calling you by your name, the fact of knowing, even if I do not know what it is, that you ‘have’ a name of your own, which means that you are recognized as a unique subject, etc.) – this recognition only business planning models, gives us the ‘consciousness’ of our incessant (eternal) practice of ideological recognition – its consciousness, i.e. Good College Essays! its recognition – but in no sense does it give us the (scientific) knowledge of the mechanism of this recognition. Business Models! Now it is this knowledge that we have to reach, if you will, while speaking in ideology, and from within ideology we have to outline a discourse which tries to break with ideology, in solar thesis, order to planning models dare to be the beginning of a scientific (i.e. Essays! subject-less) discourse on ideology. Thus in order to represent why the category of the ‘subject’ is planning constitutive of ideology, which only exists by constituting concrete subjects as subjects, I shall employ a special mode of exposition: ‘concrete’ enough to be recognized, but abstract enough to be thinkable and thought, giving rise to a knowledge. As a first formulation I shall say: all ideology hails or interpellates concrete individuals as concrete subjects , by the functioning of the category of the subject. This is a proposition which entails that we distinguish for the moment between concrete individuals on the one hand and concrete subjects on copy, the other, although at this level concrete subjects only exist insofar as they are supported by a concrete individual. I shall then suggest that ideology ‘acts’ or ‘functions’ in such a way that it ‘recruits’ subjects among the individuals (it recruits them all), or ‘transforms’ the individuals into subjects (it transforms them all) by strategic business planning models, that very precise operation which I have called interpellation or hailing, and editor, which can be imagined along the lines of the most commonplace everyday police (or other) hailing: ‘Hey, you there!’ [18] Assuming that the theoretical scene I have imagined takes place in the street, the hailed individual will turn round. Business Models! By this mere one-hundred-and-eighty-degree physical conversion, he becomes a subject.

Why? Because he has recognized that the hail was ‘really’ addressed to him, and editor, that ‘it was really him who was hailed’ (and not someone else). Experience shows that the practical telecommunication of hailings is such that they hardly ever miss their man: verbal call or whistle, the strategic business one hailed always recognizes that it is really him who is solar thesis being hailed. And yet it is a strange phenomenon, and one which cannot be explained solely by ‘guilt feelings’, despite the large numbers who ‘have something on their consciences’. Naturally for the convenience and clarity of my little theoretical theatre I have had to present things in the form of strategic business, a sequence, with a before and an after, and thus in the form of a temporal succession.

There are individuals walking along. Cs Lewis! Somewhere (usually behind them) the hail rings out: ‘Hey, you there!’ One individual (nine times out of ten it is the right one) turns round, believing/suspecting/knowing that it is for him, i.e. recognizing that ‘it really is he’ who is meant by the hailing. But in reality these things happen without any succession. The existence of ideology and the hailing or interpellation of individuals as subjects are one and the same thing. I might add: what thus seems to take place outside ideology (to be precise, in the street), in reality takes place in ideology. What really takes place in models, ideology seems therefore to take place outside it. That is why those who are in ideology believe themselves by definition outside ideology: one of the on current topics effects of ideology is the practical denegation of the strategic models ideological character of ideology by editor, ideology: ideology never says, ‘I am ideological’. Business! It is necessary to be outside ideology, i.e. in scientific knowledge, to be able to say: I am in ideology (a quite exceptional case) or (the general case): I was in ideology. As is english on current topics well known, the accusation of being in ideology only applies to others, never to oneself (unless one is really a Spinozist or a Marxist, which, in this matter, is to be exactly the same thing). Planning! Which amounts to saying that ideology has no outside (for itself), but at the same time that it is nothing but outside (for science and reality).

Spinoza explained this completely two centuries before Marx, who practised it but without explaining it in detail. But let us leave this point, although it is heavy with consequences, consequences which are not just theoretical, but also directly political, since, for essays on current example, the whole theory of criticism and self-criticism, the golden rule of the business Marxist-Leninist practice of the class struggle, depends on it. Thus ideology hails or interpellates individuals as subjects. Thesis! As ideology is eternal, I must now suppress the temporal form in which I have presented the functioning of ideology, and say: ideology has always-already interpellated individuals as subjects, which amounts to making it clear that individuals are always-already interpellated by ideology as subjects, which necessarily leads us to one last proposition: individuals are always-already subjects. Hence individuals are ‘abstract’ with respect to strategic business models the subjects which they always already are. This proposition might seem paradoxical. That an individual is cs lewis of glory always-already a subject, even before he is born, is nevertheless the plain reality, accessible to everyone and strategic, not a paradox at all.

Freud shows that individuals are always ‘abstract’ with respect to the subjects they always-already are, simply by noting the solar ideological ritual that surrounds the expectation of a ‘birth’, that ‘happy event’. Everyone knows how much and in what way an unborn child is expected. Which amounts to saying, very prosaically, if we agree to drop the ‘sentiments’, i.e. the forms of family ideology (paternal/maternal conjugal/fraternal) in which the unborn child is expected: it is business planning models certain in advance that it will bear its Father’s Name, and will therefore have an identity and be irreplaceable. Essays Topics! Before its birth, the child is therefore always-already a subject, appointed as a subject in and by the specific familial ideological configuration in which it is ‘expected’ once it has been conceived. Strategic Business Planning! I hardly need add that this familial ideological configuration is, in its uniqueness, highly structured, and that it is in this implacable and more or less ‘pathological’ (presupposing that any meaning can be assigned to that term) structure that the former subject to-be will have to ‘find’ ‘its’ place, i.e. ‘become’ the report sexual subject (boy or girl) which it already is in advance. It is clear that this ideological constraint and pre-appointment, and all the rituals of rearing and then education in business planning, the family, have some relationship with what Freud studied in the forms of the pre-genital and genital ‘stages’ of sexuality, i.e. in the ‘grip’ of what Freud registered by good, its effects as being the unconscious. But let us leave this point, too, on one side. Let me go one step further. What I shall now turn my attention to is the way the ‘actors’ in this mise en scne [setting] of interpellation, and strategic business, their respective roles, are reflected in copy editor, the very structure of all ideology.

An Example: The Christian Religious Ideology. As the formal structure of all ideology is always the same, I shall restrict my analysis to a single example, one accessible to everyone, that of religious ideology, with the proviso that the same demonstration can be produced for ethical, legal, political, aesthetic ideology, etc. Let us therefore consider the Christian religious ideology. I shall use a rhetorical figure and ‘make it speak’, i.e. collect into planning models, a fictional discourse what it ‘says’ not only in its two Testaments, its Theologians, Sermons, but also in its practices, its rituals, its ceremonies and its sacraments. The Christian religious ideology says something like this: It says: I address myself to you, a human individual called Peter (every individual is called by his name, in the passive sense, it is never he who provides his own name), in order to global essay tell you that God exists and that you are answer able to Him. It adds: God addresses himself to you through my voice (Scripture having collected the Word of God, Tradition having transmitted it, Papal Infallibility fixing it for strategic business planning models ever on ‘nice’ points). It says: this is who you are: you are Peter! This is your origin, you were created by God for all eternity, although you were born in the 1920th year of Our Lord! This is your place in the world!

This is what you must do! By these means, if you observe the book ‘law of love’ you will be saved, you, Peter, and will become part of the Glorious Body of Christ! Etc. Now this is quite a familiar and banal discourse, but at the same time quite a surprising one. Surprising because if we consider that religious ideology is indeed addressed to individuals, [19] in order to ‘transform them into subjects’, by interpellating the individual, Peter, in order to make him a subject, free to obey or disobey the appeal, i.e. God’s commandments; if it calls these individuals by their names, thus recognizing that they are always-already interpellated as subjects with a personal identity (to the extent that Pascal’s Christ says: ‘It is for you that I have shed this drop of my blood!’); if it interpellates them in such a way that the models subject responds: ‘ Yes , it really is me! ’ if it obtains from them the copy dissertation recognition that they really do occupy the place it designates for strategic them as theirs in cs lewis the weight, the world, a fixed residence: ‘It really is me, I am here, a worker, a boss or a soldier!’ in strategic business planning models, this vale of tears; if it obtains from them the recognition of a destination (eternal life or damnation) according to the respect or contempt they show to ‘God’s Commandments’, Law become Love; – if everything does happen in this way (in the practices of the well-known rituals of dissertation, baptism, confirmation, communion, confession and extreme unction, etc. Business! . ), we should note that all this ‘procedure’ to set up Christian religious subjects is cs lewis of glory essay dominated by a strange phenomenon: the fact that there can only planning models, be such a multitude of global essay, possible religious subjects on the absolute condition that there is a Unique, Absolute, Other Subject , i.e. God. It is convenient to designate this new and remarkable Subject by writing Subject with a capital S to distinguish it from ordinary subjects, with a small s. It then emerges that the interpellation of individuals as subjects presupposes the ‘existence’ of strategic business models, a Unique and central Other Subject, in whose Name the religious ideology interpellates all individuals as subjects. All this is clearly [20] written in what is rightly called the Scriptures. ‘And it came to pass at that time that God the Lord (Yahweh) spoke to editor dissertation Moses in the cloud.

And the Lord cried to planning Moses, “Moses!” And Moses replied “It is (really) I! I am Moses thy servant, speak and I shall listen!” And the Lord spoke to Moses and said to him, “ I am that I am ’. God thus defines himself as the Subject par excellence , he who is through himself and for himself (‘I am that I am’), and he who interpellates his subject, the individual subjected to him by his very interpellation, i.e. the individual named Moses. And Moses, interpellated-called by his Name, having recognized that it ‘really’ was he who was called by God, recognizes that he is a subject, a subject of God, a subject subjected to God, a subject through the Subject and subjected to the Subject. Cs Lewis The Weight! The proof: he obeys him, and business planning, makes his people obey God’s Commandments. God is thus the Subject, and Moses and the innumerable subjects of God’s people, the Subject’s interlocutors-interpellates: his mirrors , his reflections. Were not men made in the image of God? As all theological reflection proves, whereas He ‘could’ perfectly well have done without men, God needs them, the Subject needs the subjects, just as men need God, the subjects need the Subject. Better: God needs men, the great Subject needs subjects, even in the terrible inversion of his image in them (when the solar subjects wallow in debauchery, i.e. sin). Better: God duplicates himself and sends his Son to the Earth, as a mere subject ‘forsaken’ by him (the long complaint of the Garden of Olives which ends in the Crucifixion), subject but Subject, man but God, to do what prepares the way for the final Redemption, the Resurrection of Christ. Strategic Planning Models! God thus needs to ‘make himself’ a man, the cell Subject needs to become a subject, as if to show empirically, visibly to the eye, tangibly to the hands (see St. Thomas) of the subjects, that, if they are subjects, subjected to the Subject, that is strategic solely in order that finally, on Judgement Day, they will re-enter the cs lewis of glory essay Lord’s Bosom, like Christ, i.e. re-enter the Subject. [21]

Let us decipher into theoretical language this wonderful necessity for the duplication of the Subject into subjects and of the Subject itself into a subject-Subject. We observe that the structure of all ideology, interpellating individuals as subjects in the name of a Unique and Absolute Subject is speculary , i.e. a mirror-structure, and doubly speculary: this mirror duplication is constitutive of planning, ideology and ensures its functioning. Which means that all ideology is centred , that the Absolute Subject occupies the unique place of the Centre, and interpellates around it the infinity of individuals into subjects in a double mirror-connexion such that it subjects the subjects to the Subject, while giving them in the Subject in which each subject can contemplate its own image (present and future) the guarantee that this really concerns them and Him, and good to write college, that since everything takes place in strategic planning, the Family (the Holy Family: the Family is in essence Holy), ‘God will recognize his own in it’, i.e. those who have recognized God, and have recognized themselves in Him, will be saved. Let me summarize what we have discovered about ideology in general. The duplicate mirror-structure of ideology ensures simultaneously: 1. the interpellation of ‘individuals’ as subjects; 2. their subjection to the Subject; 3. the mutual recognition of subjects and Subject, the on current subjects’ recognition of each other, and finally the subject’s recognition of himself; [22] 4. the absolute guarantee that everything really is so, and strategic business planning, that on condition that the subjects recognize what they are and behave accordingly, everything will be all right: Amen – ‘ So be it ’. Result: caught in this quadruple system of interpellation as subjects, of subjection to the Subject, of universal recognition and of absolute guarantee, the subjects ‘work’, they ‘work by themselves’ in the vast majority of cases, with the exception of the ‘bad subjects’ who on occasion provoke the editor dissertation intervention of one of the detachments of the (Repressive) State Apparatus.

But the vast majority of (good) subjects work all right ‘all by themselves’, i.e. by strategic planning models, ideology (whose concrete forms are realized in the Ideological State Apparatuses). They are inserted into practices governed by the rituals of the ISAs. They ‘recognize’ the existing state of affairs ( das Bestehende ), that ‘it really is true that it is so and not otherwise’, and that they must be obedient to God, to their conscience, to the priest, to de Gaulle, to team book the boss, to the engineer, that thou shalt ‘love thy neighbour as thyself’, etc. Their concrete, material behaviour is simply the inscription in life of the admirable words of the prayer: ‘ Amen – So be it ’. Yes, the subjects ‘work by themselves’. The whole mystery of this effect lies in the first two moments of the quadruple system I have just discussed, or, if you prefer, in the ambiguity of the term subject. In the business models ordinary use of the term, subject in team book report, fact means: (1) a free subjectivity, a centre of initiatives, author of and responsible for its actions; (2) a subjected being, who submits to a higher authority, and is therefore stripped of all freedom except that of freely accepting his submission. This last note gives us the meaning of this ambiguity, which is merely a reflection of the strategic business planning models effect which produces it: the individual is interpellated as a ( free) subject in order that he shall submit freely to the commandments of the Subject , i.e. in order that he shall ( freely) accept his subjection , i.e. in order that he shall make the gestures and actions of his subjection ‘all by himself’.

There are no subjects except by and for their subjection. That is why they ‘work all by themselves’. ‘ So be it! . ’ This phrase which registers the essays effect to be obtained proves that it is not ‘naturally’ so (‘naturally’: outside the strategic prayer, i.e. outside the ideological intervention). This phrase proves that it has to copy editor dissertation be so if things are to be what they must be, and let us let the planning words slip: if the reproduction of the relations of production is to be assured, even in the processes of production and circulation, every day, in the ‘consciousness’, i.e. in the attitudes of the individual-subjects occupying the posts which the socio-technical division of labour assigns to them in production, exploitation, repression, ideologization, scientific practice, etc. Indeed, what is really in question in this mechanism of the mirror recognition of the copy editor dissertation Subject and strategic business planning models, of the individuals interpellated as subjects, and travel book, of the guarantee given by the Subject to the subjects if they freely accept their subjection to the Subject’s ‘commandments’?

The reality in question in this mechanism, the reality which is necessarily ignored ( mconnue ) in models, the very forms of recognition (ideology = misrecognition/ignorance) is indeed, in the last resort, the reproduction of the relations of production and of the global essay relations deriving from them. P.S. If these few schematic theses allow me to illuminate certain aspects of the functioning of the Superstructure and its mode of strategic business planning, intervention in the Infrastructure, they are obviously abstract and necessarily leave several important problems unanswered, which should be mentioned: 1. The problem of the total process of the realization of the reproduction of the relations of production. As an element of global culture essay, this process, the business planning models ISAs contribute to this reproduction.

But the point of view of their contribution alone is still an abstract one. It is only within the processes of production and circulation that this reproduction is the weight of glory realized. It is realized by the mechanisms of those processes, in which the training of the workers is ‘completed’, their posts assigned them, etc. It is in the internal mechanisms of these processes that the effect of the different ideologies is felt (above all the effect of legal-ethical ideology). But this point of business models, view is still an abstract one. For in a class society the relations of essay, production are relations of exploitation, and therefore relations between antagonistic classes. The reproduction of the relations of production, the ultimate aim of the business planning ruling class, cannot therefore be a merely technical operation training and distributing individuals for the different posts in copy editor, the ‘technical division’ of labour. Business Models! In fact there is no ‘technical division’ of labour except in the ideology of the ruling class: every ‘technical’ division, every ‘technical’ organization of labour is the form and mask of a social (= class) division and organization of labour. The reproduction of the relations of production can therefore only be a class undertaking.

It is realized through a class struggle which counterposes the ruling class and college, the exploited class. The total process of the realization of the business reproduction of the relations of topics, production is therefore still abstract, insofar as it has not adopted the point of view of this class struggle. To adopt the point of view of reproduction is therefore in the last instance, to strategic models adopt the point of view of the class struggle. 2. The problem of the class nature of the ideolog ies existing in a social formation. The ‘mechanism’ of ideology in general is one thing. We have seen that it can be reduced to a few principles expressed in a few words (as ‘poor’ as those which, according to Marx, define production in general , or in Freud, define the unconscious in general ). If there is solar any truth in it, this mechanism must be abstract with respect to every real ideological formation. I have suggested that the ideologies were realized in business planning models, institutions, in their rituals and their practices, in the ISAs. We have seen that on this basis they contribute to solar that form of class struggle, vital for the ruling class, the reproduction of the planning relations of production. But the point of travel, view itself however real, is still an strategic, abstract one.

In fact, the State and its Apparatuses only have meaning from the point of cell, view of the class struggle, as an strategic planning models, apparatus of thesis, class struggle ensuring class oppression and guaranteeing the conditions of exploitation and its reproduction. But there is no class struggle without antagonistic classes. Whoever says class struggle of the ruling class says resistance, revolt and class struggle of the ruled class. That is why the ISAs are not the planning models realization of good ways college, ideology in general , nor even the conflict-free realization of the ideology of the ruling class. Strategic Business! The ideology of the ruling class does not become the thesis ruling ideology by the grace of God, nor even by virtue of the seizure of State power alone. It is by the installation of the ISAs in which this ideology is realized and strategic business planning, realizes itself that it becomes the ruling ideology. Copy Dissertation! But this installation is not achieved all by itself; on the contrary, it is the stake in a very bitter and continuous class struggle: first against the former ruling classes and business planning models, their positions in the old and new ISAs, then against the exploited class. But this point of view of the class struggle in the ISAs is still an abstract one. In fact, the cell class struggle in the ISAs is indeed an aspect of the class struggle, sometimes an important and symptomatic one: e.g. the anti-religious struggle in the eighteenth century, or the ‘crisis’ of the educational ISA in every capitalist country today. But the class struggles in the ISAs is only one aspect of a class struggle which goes beyond the strategic planning ISAs. The ideology that a class in power makes the ruling ideology in its ISAs is indeed ‘realized’ in those ISAs, but it goes beyond them, for it comes from elsewhere.

Similarly, the ideology that a ruled class manages to defend in and against such ISAs goes beyond them, for it comes from team report, elsewhere. It is only from the point of view of the classes, i.e. of the strategic planning models class struggle, that it is possible to explain the ideolog ies existing in a social formation. Not only is it from global essay, this starting-point that it is possible to explain the realization of the ruling ideology in the ISAs and of the forms of strategic planning, class struggle for which the ISAs are the seat and copy dissertation, the stake. Strategic Planning Models! But it is also and above all from this starting-point that it is possible to understand the provenance of the ideologies which are realized in the ISAs and confront one another there. For if it is true that the ISAs represent the form in which the ideology of the ruling class must necessarily be realized, and essays topics, the form in which the ideology of the ruled class must necessarily be measured and confronted, ideologies are not ‘born’ in the ISAs but from the social classes at grips in the class struggle: from their conditions of existence, their practices, their experience of the struggle, etc. 1. This text is made up of two extracts from an ongoing study. Strategic Business Models! The sub-title ‘Notes towards an Investigation’ is the author’s own. On Current! The ideas expounded should not be regarded as more than the introduction to a discussion. 2. Marx to Kugelmann, 11 July 1868, Selected Correspondence, Moscow, 1955, p. 209.

3. Marx gave it its scientific concept: variable capital. 4. In For Marx and Reading Capital , 1965 (English editions 1969 and 1970 respectively). 5. Topography from the Greek topos: place. Planning Models! A topography represents in a definite space the respective sites occupied by several realities: thus the economic is at the bottom (the base), the superstructure above it. 6. See p. 158 below, On Ideology.

7. To my knowledge, Gramsci is the only one who went any distance in the road I am taking. He had the ‘remarkable’ idea that the State could not be reduced to the (Repressive) State Apparatus, but included, as he put it, a certain number of institutions from ‘ civil society ’: the Church, the Schools, the trade unions, etc. Unfortunately, Gramsci did not systematize his institutions, which remained in the state of essays topics, acute but fragmentary notes (cf. Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks , International Publishers, 1971, pp. 12, 259, 260-3; see also the letter to Tatiana Schucht, 7 September 1931, in Lettre del Carcere , Einaudi, 1968, p. 479. English-language translation in preparation.

8. The family obviously has other ‘functions’ than that of an ISA. It intervenes in the reproduction of labour power. In different modes of production it is the business unit of production and/or the unit of consumption. 9. The ‘Law’ belongs both to copy editor dissertation the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to the system of the strategic business ISAs. 10. Cs Lewis The Weight! In a pathetic text written in 1937, Krupskaya relates the history of Lenin’s desperate efforts and business planning, what she regards as his failure. 11. What I have said in these few brief words about the college essays class struggle in planning, the ISAs is obviously far from exhausting the thesis question of the class struggle. To approach this question, two principles must be borne in mind: The first principle was formulated by Marx in the Preface to business planning A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy: ‘In considering such transformations [a social revolution] a distinction should always be made between the material transformation of the economic conditions of global culture, production, which can be determined with the precision of natural science, and the legal, political, religious, aesthetic or philosophic – in short, ideological forms in strategic, which men become conscious of the weight, this conflict and fight it out.’ The class struggle is thus expressed and exercised in ideological forms, thus also in the ideological forms of the ISAs.

But the class struggle extends far beyond these forms, and it is because it extends beyond them that the struggle of the exploited classes may also be exercised in the forms of the ISAs, and thus turn the weapon of ideology against the classes in power. This by virtue of the second principle : the class struggle extends beyond the ISAs because it is rooted elsewhere than in ideology, in the Infrastructure, in the relations of strategic business planning models, production, which are relations of exploitation and constitute the base for team class relations. 12. For the most part. For the relations of production are first reproduced by the materiality of the processes of production and strategic planning models, circulation. But it should not be forgotten that ideological relations are immediately present in travel, these same processes. 13.

For that part of reproduction to which the Repressive State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatus contribute. 14. Business Planning! I use this very modern term deliberately. For even in Communist circles, unfortunately, it is a commonplace to ‘explain’ some political deviation (left or right opportunism) by travel, the action of a ‘clique’. 15. Strategic Models! Which borrowed the legal category of ‘subject in law’ to make an essays topics, ideological notion: man is by strategic planning models, nature a subject. 16. Of Glory! Linguists and those who appeal to linguistics for various purposes often run up against difficulties which arise because they ignore the action of the ideological effects in all discourses – including even scientific discourses. 17. Business Planning! NB: this double ‘currently’ is one more proof of the fact that ideology is ‘eternal’, since these two ‘currentlys’ are separated by an indefinite interval; I am writing these lines on 6 April 1969, you may read them at any subsequent time.

18. Hailing as an everyday practice subject to a precise ritual takes a quite ‘special’ form in the policeman’s practice of ‘hailing’ which concerns the the weight essay hailing of ‘suspects’. 19. Business Models! Although we know that the individual is always already a subject, we go on essay, using this term, convenient because of the contrasting effect it produces. 20. I am quoting in a combined way, not to the letter but ‘in spirit and strategic business planning, truth’. 21. The dogma of the solar thesis Trinity is precisely the theory of the duplication of the Subject (the Father) into a subject (the Son) and of their mirror-connexion (the Holy Spirit). 22.

Hegel is (unknowingly) an strategic planning models, admirable ‘theoretician’ of ideology insofar as he is a ‘theoretician’ of Universal Recognition who unfortunately ends up in the ideology of Absolute Knowledge. Feuerbach is an astonishing ‘theoretician’ of the mirror connexion, who unfortunately ends up in the ideology of the Human Essence. To find the material with which to construct a theory of the guarantee, we must turn to Spinoza.

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How to Write an business planning Achievement Oriented Resume. Many people run into global culture essay trouble when writing the details of the work experience section on business planning, a resume. Commonly, the work experience section is made up of a bullet point list of duties and responsibilities relating to each work position. However, in order for your resume to editor dissertation stand out, the details of your work experience section should ideally start with a powerful action verb, as well as using numbers to quantify your accomplishments . When writing the work experience, always begin your bullet point details with an business planning models action verb . A powerful action verb places you as an team book initiator of action, which leaves a positive impression on the reader. Strategic Planning! Rather than beginning a description with a passive-sounding description such as “Worked on copy dissertation, creative projects to teach children,” it is better to start off using an action verb such as “Designed and implemented a creative arts curriculum for elementary school children.”

Try to avoid starting off descriptions with “Responsible for” and instead, use action verbs such as “managed,” “implemented,” or “developed.” For a complete list of action verbs (as in over 1,000 words) view the “Longest Action Verb List In The Universe” or get your action verbs by strategic business models skill: There’s a simple formula that any job seeker can follow to construct accomplishment-oriented bullet points. It’s called the ‘PAR’ Method, which stands for problem, action, and results. When applied to your resume, the ‘Par Method’ encourages you to: Problem: Identify a responsibility or issue at copy editor dissertation work Action: Discuss how you addressed the problem Results: What was the outcome of that action.

While that may sound like a lot to business planning fit into ways essays one bullet point, you’ll be surprised out how easy ‘PAR’ can be implemented into your bullet points. Check out the examples below: Developed new filing and models, organizational practices , saving the cs lewis the weight of glory, company $3,000 per year in contracted labor expenses. Suggested a new tactic to persuade canceling customers to stay with the company, resulting in a 5% decrease in cancellations. Notice that the problem, action, and strategic business, result does not always need to be placed in the same order. Now that you have a better understanding of the structure of an accomplishment bullet point, let’s discuss how you can apply it to your own professional experience section. Employers want to see workers who can achieve solid results , and results are best stated in on current topics terms of reportable numbers. How many employees did you work with or oversee?

By what percentage did you increase sales or efficiency? How much of a budget did you work with, with what type of results? Putting a number on your accomplishments is a sure way of conveying results and impressing the hiring manager. Hiring managers like to see quantifiable achievements rather than a list of general descriptions of job responsibilities. By using numbers in detailing your work experience, you are demonstrating your focus as being results-oriented rather than task-oriented . For example, compare “Responsible for selling products to customers at XYZ Store” to strategic business planning “Increased sales revenue by 30% in three months.” Which one sounds better? By including a percentage as well as time spent, the potential employer has a measurable, defined idea of what you have accomplished, rather than just a general job responsibility that can already be assumed with the job title. In order to measure your accomplishments, try to obtain as much data as you can in regard to your previous work experience.

It is never recommended to make up numbers, as hiring managers are experienced when it comes to scanning resumes and copy editor, it could hurt you later on. You also do not need to strategic planning quantify every single line in your work experience , but at good ways to write college least have a few per position on the work experience section. Below are some questions that may help to think of strategic business how to quantify achievements (broken down in terms of percentages, numbers, dollar amounts, and time) Questions to ask yourself: Did you increase sales, market share, or customer satisfaction by a certain percentage?

How? Did you increase efficiency or productivity by a certain percentage? Did you recruit, work with, or manage a certain number of employees or teams? How many customers did you serve on average? Did you increase the cs lewis of glory essay, number of customers served? By how much? Did you implement new ideas, systems, or processes to the company? What was the impact? Did you propose or work with a budget of a certain dollar amount? Did you increase sales or profitability by a certain dollar amount? How?

Did you decrease delivery or turnaround time on strategic business planning models, a project? How? Was one of your achievements completed within a tight deadline? Did you resolve any particular issues? How soon? All of these are examples where you can specifically quantify an achievement and translate your work experience into essay a results-oriented approach. In order to provide even more detail, consider also answering “How?” in models regard to how you achieved the global culture, accomplishment. 4. Resume achievement examples by planning industry.

Memorized restaurant’s wine stock and essays, the meals they should accompany, leading to strategic models daily wine sales averaging $150 , fully 20% higher than company average Write patrons’ food orders on slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into good computers for business planning models transmittal to kitchen staff in a 110+ seat restaurant. Administrative Assistant/Office Worker. Developed new filing and organizational practices, saving the company $3,000 per year in good college contracted labor expenses Answered incoming calls (avg. 40/day) resolving issues with both customers and billing department. Provide direct quality care to patients including daily monitoring, recording, and evaluating of medical conditions of up to 20 patients per day Led and mentored 10 newly licensed nurses in developing and achieving professional expertise. Increased students’ scores in standardized tests by 24% in planning literacy and 35% in math Educated an culture average of 18 students in grades 2 and 3 , and received four “Best Teacher Award” Manage a $350,000 budget, with a reduction of costs totaling 15% over business planning models two years Trained and supervised 2 new employees, ensuring they maintain fastidious attention to detail. Consolidated multiple ticketing systems, improving communication and ways essays, ticket turnover rate by 7% Refined and strategic planning models, improved existing documentation system, resulting in global culture essay reduced labor costs totaling $15,000 annually via increased workplace efficiency. Operate POS cash register, handling 92 transactions on average daily, and strategic business planning models, count money in travel team book cash drawers to ensure the business models, amount is correct Assist an average of editor 40 customers per strategic business models day in finding or selecting items, and provided recommendations that generated $8K in additional revenue. Writing an achievement oriented resume is easy with our powerful and simple to use Resume Genius’ resume building software. Our bullet points are well-written and can be easily modified to global reflect your achievements.

Just add numbers, and you’re all done! Or, if you’d like to write your resume yourself, get started with our free free resume templates. Business Planning Models! Download the cs lewis the weight essay, one that best suits your experience, and strategic business models, get started writing. Finally, you can use our free industry resume samples for inspiration from similar job roles. More people need to read this; too many times I’m still seeing job description oriented resumes and Objective paragraphs that are written in the manner of those written back in the sixties. Glad you agree!

Applicants really need to focus on selling themselves in the professional experience section rather than just including a laundry list of mundane duties and responsibilities. Thanks for college your comment! When referring to your budget amount, do you put the planning models, revenue or do you put the bottom line, i.e. net income? HR managers like to see that an applicant was able to accomplish their goals within a set a budget. The ability to manage a budget also instills confidence in the employer that you are a trustworthy and responsible candidate.

Good luck on the job hunt! I’m trying to revamp my resume in a format that focuses more on accomplishments than tasks, but there are always going to copy editor be key parts of past jobs that simply don’t lend themselves to being quantified. What’s the strategic business, best approach to making sure this information gets in cell solar thesis without losing its importance? Also, some of my experiences were quantifiable, but only tacitly. Strategic! For example, I helped co-workers by report automating some of their tasks, which saved them time when doing them. I have no idea how much time, but I know it was significant.

What kind of terminology should I use to convey these kind of achievements? Great question! Many job seekers would agree that it’s not always easy to planning models quantify their achievements. Essays Topics! In your case, the next best thing would be to estimate the amount of time you saved your co-workers. As long as you are realistic with your estimate there is no harm in including it on your resume. Planning Models! If you say that you saved your co-workers an average of 5 hours a day, that might raise flags with hiring managers. However, an estimate of cs lewis of glory 15-20 minutes a day is reasonable and business planning, still quite impressive. The most important thing to consider is that if HR calls your previous manager, he/she will back up your claim. Good Ways To Write College Essays! If so, then you are in the clear.

Good luck on strategic planning, the job hunt! So my dilemma is that I don’t have quantifiable accomplishments. Meaning – I can list what I did for english essays topics the company, but the strategic business planning, company will not verify it. The management turnover rate is global, so ridiculously high that they don’t really know who implemented it or when it was implemented. Strategic Business! And so many people take credit for what someone else did, that it is difficult to actual say, “Yes, so and good to write college, so did do that.” How do you include that in a resume? Is it possible?

Even if you don’t have quantifiable achievements, you can still find ways to add numbers to your resume. Models! Think of topics ways to strategic planning models quantify your job duties: Did you handle a budget? Train new employees? How many clients did you handle per month? How large was the team you worked with? These are just a few ways you can include numbers in your resume without having major accomplishments. Try to get creative and brainstorm other ways to quantify your resume. Good luck on the job hunt, Since you have a lot of educational experience, we suggest checking out our education section writing guide: https://resumegenius.com/resume/education-section-resume-guide. You’ll have to highlight all your accomplishments that you have achieved in your previous jobs.

Even if they seem small, including them on your resume will show that you are achievement oriented. Also, if you ever helped train new employees, make sure you include that as well. It will demonstrate your ability to teach. Best of luck! Wow! Congratulations for the great job you have done! You didn`t leave anything out; you even included a list of action verbs to describe work experience, and classified by skills. There`s a lot of reading to do, but sure it is worthwhile. Glad you found it useful!

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I already thought my resume was good but these tips will help take it to the next level. That’s a good point, but there are infinite reasons as to why someone might be looking for a new job even if they have achieved success in their current position. (bad management, relocating, not developing any new skills, etc) Thanks for strategic planning models the comment! Thank you! Super helpful #128512; this may sound silly, but i didn’t realize how much i was doing for the company i work for until i read this. thank u. Not silly at all, we actually get that a lot. Most people are surprised to learn how much they can add to culture their resume. Best of strategic models luck! Share How to Write an Achievement Oriented Resume Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in global culture essay today’s competitive job market.

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Make sure you stay on top of the work. Look over the guidelines and the explanations. To get a diploma, you need to good ways to write college, complete the TOK Essay and business models the Extended Essay. At best, you can achieve 3 bonus points towards your IB diploma, so don't ignore your schoolwork, as your courses are worth much more. The point matrix is outlined in travel report the Diploma Points Matrix for the Extended Essay and business planning TOK grid in the IBO form. You can still get your diploma if you get a Mediocre on cs lewis essay one and an Elementary on another.

NOTE: As of May 2010, an models, 'Elementary' on both TOK and Extended essay is an travel book, automatic fail, but you may still pass with an 'Elementary' on either one, just not both. An 'Elementary' on either is a so called 'failing condition' which requires a minimum 28 points rather than the usual 24 to obtain your diploma. However, you can make a very good essay, provided you allot yourself enough time to business planning models, write about something you are interested in. The IBO knows that you are between 16 and 18 years old and thus does not require a perfect essay or a groundbreaking new discovery. They just want to see that you can work on and complete a big project. Copy Editor. You'll want to write about a topic or subject you're fairly familiar with. For instance, if you've nailed the process of writing labs, do a science investigation. It'll be just like a big lab write-up, and planning writing the copy editor method, materials, qualitative/quantitative observations are all part of the word count, and take up a significant amount of words.

Find out if there are competitions or scholarship opportunities in which you can enter your essay. Strategic Business Planning Models. Why not kill two birds with one stone and head off to university with a scholarship? If you don't win, at least you'll get feedback, something the IBO neglects to give. Everyone wants to write a good Extended Essay, but just remember that it's really not as overwhelming as it sounds. Some candidates will find their first drafts are in the 6,000 to english, 8,000 range, while others will reach about 2800-3500. In fact, keep in business mind that 4,000 words is the maximum word count and not where you must get to. While most essays have a word count in report the 3,900 range, it is perfectly acceptable to submit an essay that is strategic planning, 3,500 words. Thesis. While there is no actual minimum word count, you would probably want to write over models, 3,000 words, since a short essay might imply that the topic was not investigated thoroughly enough.

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Failure to submit an Extended Essay will result in no diploma being awarded. Use the internet to find information but do include books in your research especially if your essay is not on copy editor the Sciences. Be skeptical in your use of the business planning models internet. Anyone can post anything, so read with a critical eye. Copy Dissertation. Generally, university and academic websites are good sources to refer to. News sources are generally reliable, but be sure to stay away from gossip media which often contorts the truth. Keep in mind that a general guide line used in many schools is 5 sources minimum for strategic business models the IA in essays topics History, so if you are doing a History paper aim to models, have as close to ten sources as possible if not more for the EE. Once you have researched your topic, you should spend a lot of time structuring and organizing your essay. Dissertation. Make sure your essay has a clear introduction, research question/focus (i.e. what you will be investigating), body, and conclusion. A poorly organized or unclear essay will hurt the assessment of your essay. Strategic Business. You should also spend some time making sure that your 300-word abstract is clear and succinct in summarizing your essay.

An unclear abstract will make your essay difficult to of glory, understand and will also hurt the assessment of your essay. Strategic. Although this is stated in the General Requirements for the Extended Essay, I feel it is necessary to repeat: if you are doing a paper in college a subject not offered at your school, be very careful , especially if doing your paper in strategic business models World Religions. You might want to book, either reconsider your choice of topic, or make sure you have several people with good credibility in that topic reading your paper. If you don't, especially in models World Religions, you could end up offending your reader, and I promise you, you do not want to global, do that. Strategic. You can do your extended essay on any topic for which an IB class exists - i.e. Global Essay. something like Islamic History, which only about 100 candidates a year write about. However, you cannot do your extended essay in Theory of Knowledge, most pilot subjects and school-based syllabus subjects (check with your IB coordinator). Bear in mind that getting a good score in your extended essay, combined with your score for your Theory of Knowledge essay, may reward you with up to 3 bonus points. So aim high!

The above site is quite useful in perusing tips and hints for writing the essay, in addition to viewing the IBO standards for the essay. Note that the strategic business planning above link is for consideration purposes only. three: The Ultimate Student's Guide to Acing the Extended Essay and Theory of Knowledge by Alexander Zouev - a book full of tips and time savers for IB EE.

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Meaning that the answer would be NH3. Strategic Planning? 19) Construct and use word equations. They are the same but with words. 20) Define relative atomic mass, Ar. Copy Editor Dissertation? It is equal to the Mass Number of that Element. C, RAM = 12 21) Define relative molecular mass, Mr, as the sum of the relative atomic masses (relative formula mass or.

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For example: the exposure of white phosphorus forms an oxide because the heat from this reaction is enough to ignite the rest of the thesis, phosphorus. Explosive combustion is an uncontrolled chemical reaction that occurs at a very fast rate in which heat is released. Explosions occur when there are high. The Value of Chemistry in Society Essay. RD is based at 24 sites in seven countries.

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A. phosphate group B. hydrophobic region C. Strategic Business Planning? fatty acids. Essay on Principles of Chemistry Lab. After all of the crystals were completely dry, they were weighed. The beaker containing the crystals had a mass of 112.524 g. The weight of the beaker (107.359 g) was subtracted from the weight of the same beaker containing the cell solar thesis, pure crystals (112.524 g). The actual yield was 5.165 g pure crystals. The actual yield was divided by the theoretical yield (8.000 g) and the quotient was multiplied by 100 to get a percent recovery of 64.56%. Planning Models? 112.524 g – 107.359 g = 5.165 g pure crystals. The patient will start to swell up in essay, turn causing stress on the heart; causing build-up of fluid around the heart and it will eventually stop beating if not taking care of in a timely manner.

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BERRY BLUE|0.4003 G|LAMBDA MAX 629NM| ML OF SOLUTION|ABSORBANCE|CONCENTRATION (MG/ML)| 1.00|0.257|0.667| 2.00|0.512|1.334| 3.00|0.734|2.001| 4.00|1.024|2.668| 5.00|1.221|3.335| 6.00|1.657|4.003| Average concentration = 2.335 mg/ml Absorbance = 0.9008 CHERRY|0.1109G|L.MAX 503nm||||L. Max 629nm| ML of Solution|Absorbance|Conc. (mg/ml)||ML of Solution|Absorbance|Conc. (mg/ml)| 1.00|0.159|0.1848||1.00|0.003|0.1848| 2.00|0.303|0.3697||2.00|0.005|0.3697| 3.00|0.457|0. 1. Start Virtual ChemLab and select Boyle’s Law: Pressure and english essays on current, Volume from the list of assignments. The lab will open in the Gases laboratory. 2. Note that the balloon in the chamber is filled with 0.300 moles of an ideal gas (MW = 4 g/mol) at a temperature of 298 K, a pressure of 1.00 atm, and a volume of 7.336 L. To the left of the Pressure LCD controller is a lever that will decrease and strategic models, increase the english essays on current topics, pressure as it is moved up or down; the digit changes depending on how far the lever is moved. Essay on 200 Things to Know to Pass the Chemistry Exam. When adding or subtracting, use place value. What is the business planning models, density of the object measured in lab by the displacement of water according to The data below: Mass of object: 23.6 g Volume of water: 15.0 mL Volume of water + object: 18.2 mL 24. Solutions are the best examples of homogeneous mixtures.

They have two sets of properties. 25. Heterogeneous mixtures have discernable components and cs lewis the weight of glory essay, are not uniform throughout. Air is classified chemically as a(n) Substance compound element. Hydrate Lab Report for Chemistry Lab Essay. Sample calculations: Mass of the sample: Heating mass difference: Molar mass of CuCl2: Moles of the anhydrous sample: Mass % of H20: % Absolute error: % of business models, hydrate recovered: Conclusion The hydration number of essays topics, water was found using the ratio of strategic planning models, CuCl2 moles and H2O moles. The ratio was found to be 2 moles of H2O for every 1 mole of CuCl2. A new chemical equation of could be written using this stoichiometric ratio. The actual hydration number also is 2 moles of H2O. The.

Chemistry Final Exam Version 2b Essay. Show all calculations leading to an answer. 10. The freezing of water at 0?C can be represented as follows: H2O (l) - H2O(s) The density of liquid water is 1.00 g/cm3. The density of ice is 0.92 g/cm3. In 3 – 4 sentences explain why applying pressure causes ice to melt. 11. The Kw of water varies with temperature. Calculate the pH of water at 46?C with a Kw = 3.219 x 10-14.

Show all calculations leading to an answer. 12. Calculate the hydroxide ion concentration of a solution with. * The metals more reactive than carbon cannot be extracted from their ores using carbon. C 3.2. Irons and steels: * We extract iron from iron ore by reducing it using carbon in a blast furnace. * Pure iron is too soft for it to be very useful. * Carefully controlled quantities of carbon and other elements are added to iron to make alloys of steel with different properties. * Important examples of steels are: * Low carbon steels, which are easily shaped. * High carbon. Academic Ethical Dilemma: Learning Enhancement Through Chemistry. There are also the side effects that drugs can produce, such as: insomnia, loss of appetite, dizziness and global essay, depression and in some cases addiction (Laurance, 2003), even when taking them for the prescribe disease.

It is models, because of copy editor, this potential for addiction, and the growing demand for Ritalin, that the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration has classified it as a drug of concern (Healy, 2004). It is also of a concern that although these drugs do enhance the brains capabilities that they might also. Ib Chemistry Analysis of Iron Tablets Essay. 7H2O in each tablet = n(Fe2+) * (Mr of FeSO4 . 7H2O) / 5 = 5.475 * 10-3 mol * 278.05gmol-1 /5 = 0.3044…g = 304.46 mg Total Uncertainties Pipette = (0.06cm3 / 25cm3) x 100% = 0.24% Burette (x2) = (0.10cm3 x2 / 10.95cm3) x 100% = 1.83% Volumetric Flask = 0.15cm3 / 250 cm3 x 100% = 0.06% Balance = 0.01g / 1.52g x 100% = 0.66% Total Percentage Uncertainty = 2.11% Therefore, taking into account of uncertainties, Experimental mass of FeSO4 in planning, one tablet = 304.46 ± 2.11% Chemistry Experiment on the Reaction of Different Metals When Exposed to Acid. I saw that the Iron changed colour after it tarnished in the acid.

After looking at the less reactive metals out of the four, I focused on the reactivity of the other metals. Magnesium is the most reactive metal in travel report, the experiment as I predicted. As explained, it was because of business, magnesium is good to write college essays, very string when it comes to losing and gaining electrons. Planning? It reacted with the Copper sulphate, causing the magnesium to tarnish in the acid and turn black, losing its shiny appearance. It broke apart and turned. Essay about OCR Gateway Chemistry controlled assessment research. In this case, no chemical reaction occurs, instead the heat of solution is generated. A typical self-heating can consists of 2 chambers and a lid: 1 for cs lewis of glory, solid component; 1 for liquid. When you pierce the lid, the liquid component mixes with the solid one and starts an exothermic chemical reaction. The most common chemicals for strategic models, the self heating can are Al + Mg + Zn or CaO (solid component), and HCl or H2O as liquid.

Source 4 For the following experiment, we use the good ways to write, Crosse Blackwell heater-meal. Repeat for 10 reps. Make it harder by doing one leg at strategic business planning models, a time. Cell Solar? MOVE 4Stability Ball Ab Pull Get into pushup position and place your toes on the ball, keeping it behind you. With your abs tight, pull the ball in business models, toward your chest and then roll it back out. Use your abs to control the motion. Do 10 reps. Make it harder by doing a pushup between each pull or rolling the ball with one leg at a time. MOVE 5Lateral Lunge and Curl Grab a pair of the weight, 5- to 10-pound dumbbells and step your left foot about. As these populations decline, problem interactions between bears and business, humans will likely continue, and possibly increase, as the essay, bears seek alternative food sources.

Taken together, the data reported in this paper suggest that a precautionary approach be taken to the harvesting of polar bears and business, that the potential effects of climate warming be incorporated into planning for the management and conservation of of glory, this species throughout the Arctic. Key words: climate warming, polar bear, Ursus maritimus. Chemical changes are typically irreversible, but that is not always the case. It is easier to business planning, understand the difference between physical and chemical changes with examples. State changes are physical. | Phase changes are when you melt, freeze, boil, condense, sublimate, or deposit a substance. They do not change the nature of the substance unless a chemical change occurs along with the physical change. | Cutting, tearing, shattering, and grinding are physical. | These may be irreversible, but. Essay on Thermochromism in Ink Chemistry.

Absorption in the visible region takes place when low energy electronic transitions involving visible region frequencies occur. In the present case, the dimer absorbs light in the mid-UV region rendering it colorless, and the monomer absorbs in the visible region causing it to english on current, be colored. The possibility of planning models, easy interconversion between the two species coupled with the spectral shifts makes them thermochromic. CT Complex Formation An important thermochromic mechanism operating in copy editor dissertation, solutions. Essay on Chemistry Lab: Molecular Formulas. My third substance that I retrieved is Ethyl Methyl Ether which has a density of 0.7251 g/mL.(PubChem) Since the business planning models, density is off 0.0599 g/mL I could eliminate it from density portion of the experiment. Copy Dissertation? My fourth possible substance is 2-Hydroxypropan-2-Yl Radical with a density of 0.791 g/mL (GuideChem) just like 2-Propanol and also has a synonym of Isopropyl Alcohol (Usp) therefore; I will not eliminate it from business models, density and the weight, keep It for further evaluation. My fifth substance is Propanol with a density. Substitution Reaction of Molybdenum Hexacarbonyl: the Use of Infrared Spectroscopy as a Structural Tool in Metal Carbonyl Chemistry.

Thus [Mo(CO)6] so by |= (0.0424 g ? 0.500 g) ? 100 | |that its act as a Limiting reagent. |= 8.5 % | |[Mo(CO)6] reacts with Mo(CO)4(PPh3)2 in a 1:1 Stoichiometric ratio. | | |Thus: | chemistry project on honey analysis Essay. Other high grade honeys are made by planning, bees from editor dissertation, orange blossoms, clover and Alfalfa. A well known, poorer grade honey is produced from buckwheat. Honey has a fuel value of about 3307 cal/kg [1520 cal/ lbs]. It readily picks up moisture from the air and is consequently used as a moistioning agent for Tobaco and in baking. Strategic Models? Glucose crystallizes out of honey on standing at team book, room temperature, leaving on uncrystallized layer of dissolved fructose. Honey to planning models, be marketed is usually heated by a special process. Chemistry Project on Evaporation of copy editor, Liquid Essay.

The oxygen atom in a water (H2O) molecule is more electronegative than the hydrogen atoms, for example, enabling the oxygen atom to pull electrons away from both hydrogen atoms. As a result, the oxygen atom in the water molecule carries a partial negative charge, while the hydrogen atoms carry a partial positive charge. Water molecules share a mutual attraction—positively charged hydrogen atoms in one water molecule attract negatively charged oxygen atoms in nearby water molecules. Planning? Intermolecular.

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How to Write the Best Creative Essay In No Time: Tips Paper Ideas. Suffering from writer's block? Avoid panicking or thinking you are not talented enough to create something unique in a timely manner since the EssayService is here to strategic business help. Believe it, or not a lot of english, us have engaged in creative essay writing in one way or another at some point in our lives. In this article, we will explore fun, interactive ways which one may use to surpass the difficulties of picking up good creative paper topics. Regarding trying to explain how to write a creative essay , it is best to strategic business start by culture essay, defining it to help us break it down the concept . Business Planning Models. Mostly such assignments will require the student to create an intriguing fictional scenario , which may be based on real events, designed to fit a set of given criteria. Essay. Thus, simply put one may say the secret to finding good creative essay topics can be found by letting our imagination run wild. Strategic Business Models. As strange as it may seem at first to travel team book report engage in such activities since academic papers are usually quite objective and factual, seeking to communicate concrete ideas or solid arguments in business a clear and concise manner. However, as different and unrelated the two may seem at first it is important to realize that what they both have in editor dissertation common is a unique set of writing techniques capable of making the task much easier.

Both factual and creative essays are meant to be read by experts in models the field and the general population . Thus it is copy crucial to maintain their interest in the piece. One thing to admire about the strategic planning models, art of global culture essay, creative writing is that it has survived the test of strategic planning models, time as it has endured various schools of thought critiquing its existence. Thus, what we will be exploring in the article are the elements which have secured its survival and editor how you should apply them in college. Using these items accordingly will give you the best possible sources of planning models, inspiration . Now that we have a basic understanding of what this assignment requires from us it is time to have a look at what kind of topics and themes produce the best results. Popular Topics and editor dissertation Creative Paper Ideas. In case you have not been given any creative college essay prompts or have been looking for a starting point, here are some general ideas that could help guide you in the right direction.

What if dinosaurs came back to life ? What would we do as a response? Walk us through what it felt like to fall in strategic planning love for the first time . A more romantic approach to cell solar thesis any creative college essay assignment. Describe how you see the strategic business, end of the world or explain why you think it is eternal? Explore religious themes like the existence of God or Heaven and cell solar thesis Hell. What makes you know these things are a certainty?

Create a scenario where a meteorite hit the earth , who knows what mysteries can be found near its remains. Do you like detective stories ? Maybe you should give it a try in a creative essay! If World War 3 was to break out today whose side would you take and why? Is such a thing even reasonable after we have seen the result of two world wars already? Let us say you just got back home, but everything has changed on strategic business planning, the inside from the furniture to essays the bathroom. Looking through the house, you realize nobody is home. Nonetheless, your keys opened the strategic, door.

What will happen next in essays our creative college essay? What defines good and evil for us ? More so who decides such a fact? Why is planning there such a controversy behind it? Your body has been frozen for 100 years , but now the slumber has ended. What does the future look like 100 years from now? Would you try to english essays topics find your family or explore the future thinking they are all gone? If prose is strategic business not working out, why not try put your thought into rhymes?

Poetry is a prevalent form of cs lewis essay, creative essay writing . We hope these general ideas help shed some light on planning, how one should begin exploring their creative essay writing ideas and culture turn them into strategic planning models fascinating topics for us all to enjoy reading. In the following sections, we will cover some effective tactics to use when tackling the assignment. How To Combine the Art of Essay Writing and Storytelling. We all have our unique gifts, however, if we find ourselves having writer's block or not knowing how to combine academic paper writing with the cs lewis the weight of glory, art of storytelling effectively then here's how it's done. Explain to yourself the main idea of the strategic business planning models, creative college essay as well as the main character, whether it be the antagonist or protagonist . Does it all make sense and flow smoothly? All academic assignments and creative essay topics must have an introduction and conclusion , they might be named or expressed differently, but the core idea does not change . Character development and good to write essays the conflicts occurring between them serve as the main body of the piece and thus should have the same impactful effect on the audience . The creative essay topics make use of supporting characters the same way we use supporting arguments to help highlight a particular concept. Make sure to connect all the creative paper ideas and components as you would the statistics in a business plan , to show any existing correlations between the data in the discussion. Another way to think about is like a cause and effect essay which gets a little bit more imaginative than usual, filled with mythical characters and strategic models magical adventures . Finding any means to make the assignment more relatable to one’s self is the key to breaking it down into reachable goals. Nonetheless, keep in mind at all times that it is vital to cell solar thesis maintaining the reader’s interest at all times throughout the paper. Strategic. We hope some of these suggestions come in handy when tackling your creative college essay.

How To Tackle the Creative College Essay. Identify your audience from the start. Before one begins to set the tone in travel book report their creative college essay, it is vital to identify our audience as this help narrow down the style which the piece should follow. Let us pause briefly and give it some consideration. If we are to perform beyond expectation, we must find the strategic business models, means to keep the readers hooked and left them wanting more.

Thus, let us have a look at who our audience might be while putting our wits to the test with some creative paper ideas. In most cases, the audience will be our college/university lecturers or our high school teachers, so there is good not so much to worry about there. It is not an unknown fact that these professors quite often have to grade a large number of creative essays, meaning they have a pretty good idea of strategic business planning models, what the result should look like. Solar. If they have set the prompts themselves then even more so they are anticipating a particular type of response . Strategic Business Planning Models. However, this is a chance to make your creative essay stand out from the rest . Keep in mind there is a very high possibility they might be slightly bored by the time they read your piece. Hence it is vital to capitalize on the opportunity. You know what they say, beat the iron while it's hot! Lastly, a rather forgotten fact is the lecturers grading all these creative college essays are on book, a tight schedule as grades need to be submitted by a particular date . With that in mind, revisit your piece as many times as possible before submitting it since examiners will most likely not have the planning models, time or energy to go over poorly written passages and try make sense of it all.

One of the best ways to avoid this during the editing stage is by structuring the creative college essay sentences in a succinct fashion which is easy to read and gets to the point without any hesitation. Brainstorm potential creative essay topics or use the given prompts. Having a readily given prompt can be a great help in such a situation as one may develop their creative essay plot around it. Nonetheless, if you have to team report start from scratch think of something that will most likely not be overused by strategic planning, everyone. Cs Lewis Essay. It is planning often considered a good idea to bounce ideas off your classmates as it will help create something unique. If that does not give the cs lewis the weight essay, desired result try going into strategic business models a quiet room and jot down every single creative idea you have. It might not sound like much, but it will generate a starting point which can later be defined and cell thesis edited. Strategic Business Planning. Remember, these are just drafts.

Short Creative College Essay Example: Dinosaurs come back to life in New York from the ancient history museum. By eating people, they regain their flesh and evolve from just simple bone. When I first met him, I thought he would never even say a word to good anyone. It took him about a week before he even said hi, but by this point, I figured he was a complete jerk . She was walking down the road near Westminster Abbey as the electricity went off in business the entire district. To her surprise there seemed to be nobody around to ask what's happened.

As her journey home continued, she was not prepared for what awaited her around the corner. As previously mentioned having a lot of variety is good in creative essay writing since it allows you to explore various possibilities for the weight essay, the story and its plot. Thus, even when having what seems to be an uninspired thought write it down , it could come in planning handy later . Some of the good essays, greatest ideas we have often come at random moments so be prepared when tackling such an assignment. Grab the reader's attention using witty metaphors as well as interesting settings or locations. This is where things get a little bit tricky in our creative college essay assignment. It is not a mystery that we all like different things, it's why there are so many flavors of Ben n Jerry’s ice cream which we can enjoy.

The same spectrum of variety is what should be included in our use of business models, metaphors, allegories, and other literary elements to spice up our creative college essay . Some of the best places to editor dissertation take advantage of these are considered to be for example when trying to strategic business explain a rather complex meaning, or comparison one may choose to make use of an analogy to convey the travel report, meaning better. Doing so helps the reader visualize the business planning models, concept being explained leading to the experience becoming more relatable to the reader as well as a tendency to thesis become personally involved in planning the piece. Editor Dissertation. What some writers do in their creative college essay is describe one of their characters will as being similar to a flowing river. When doing, we can illustrate how obstacles throughout their journey might impede them, but just like the river, they will find a way to course right through it in time. Effectively making use of planning, these elements is just a part of hooking the reader. The next step is bringing the creative essay to life using fascinating settings and exotic locations that are bound to keep the audience interested.

It is quite similar to seasoning a meal; it just doesn’t taste the same without the perfect amount of added ingredients. Short Creative Essay Sample: How To Structure A Creative Essay. In today’s academic environment college papers can have a multitude of structures, formats and book referencing styles. However, if you have not been given a particular form to run with by the lecturer, then it is strongly advised to strategic business get acquainted with the three-act structure. What it does for our creative college essay is give it a basic skeleton to build our ideas upon. So without any further introduction let's get into team book what this type of creative essay structure means. For those of you who are not familiar with what the three-act structure and what it entails regarding a creative college essay , then do not worry since it is not extremely complicated if explained adequately. In essence, the role of such a format is to establish a plotline which will have all the business, necessary elements to produce the desired result from the audience.

One can say they are similar to the acts of the weight, a play. However, the transition between scenes, in this case, can be done differently according to the writer's vision. The first stage of business planning, tackling any creative essay ideas starts by creating a set-up . Here one should look to create a scene for the reader in which the main concept of the piece can be introduced without losing their interest. Solar Thesis. The best way to hook the audience is by having a compelling plotline and business intriguing characters. Cs Lewis The Weight Of Glory. Thus, the implications here for us when trying to develop the idea of our creative college essay are : Establish their background details Who are they? Why are they relevant to us ? Are they related to each other? If so, then how? Where do they live ? What is the determining factor in how we judge each character? In essence, our goal here now is to use the opportunity to introduce climax into the creative college essay story. Thus leading to a potential turning point which is always bound to occur in the plotline. Overall this section should have set the tone and the scene of the confrontation that will occur between the chosen characters.

The second stage of our creative essay’s structure involves developing the previously mentioned battle into the center point of the strategic business planning models, piece . English On Current Topics. The main reason in doing so is that it creates a puzzle the main character or the protagonist must solve to achieve their goals . This usually occurs with numerous obstacles along the way trying to impede our hero’s path due to planning the utter importance of the task at hand. A good creative essay example is always detective stories since they are filled with many trials and tribulations. For example, our private eye Desmond discovers something is wrong with a crime scene photo his partner has been describing as lacking in solar thesis color. Who could have known that a shade of grey can hide so many things? Thus, by describing the situation in our creative college essay as such not only business models have we involved the supporting characters into the main action but also shows Desmond, the protagonist, getting closer to figuring out the murder case. And last but not least, being a favorite of many is the resolution of our story where the cell, action should reach its climax in business a highly dramatic scene . In this section look to summarize and cell solar conclude the confrontation between the strategic business planning models, two rival characters in the creative college essay while also subtly expressing your view on travel team book, how it all transpired into the current events. Such an planning models, element is an opportunity to tie up any loose ends that might have been left unresolved throughout the story as they served the global, purpose of building up the climax.

One may also choose to business models leave the ways college, conclusion open-ended as most due in the cases of strategic business planning, sequel novels, films, books, articles and even creative college essay topics. What Other Types of Papers Involve Creative Writing? It is not a mystery that many assignments throughout academia are often interlinked and can turn out to be quite similar . Global Culture Essay. In the case of the creative essay, there are numerous types of papers which borrow or share some of their elements to it as was previously mentioned while we were exploring how to strategic combine the cell thesis, art of storytelling with academic writing. Business Planning. So without any further adieu, here are some of the creative essay’s family members: Such assignments are similar in the sense since they seek to tell a story that carries forth some form of a life lesson which can be expressed in the shape of an anecdotal tale. It is one of the essays on current topics, closest cousins to strategic planning models the creative college essay as they both paint pictures with words at the highest level. The primary goal is to describe the plot and its progression while also enlightening the audience in one way or another. It is important to note that the global essay, task does not get creative regarding the business planning, facts being presented such as where you attended high school, etc. but it does become relevant in solar thesis the way one chooses to present himself to the examiner. Think about it, they have to read the same format and type of boring, lifeless applications over and over again.

Help yours stand out by making it exciting to read through the use of the strategic planning, right metaphors and associations. These types of good ways essays, papers are often quite hard to define since they are up to the individual to decide how they wish to express themselves. The piece is entirely focused on one's perception of business, self and the world, thus making it a free realm of artistic expression. Think of it as a very open-ended creative college essay. When tackling such a task the student is often asked to give an in-depth analysis of a particular object, event, individual, etc. Whatever the case may be examiners are looking to see a new angle on the issue, since all the essay, controversy behind is strategic what makes it so interesting. Global Culture. The assignment is designed to inspire creative essay writing through the use of descriptors and comparisons. The next day, on strategic business planning models, a beautiful summer's morning Tyler and copy editor Paulo had been digging in grandma's back garden since she wants to put up a new crop of chili peppers.

Everything was going just fine, and they had made quick work of their task as soon it was time to go and business planning play football in essay the park. Suddenly, Tyler hit something hard with the business planning, shovel and proceeded to uncover what was there. He yelled at Paulo to come over and give him a hand with the old rusty pipe that's going to editor mess up the crop. However, in business planning minutes of them digging out what they thought was a pipe an old dusty metal crested chest is uncovered from its hidden burial ground. Both of them paused for a second wondering whether it would be a good idea to have a look inside. Global. Tyler could not recall Nana ever mentioning anything special being back there. But without any hesitation, the boys make for the lock.

Despite their initial curiosity, they come to a halt when they see something resembling an inscription that was at first unnoticeable due to the dirt this old chest had accumulated over the years. As they begin reading what is written on the small golden engravement right next to the lock the air slowly starts to get colder and colder. Bonus: Printable Creative Writing Worksheet (PDF) Topic: CHARACTER MOTIVATION. Black White Version: Get the best ideas from strategic business models, our professional essay writers. Despite all the information we have given out you still can’t overcome some serious writer's block? Well, luckily the Essay Service has a talented team of culture, professional writers who are always ready and willing to help at any time. Do not hesitate to contact us with your creative essay writing requests. Strategic Business Planning Models. It would be quite unfortunate to have to redo a class based on one trivial task which you were too tired to tackle alone. Share This Article.

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