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Thesis, Quotations, Introductions, Conclusions
Monique R. Morgan, “The Eruption of Krakatoa (also known as Krakatau) in 1883? This essay gives a brief overview of the events of 26-27 August 1883, when the volcanic island of Krakatoa in Indonesia exploded; it generated tsunamis which killed over 36,000 people, was heard 3,000 miles away, and produced measurable changes in sea level and air pressure across the world. The essay then discusses the findings of the Royal Society’s Report on Krakatoa, and in essay the reports in the periodical press of lurid sunsets resulting from Krakatoa’s dust moving through the atmosphere. It closes by examining literature inspired by law essay competition, Krakatoa, including a letter by Gerard Manley Hopkins, a poem by in essay, Alfred Tennyson, and novels by R. M. Ballantyne and M. P. Shiel. On 27 August 1883, after a day of alarming volcanic activity, an obscure, uninhabited island now widely known as Krakatoa (or Krakatau) erupted with a force more than ten thousand times that of the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima (Thornton 1). The world quickly took notice. Officials reported the eruption via undersea telegraph cables. People thousands of ritual miles away heard the explosion, and instruments around the world recorded changes in air pressure and sea level. In the quotes, months that followed, newspapers and journals printed vivid accounts of spectacular sunsets caused by vs essay, fine particles that the volcano spewed into quotes conclusions the upper atmosphere and that circled the essay of the macallan, globe, gradually spreading further north and south.
The Royal Society, a British academy of quotes conclusions scientists, formed a special Krakatoa committee to collect these articles, other eye-witness testimony, and more precise data (such as barograph readings of air pressure) to analyze the vidal the holy family, material meticulously and to publish a thorough report of their findings. Krakatoa inspired not only scientific investigation, but also literary creations. In Essay Conclusions. Gerard Manley Hopkins published a letter describing the Krakatoa sunsets in evocative and figurative language. Alfred Lord Tennyson transmuted the crimson sunsets into the setting, and the dominant imagery, of his poem “St. A Photographic Macallan Estate. Telemachus.” In Blown to Bits , R. Quotes Conclusions. M. Ballantyne interwove a detailed, factual account of Krakatoa’s destruction with an past invented tale of exploration, revenge, and romance, centered on fictional characters who narrowly escape the eruption and tsunamis. M. P. Shiel used a volcanic eruption as the in essay, major plot device in his last man novel, The Purple Cloud , and, in essay macallan estate, his depiction of quotes in essay conclusions a fictional eruption, Shiel mimicked the central place of the telegraph and essay among the periodical press for scientists’ and laymen’s knowledge of Krakatoa. The August 1883 eruption was not entirely unexpected, but nearly so. Krakatoa had erupted violently from quotes in essay May 1680 through November 1681 (Symons 10), but had then been dormant for two centuries. The volcano stirred to difference vs essay, life on 20 May 1883 with a series of moderate eruptions (Symons 11). Locals took note but were not especially alarmed. In fact, the island briefly became a tourist attraction.
A steamship carrying an excursion party from Batavia (now called Jakarta) “reached the volcano on the Sunday morning, May the 27th, after witnessing, during the night, several tolerably strong explosions, which were accompanied by earthquake-shocks” (Symons 12). These visitors may have been foolhardy, but some were quite observant, and in essay later were able to provide valuable data, such as estimates of the size of the difference research vs essay, crater, the in essay conclusions, frequency of competition explosions, and the height of the vapor column. One took a photograph of the volcano exploding; another collected a pumice sample (Symons 12-13). Eruptions continued in in essay conclusions, June and July, but, in the words of the Royal Society’s 1888 report, “in a district where earthquakes and volcanic outbursts are so frequent, this eruption of Krakatoa during the summer months of 1883 . . . soon ceased to attract any particular attention” (Symons 13). Residents of the Javan and Sumatran coasts near Krakatoa quickly became alarmed on ritual among the nacirema 26 August 1883 when more serious explosions began, some accompanied by tsunamis (Thornton 11-12). The next morning the quotes in essay, situation became much more dire. Four great explosions, the third of which was the difference research vs essay, strongest, occurred at 5:30 a.m., 6:44 a.m., 10:02 a.m., and 10:52a.m. Krakatoa time (Symons 22). Two-thirds of the island of Krakatoa disappeared (Symons 23), likely by collapsing into the hollow cavity left by the eruption of pumice (Simkin and Fiske 18).
The resultant dust cloud immersed in darkness a region extending to Batavia, nearly a hundred miles distant, and to some villages 130 to 150 miles away (Symons 26-27). Quotes. For those within a radius of 50 miles, the total darkness lasted over two days (Thornton 29). The greatest destruction was caused not by ash and fire but by water. The most violent of the explosions, occurring at approximately 10:02 a.m. on past online 27 August 1883, triggered an quotes immense tsunami. The Royal Society Report on Krakatoa “assumed that the actual height of the wave, before it reached the shore, was about 50 feet,” but it also cites some eyewitnesses on the Javan shore who estimated the wave was 100 to 135 feet (Symons 93); later investigators credit the larger estimates (Simkin and Fiske 15). Whatever its exact height, the wave was incredibly deadly and far-reaching. Officially, it killed 36,417 inhabitants of a photographic essay of the macallan estate coastal towns and quotes conclusions villages, though more may have died (Thornton 13; Simkin and Fiske 15), and its faint remnants were detected as far away as the English Channel (Thornton 18). The 10:02 a.m. explosion also produced the furthest-travelling audible sound in recorded history (Thornton 1); it was heard over almost one-thirteenth of the among, earth’s surface, including at Rodrigues Island approximately 3,000 miles across the Indian Ocean from Krakatoa (Symons 79). The reason such a violent eruption occurred at Krakatoa, rather than some other location, was partially understood by conclusions, late-nineteenth-century science. According to essay on body ritual, the Royal Society’s 1888 Report on Krakatoa’s eruption, “The marked linear arrangement in this immense chain of volcanic mountains [across Java and Sumatra] points to quotes in essay, the existence of a great fissure in essay of the macallan, the earth’s crust, along which the subterranean energy has been manifested” (Symons 4).
At the Straight of conclusions Sunda, a second fissure crosses it almost at a right angle (Symons 4), and Krakatoa lies “at the point of intersection of these two great lines of dissertations online volcanic fissure” (Symons 5; see Fig. 1). Figure 1: Map from the Royal Society Report, labeled “Sketch-map of the Sunda Strait, showing the lines of volcanic fissure which appear to quotes, traverse the district” (Symons 4) Modern geology affirms this general idea, but offers a more specific explanation for the convergence of volcanic activity. In an ocean trench near Sumatra and Java, two tectonic plates collide in what is called a subduction zone, and the Indo-Australian plate is forced under the Asian plate into the molten mantle below (Thornton 41). As the Indo-Australian plate slides downward, some of it melts, and the range of volcanoes results from this molten magma occasionally rising to risk, the earth’s surface and erupting (Thornton 41). As Ian Thornton summarizes, “Geologists have shown that the rate of subduction of oceanic crust is faster, and the angle of subduction shallower, along the Sumatran trench than along the Javan trench. The change is abrupt and quotes occurs at Sunda Strait” (43), the fulcrum around which Sumatra has slowly rotated twenty degrees clockwise in relation to Java over law essay competition oxford, the past two million years (Thornton 42-43). Krakatoa’s unique position as a center of quotes in essay conclusions volcanic and tectonic activity is now well understood, but several other aspects of the 1883 eruption are still open to scientific debate. Vs Essay. Explanations for the cause of the in essay, third great explosion and competition oxford the accompanying tsunami generally fall into two competing camps, with some arguing for an upward explosion as seawater reacted with hot magma, and others for in essay conclusions, the downward collapse of the volcano’s walls.
Simkin and Fiske consider the debate settled: “Verbeek, the Dutch Mining engineer studying Krakatau immediately after the eruption, correctly deduced that the missing portion of the island had collapsed into the circular void left by a photographic macallan, the eruption of huge volumes of in essay conclusions pumice. Alternative explanations, such as the law essay, forceful blasting out of the missing portion of Krakatau, have not been supported, and Krakatau remains a type example of caldera collapse” (18). Thornton, however, thinks these key questions remain unresolved and quotes in essay conclusions suggests that “[i]t is likely that during the course of risk so complex an eruption many events cited as evidence for the competing theories occurred” (39). Scientists also continue to scrutinize Krakatoa as a case study in the formation and development of an quotes in essay conclusions island ecosystem. Essay The Nacirema. Much of the attraction stems from Krakatoa’s likely status as an ecological tabula rasa in the immediate aftermath of the 1883 eruption; most biologists who have studied the island group agree that no life forms survived. Subsequent volcanic activity at Krakatoa has provided an even clearer example of an island completely devoid of life progressing toward a complex ecosystem. On 26 January 26 1928, a new volcanic ash island broke through the sea’s surface; it was later named Anak Krakatau (Krakatau’s Child) (Thornton 132). The new island was destroyed by sea erosion three times, but in August 1929 a fourth version of the island arose and became a permanent fixture in the Krakatoa island group (Thornton 133). The emerging ecosystems on conclusions both the remnants of the old Krakatoa islands and on Anak Krakatau could provide guidance for reconstructing ecosystems that have been devastated by human activity, such as logging and mining (Thornton 251). Past Dissertations. As Thornton explains, the rules by which different species arrive and interact in a new ecosystem “appear to depend strongly on the historical context” (262), and Krakatoa offers an unusually thorough historical record for current scientists because of the sustained and systematic attention it has received since 1883. Such attention, from scientists and laymen around the globe, began within hours of the eruption, because news of it travelled rapidly via the worldwide network of telegraph lines. “The instantaneity of the telegraph reports,” Richard Hamblyn argues, “create[ed] an entirely new category of disaster: the universal news event, a story followed, in the case of in essay conclusions Krakatau, by more than half the world’s population” (179).
The telegrams themselves are startling, and display a “terse eloquence” (Simkin and Fiske 15). A telegram sent from Batavia to Singapore on past dissertations online 27 August 1883 reads: Noon . —Serang in total darkness all morning—stones falling. Village near Anjer washed away. Batavia now almost quite dark—gas lights extinguished during the night—unable communicate with Anjer—fear calamity there—several bridges destroyed, river having overflowed through rush sea inland. (qtd. in Simkin and Fiske 14) Calamity had, indeed, struck Anjer: at conclusions approximately 9:00 that morning, a large wave had inundated the coastal town (Simkin and Fiske 38). A few residents survived because they had fled a prior wave and had run to higher ground. Amongst them was Anjer’s recently appointed Telegraph-master, who was later able to provide a harrowing eyewitness account of events (Simkin and Fiske 69-73, 80-81). Despite, or perhaps because of, the horrifying nature of the dissertations, eruption, some of the telegrams from Batavia are almost poetic in their condensed eloquence and evocative figurative language.
A telegram sent around noon on 28 August proclaimed, “Where once Mount Krakatau stood the sea now plays,” conveying calm, eerie beauty amid the desolation (qtd. in Simkin and in essay Fiske 14). The telegraph coverage also enabled a more thorough scientific investigation of the eruption’s global effects, as Tom Simkin and Richard S. Fiske stress in their magisterial centennial review of Krakatoa: Telegrams bearing news of the Krakatau eruption spread quickly and accounts soon appeared in newspapers around the world. . . . Much of the dissertation management, importance of the Krakatau eruption stems from the fact that its news traveled so fast, because the eruption’s effects also traveled far beyond the Sunda Straits and observations made a great distance from the volcano could be connected to the eruption. (15) Because the global scope of both Krakatoa’s effects and the news of its eruption quickly reached many interested observers, “for the first time, discrete local observations . . . assumed a contemporary global significance” (Hamblyn 179), and the eruption generated a wealth of potential data. On 17 January 1884, the Royal Society, led by its president Thomas Henry Huxley, made use of this potential when it resolved that a committee would “collect the various accounts of the in essay, volcanic eruption at Krakatoa, and attendant phenomena, in such form as shall best provide for their preservation, and promote their usefulness” (Symons iii). Law Essay Oxford. (On Huxley, see Jonathan Smith, “The Huxley-Wilberforce ‘Debate’ on in essay conclusions Evolution, 30 June 1860.?) It was not the past online, first scientific group devoted to studying Krakatoa: three months earlier, on 4 October 1883, the Dutch Indian Government had appointed the Dutch Scientific Commission, led by the geologist R. D. M. Verbeek, to quotes in essay, study the eruption. Verbeek’s report was published in two parts, in Dutch in 1884 and 1885, and in past dissertations online, French in 1885 and 1886 (Symons 2). The Royal Society’s report, published in 1888, frequently refers to Verbeek’s findings, but it also includes a large quantity of independently collected data. The Royal Society was able to amass an extraordinary amount of in essay information by soliciting the public’s help. The committee placed an advertisement in the London Times in February 1884 asking for “authenticated facts” and published papers concerning drifts of pumice, changes in barometric pressure and sea level, locations where explosions were heard, and unusual optical effects in the atmosphere (Symons iv). After it received numerous accounts from a photographic essay macallan estate scientists and amateur observers, the multidisciplinary committee spent 28 months analyzing the data and conclusions writing the report, which was edited by G. J. Symons, the committee’s chair (Symons vi). The Times ad requested that “[c]orrespondents . . . be very particular in giving the date, exact time (stating whether Greenwich or local), and position whence all recorded facts were observed” (Symons iv).
Such specificity was essential for calculating the distances and velocities of the oceanic and atmospheric phenomena associated with the of the, eruption. One such phenomenon was the unusually long-lasting and far-travelling air wave created by one of Krakatoa’s explosions, which was especially noteworthy because “large air waves passing round the earth’s surface had not previously been observed as a result of quotes volcanic eruptions” (Thornton 17). The air wave expanded outward from Krakatoa until it formed a circle around the earth’s circumference, then it contracted to a point on the globe directly opposite Krakatoa (a point which happens to lie near Bogota, Colombia [Thornton 17]). The air wave then continued away from Bogota and back toward Krakatoa, and the process repeated. According to Simkin and Fiske, “Every recording barograph in the world documented the passage of the airwave” (15). Some of them registered the air wave a total of seven times: four times as the wave travelled outward from Krakatoa, three as it returned toward the volcano (Symons 63). Family. The committee used the precise times and locations of the barogram readings to calculate the speed of the air waves, which ranged from in essay conclusions 674 to vs essay, 726 miles per hour, “very nearly the characteristic velocity of sound” (Symons 72). The committee also discussed the speed at which fine ash and conclusions dust travelled through the upper atmosphere. Scientists inferred the presence of dissertations microscopic particles from the quotes, unusual atmospheric effects they produced, which included intense and long-lasting sunsets, a blue or green tinge to the sun and moon, and a large, corona-like haze around the sun. Reverend Sereno E. Bishop in Honolulu, for whom the corona-like “Bishop’s Ring” was named, “was the first to document the westward movement around the equator of the high-altitude eruptive products (what he called the Equatorial Smoke Stream) as evidenced by their atmospheric effects” (Thornton 23). Past Dissertations. The Royal Society report further analyzed the direction and quotes conclusions speed of the particulates based on the first onset of the characteristic atmospheric phenomena, and thus provided the “first evidence of circulation patterns in the stratosphere” (Thornton 25).
The Krakatoa committee discovered that the equatorial smoke stream made a complete circuit around the globe several times, each time taking about thirteen days (Symons 322), “mov[ing] at about 73 miles an hour from east to west, and gradually spread[ing] southwards and northwards” (Symons 325). By tracking the dates, the atmospheric effects first appeared at various locations and extrapolating backward in time, the committee verified their origin was around the Strait of Sunda, where Krakatoa had stood (Symons 179). Some of the descriptions are remarkably precise about not only the date and ritual among geographical location where a sunset afterglow was first observed, but also about the in essay, timing and location in gore vidal essay the holy, the sky of its particular colors. F. A. In Essay. Rollo Russell, who compiled the Royal Society Report’s section on the unusual twilight glows, included his own description of the of the macallan, 11 December 1883 sunset in Surrey: At 4.15 green spot about quotes in essay conclusions, 10° above the horizon. Pink up to and beyond zenith, and on both sides . . . . Whole sky at 4.15 appearing covered with a sea of streaky cloud film, regularly ranged S.S.W. to N.N.E.; no appearance of a radiant point. At 4.20 spot of green being closed in by bright pink all over western sky . Vidal Essay. . Quotes In Essay Conclusions. . . At 4.30 pink edge about 22° from horizon.
Green sunk beyond horizon. At 4.36 pink, about vidal essay the holy family, 15°. Sky blue. At 4.41 edge of red glow about quotes conclusions, 10° above horizon. (Symons 164) Such precision about the order and in banks duration of the sunset colors allowed the committee to hypothesize the composition of the stratospheric particles from Krakatoa: “small reflecting dust, partially transparent and partially opaque, or else . . . a mixture of transparent spherules and fragments” (Symons 186).
More recent studies have arrived at a more complete understanding of the quotes, optics involved. H. H. Lamb, writing in 1970, explains the interaction of particles of different diameters with light of different wavelengths (and hence different colors). Lamb argues that volcanic dust smaller than ? micrometer (? µm = 1/51,000 inch) produces especially red suns, while blue suns and moons are produced by larger particles of 1 to a photographic essay estate, 5 µm, and the Bishop’s rings seen after Krakatoa resulted from many particles in the narrow size range of in essay conclusions 0.8 to 1 µm (qtd. in Simkin and Fiske 404-05). Since larger dust particles fall out of the atmosphere more quickly and do not spread as far, “the bigger the particles the rarer, more localized and short-lived the law essay competition, occurrence” (Lamb, qtd. In Simkin and Fiske 407); hence the large temporal and geographical range of the lurid red sunsets, and conclusions more limited range of the dissertation management in banks, blue and green suns. The widespread sunset effects attracted the attention of many observers, and the Royal Society Report quotes extensively from quotes conclusions accounts of the sunsets previously published in the periodical press. One such account is the poet Gerard Manley Hopkins’s letter in the 3 January 1884 edition of Nature . The Royal Society Report offers this summary: Mr. Gerard Hopkins of Stonyhurst College, notes the following difference between ordinary sunsets and the displays of 1883:— ‘(1).
They differ in their time and in the place of the online, sky where they appear. ‘(2). Conclusions. They differ in their periodic action or behaviour. ‘(3). They differ in the nature of the difference research vs essay, glow, which is both intense and lustreless. ‘(4). They differ in the regularity of their colouring.
Four colours in particular have been noticeable, orange lowest and nearest the sundown; above this and broader, green; above this, and broader still, a variable red, ending in being crimson; above this, a faint lilac. The lilac disappears, the green deepens, spreads, and encroaches on the orange, and the red deepens, spreads, and encroaches on the green, till at last one red, varying downwards from quotes in essay conclusions crimson to scarlet or orange, fills the west and past dissertations online south. ‘(5). They differ in the colours themselves, which are impure and not of the spectrum. ‘(6). They differ in the texture of the quotes conclusions, coloured surfaces, which are neither distinct clouds of recognized make, nor yet translucent media.’ The above is merely an abstract of Mr.
Hopkins’s letter, to which he subjoins a very lucid description of the sunset of December 16, 1883. (Symons 172) For the most part, the Report’s authors directly quote Hopkins, though they paraphrase points one and six. The remarkable aspect of their precis, however, is what it leaves out—extensive sections of essay ritual the nacirema evocative, metaphoric description. Hopkins describes the evening as follows: After the sunset the horizon was, by 4.10, lined a long way by a glowing tawny light, not very pure in colour and distinctly textured in quotes in essay conclusions, hummocks, bodies like a shoal of dolphins, or in what are called gadroons, or as the Japanese conventionally represent waves. The glowing vapour above this was as yet colourless; then this took a beautiful olive or celadon green, not so vivid as the previous day’s, and difference paper vs essay delicately fluted; the green belt was broader than the orange, and pressed down on and contracted it. Above the conclusions, green in turn appeared a red glow, broader and burlier in make; it was softly brindled, and in the ribs or bars the research, colour was rosier, in the channels where the blue of the sky shone through it was a mallow colour. Above this was a vague lilac. (“Remarkable Sunsets” 223)
Hopkins’s poetic language has its own descriptive precision. As Thomas A. Zaniello argues, passages such as this “reveal Hopkins’ facility with both scientific detail and the painter’s palette” and “indicate a sensibility attempting to render the phenomena of the world without forcing a distinction between science and art” (261). Indeed, to describe the texture of the in essay, “tawny light,” Hopkins first turns to nature (a metaphor drawn from a landscape and essay ritual the nacirema a simile from sea life) and then turns to art (both Western decorative carving and Eastern painting). The letter also incorporates imagery and quotes diction from some of the poems for a photographic essay, which Hopkins is conclusions, now best known. The “softly brindled” red glow evokes the opening of his 1877 poem “Pied Beauty,” which uses the more archaic form “brinded” to describe a streaked or flecked sky: “Glory be to God for dappled things— / For skies of couple-colour as a brinded cow” (1-2). Consider, too, the dissertations, language in Hopkins’s explanation of quotes how normal, bright sunsets differ from the lusterless Krakatoa afterglows: A bright sunset lines the clouds so that their brims look like gold, brass, bronze, or steel. It fetches out those dazzling flecks and spangles which people call fish-scales. It gives to a photographic of the macallan, a mackerel or dappled cloudrack the appearance of quilted crimson silk, or a ploughed field glazed with crimson ice. These effects may have been seen in the late sunsets, but they are not the specific after-glow; that is, without gloss or lustre. (“Remarkable Sunsets” 222-23) The description of this streaked sky echoes both “Pied Beauty” and “The Windhover.” The letter’s use of “dappled” brings to in essay conclusions, mind the former poem’s praise of “dappled things” (1), and the latter poem’s description of the dissertation risk management, titular bird as a “dapple-dawn-drawn Falcon” (2).
The comparison of a typical sky at quotes in essay sunset to vidal essay the holy family, a “ploughed field glazed with crimson ice” recalls the “Landscape plotted and pieced—fold, fallow, and plough” in “Pied Beauty” (5). A similar image also occurs in “The Windhover”: “sheer plod makes plough down sillion / Shine” (12-13). Hopkins’s characteristic phrasing does not detract from the conclusions, specificity and essay macallan vividness of his description in Nature , though. Patricia Ball rightly claims that the letter uses “turns of phrase or analogy and a choice of words which are characteristic of him,” but they “serve the purpose to which the whole correspondence is directed, the accurate plotting of remarkable skyscapes” (116). Although the Royal Society Report omits these poetic sections of Hopkins’s letter in Nature , it does reprint some of the affective and figurative language from other articles about the Krakatoa sunsets. As Richard Altick observes, even now the Royal Society Report conveys “a vivid sense of the excitement and wonder [created by] the worldwide effects of the eruption . . . . [T]he observers often abandoned scientific terminology in favor of a descriptive style that can only be called lyric—and when the sunsets of late 1883 defied even poetic language the observers resorted at last to pictorial art: they said the sunsets were like those of Turner” (251).
Altick may have had in mind E. In Essay. L. Layard’s account from New Caledonia of Krakatoa afterglows on difference research paper cloudy nights: “[W]ho shall paint the glory of the quotes in essay conclusions, heavens when flecked with clouds?— burnished gold, copper, brass, silver, such as Turner in his wildest dreams never saw, and dissertations of such fantastic forms!” (Symons 173). Turner himself was not alive to paint the Krakatoa afterglows, but they did attract the attention of some visual artists. Frederic Edwin Church’s “Sunset over the Ice of Chaumont Bay, Lake Ontario,” a watercolor painted on 28 December 1883, is “the only major painting to be created in the immediate aftermath of Krakatoa” (Winchester 281). In London, both the minor artist William Ascroft and John Sanford Dyason of the quotes in essay conclusions, Royal Meteorological Society sketched the sunsets in chalk pastels and exhibited their works at public meetings of the Royal Society (Zaniello 248). The frontispiece to the Royal Society’s Krakatoa Report reproduces six of Ascroft’s sketches “made on gore essay the holy the bank of the Thames, a little west of London, on in essay conclusions the evening of November 26th, 1883,” which “represent the general colouring of the western sky from shortly after sunset (3h. 57m. p.m.) to research, the final dying out of the after-glow at about 5.15 p.m.” (Symons n.pag.).
Figures 2 and 3 reproduce the third and sixth sketches from the Report’s frontispiece. Figure 2: Sketch by William Ascroft of Krakatoa afterglow as seen in London at in essay conclusions 4:30p.m. on difference research vs essay 26 November 1883, from the frontispiece to the Royal Society Report. Figure 3: Sketch by William Ascroft of Krakatoa afterglow as seen in London at 5:15p.m. on 26 November 1883, from the quotes in essay conclusions, frontispiece to the Royal Society Report. Earlier in E. L. Layard’s description of the sunset on gore vidal family 6 January 1884, he uses what was arguably the most common simile in all the verbal descriptions of quotes in essay conclusions Krakatoa afterglows: “about 8 p.m., there is only a glare in the sky, just over the sun’s path, as of a distant conflagration, till the fire in the west dies out” (Symons 173). The Royal Society Report certainly supports Simkin and Fiske’s claim that “[t]he most common analogy . . . was fire, and the word ‘conflagration’ was repeatedly used” (157). The Report even makes note of “the first instance of a comparison to a fire, which was afterwards frequent,” as occurring 30 August 1883 “from St. Helena, 16?S. 6?W., where at 4 a.m. on the 30 th a red light in the south-east and vs essay south-west, ‘like a fire,’ alarmed one of the inhabitants” (Symons 316). Conclusions. Though it was originally published somewhat later, in September 1883, another quoted description has the distinction of appearing first among those reprinted in the Royal Society Report, and management it, too, compares the afterglows to in essay, an immense fire.
The Reverend Sereno E. Bishop writes from Honolulu that one trait distinguishing these afterglows from usual sunsets is “[t]he peculiar lurid glow, as of a distant conflagration, totally unlike our common sunsets” (Symons 153). In some cases, observers actually mistook the glows for distant fires and past brought in local fire brigades, as happened on 27 November 1883 in New York and Connecticut (Thornton 24). The Krakatoa afterglows may have instigated panic, but they also inspired poetry and fiction. It was not the first time a volcano’s atmospheric effects influenced literature, however. The June 1783 eruption of Laki in Iceland released massive amounts of quotes in essay sulfur dioxide, which produced noxious fogs, an unusually red sun, and an extremely hot summer followed by on body ritual the nacirema, an extremely cold winter, conditions which influenced William Cowper’s depiction of time and weather in The Task (Menely 480-89; Hamblyn 101-102). The gas and dust spewed into the atmosphere by the April 1815 eruption of in essay conclusions Tambora in Indonesia disrupted usual rainfall patterns, cooled global temperatures, caused famines and epidemics, and instigated political upheavals, conditions which in turn inspired Mary Shelley’s desolate novel Frankenstein and Lord Byron’s apocalyptic poem “Darkness” (Wood). Past Dissertations Online. (On the eruption of Tambora, see Gillen D’Arcy Wood, “1816, The Year without a Summer.”) Fears of apocalypse also haunt some of the literature inspired by Krakatoa. Altick has gathered and compared writings by four Victorian poets that incorporate descriptions of the Krakatoa sunsets, including poems by Robert Bridges, Algernon Charles Swinburne, and Alfred Tennyson, and Hopkins’s letter in quotes in essay conclusions, Nature . The most cheerful of them is the “March” section of Robert Bridges’s Eros and Psyche (1885), which includes a three-stanza description of a sunset, the second stanza of which reads: Broad and essay on body low down, where late the sun had been. A wealth of conclusions orange-gold was thickly shed, Fading above into a field of green,
Like apples ere they ripen into red, Then to the height a variable hue. Of rose and research paper vs essay pink and crimson freak’d with blue, And olive-border’d clouds o’er lilac led. (st. 25) Altick suspects the passage is derivative of Hopkins’s letter in Nature ; he notes the almost identical color terminology, and quotes a letter from conclusions Hopkins to Bridges in which Hopkins politely comments on the similarity and inquires if Bridges read his Nature piece (256). Swinburne’s “A New-Year Ode: to Victor Hugo” repeatedly uses images of sunset and sunrise, clouds and storms, and fire to represent both the eras Hugo depicted, and the one through which he lived. The poem contains a lengthy passage inspired by a particularly vivid sunset on 25 November 1883 (Altick 256), which thus describes “two sheer wings of sundering cloud” (st. 17) above the set sun: As midnight black, as twilight brown, they spread,
But feathered thick with flame that streaked and lined. Their living darkness, ominous else of dread, From south to vs essay, northmost verge of heaven inclined. Most like some giant angel’s, whose bent head. Bowed earthward, as with message for mankind. Of doom or benediction to be shed. From passage of his presence.
Far behind, Heaven, manifest in quotes in essay conclusions, manifold. Light of pure pallid amber, cheered with fire of law essay gold. (st. 18) The detailed description of the sunset continues, and leads into a comparison of the sunset glow to “light like fire of quotes love” (st.
22), as Swinburne imagines that the love expressed by Victor Hugo’s writing spreads a beneficent influence over the world. Flame also figures prominently in “St. Telemachus” (1892), a poem by Tennyson whose opening lines were, according to difference vs essay, Tennyson’s note, “[s]uggested by the memory of the eruption of Krakatoa”: Had the fierce ashes of some fiery peak. Been hurled so high they ranged about the quotes in essay, globe?
For day by day, through many a blood-red eve, In that four-hundredth summer after Christ, The wrathful sunset glared against a cross. Reared on the tumbled ruins of an old fane. No longer sacred to the Sun, and flamed. On one huge slope beyond. . . (1-8) The poem tells the story of the difference, hermit Telemachus’s divine inspiration to walk to the Roman Colosseum where he attempts to stop the gladiatorial combat.
The crowd is unpersuaded and stones Telemachus to death, but when the news reaches the Roman Emperor Honorius, he decrees an end to the gladiatorial games. As Altick notes, Tennyson “moved the [Krakatoa] sunsets back fifteen centuries to provide a lurid background for the life of the saint” (253). If the Krakatoa sunsets struck some observers as “almost apocalyptic, often unnerving” (Winchester 290), then Tennyson’s portrayal of the sunsets as “blood-red” and “wrathful” captures their unnerving quality (3, 5), and his transposition of the sunsets to conclusions, Telemachus’s “deed that woke the world” (70) associates them with the transition to law essay, a new epoch in history (from polytheism to quotes in essay conclusions, Christianity). The sunsets are much more than background for Tennyson’s poem; the Krakatoa eruption and sunsets indirectly but thoroughly permeate its dramatic action, allegorical import, and imagery. Tennyson imagines that St. On Credit In Banks. Telemachus, in the evenings when the fane was. Bathed in that lurid crimson—asked ‘Is earth.
On fire to the West? or is the quotes in essay, Demon-god. Wroth at his fall?’ . . . (18-20) His questions juxtapose a common reaction to the Krakatoa sunsets (mistaking them for a distant conflagration) with Tennyson’s thematic use for oxford, them (the transition from paganism to Christianity). The lurid afterglows also play a role in quotes conclusions, the saint’s quest: Telemachus journeys west to Rome “Following a hundred sunsets” (31). Other after-effects of Krakatoa’s eruption seem to have influenced Tennyson’s similes. When Telemachus arrives in Rome, he comes upon a crowd: And borne along by that full stream of men, Like some old wreck on some indrawing sea,
Gained their huge Colosseum. . . (43-45) The image of rushing sea water bearing a ship inward accords with the Krakatoa-induced tsunamis, one of which carried a ship two miles inland (Thornton 13). Tennyson’s description of Telemachus’s death at dissertation risk the hands of the quotes in essay, Colosseum crowd— “Then one deep roar as of a breaking sea, / And then a shower of stones that stoned him dead” (67-68)—literally depicts the saint’s death by stoning but also evokes the sound of a tsunami and the hail of pumice unleashed by Krakatoa’s eruption. A much more direct, and competition oxford much less somber, engagement with Krakatoa can be found in Blown to Bits, or The Lonely Man of in essay conclusions Rakata , by oxford, R. M. Ballantyne. This 1889 adventure novel for quotes in essay, boys shares many of the characteristics of a group of earlier, Pompeii-inspired eruption narratives recently discussed by Nicholas Daly. Essay The Holy Family. In late-eighteenth- and early-nineteeenth-century disaster narratives, “the volcano is there as a smoldering presence from the start, and our pleasure in other elements of quotes conclusions our experience is both shadowed and competition oxford enhanced by our knowledge that in the end it will explode” (Daly 257). Quotes In Essay Conclusions. The very title of Ballantyne’s work directs his readers towards the novel’s explosive culmination, and of the estate the subtitle’s mention of quotes in essay conclusions Rakata, the mountain peak on dissertation management in banks Krakatoa’s main island, clearly identifies the source of the in essay conclusions, explosion. Ritual The Nacirema. Ballantyne’s ominous foreshadowing is frequent and in essay strong. The paralipsis in the opening chapter’s first sentence anticipates the dissertation on credit risk, disaster it says it won’t: “Blown to bits; bits so inconceivably, so ineffably, so ‘microscopically’ small that—but let us not anticipate” (ch. 1; n. pag.). Much later, chapter titles like “A Climax” and quotes conclusions “Blown to Bits” indicate when the novel will reach its explosive conclusion. Before we get there, however, Ballantyne offers readers a series of adventures centering on Nigel Roy, the son of an English sea captain; Van der Kemp, the hermit of Rakata; and Moses, the hermit’s faithful servant.
Nigel befriends Moses, who introduces him to the hermit and the hermit’s well-equipped cave on Krakatoa. Past Online. The three embark on quotes in essay conclusions a journey to several nearby islands and always are greeted hospitably by the locals, since Van der Kemp, despite his nickname of hermit, has travelled extensively and essay ritual among made loyal friends seemingly everywhere. During their journey, the in essay conclusions, main characters encounter tigers, orangutans, a crocodile, a python, and pirates led by Baderoon, Van der Kemp’s mortal enemy. Years earlier, Baderoon had led an dissertation management attack which separated Van der Kemp from his young daughter, Winnie. When Nigel hears the story, he suspects an orphan he met in the Cocos-Keeling Islands is Winnie, and he asks his father to transport Winnie to Anjer. Van der Kemp and his daughter are prematurely reunited when the hermit’s canoe is washed onto the deck of Captain Roy’s boat in the midst of Krakatoa’s catastrophic eruption. The tsunami generated by Krakatoa’s third and largest explosion propels the boat over the ruined city of quotes in essay conclusions Anjer and more than a mile inland, safely depositing the protagonists in a coconut grove. Nigel and Winnie fall in love, marry, and settle with their parents and Moses in the Cocos-Keeling Islands.
Its plot is improbable, yet Blown to Bits includes copious (and accurate) information about Krakatoa. As Joel D. Chaston remarks, “Ballantyne’s books are . Family. . In Essay Conclusions. . important because, while sometimes far-fetched, they provide generally accurate scientific and geographic information, attempting to educate readers realistically about other countries, cultures, and times” (20). In the preface to Blown to Bits , Ballantyne acknowledges his debt to the Royal Society Report for the facts of the eruption, and he draws upon the Report quite extensively. The narrator sometimes directly quotes the Royal Society Report, as when he describes the moderate eruptions of May 1883 (Ballantyne ch. Essay Estate. 8; Symons 11). More often, the narrator slightly paraphrases or summarizes the Report, as he does in in essay conclusions, the extensive discussion in Chapter 29 of Krakatoa’s global effects, including the sounds heard as far as Rodriguez, the essay of the, air waves measured by barometers, the in essay conclusions, changes in sea level, the dust particles and their rate of travel, and the resultant atmospheric effects. On occasion, Ballantyne even has Van der Kemp ventriloquize the Royal Society Report. Management In Banks. The hermit thus informs Nigel of Krakatoa’s dangerous position in a highly volcanic region: The island of Java, with an area about equal to that of England, contains no fewer than forty-nine great volcanic mountains, some of conclusions which rise to 12,000 feet above the sea-level. Many of these mountains are at the present time active . . On Credit. . and more than half of them have been seen in eruption since Java was occupied by Europeans. Hot springs, mud-volcanoes, and vapour-vents abound all over the island, whilst earthquakes are by no means uncommon.
There is a distinct line in the chain of conclusions these mountains which seems to point to a great fissure in the earth’s crust, caused by the subterranean fires. This tremendous crack or fissure crosses the Straits of Sunda, and in consequence we find a number of these vents—as volcanic mountains may be styled—in the Island of Sumatra, which you saw to research, the nor’ard as you came along. But there is quotes conclusions, supposed to be another great crack in paper, the earth’s crust—indicated by several volcanic mountains—which crosses the other fissure almost at right angles, and at the exact point where these two lines intersect stands this island of Krakatoa ! (ch. Quotes. 7; n. pag.) Clearly, as Van der Kemp educates Nigel about the a photographic of the estate, region, so, too, does Ballantyne educate his young readers, in keeping with his stated intention “to bring the matter [of Krakatoa’s 1883 eruption], in in essay conclusions, the garb of a tale, before that portion of the juvenile world which accords me a hearing” (preface; n. pag.) Krakatoa helped inspire not only Ballantyne’s adventure novel and Tennyson’s ominous poem, but also two truly apocalyptic works of on credit literature—Camille Flammarion’s Omega and M. P. Shiel’s The Purple Cloud . Omega: The Last Days of the World (1894), the first English translation of Flammarion’s 1893 novel, originally titled La Fin du Monde , presents an array of possibilities for the world’s end. In the twenty-fifth century, astronomers predict a comet composed partly of poisonous carbon monoxide will collide with the earth, and scientists speculate about numerous ways the comet might extinguish humanity. The comet is less destructive than feared, and in essay the human race survives, but Flammarion then presents a further vision of earth ten million years in the future.
Only two people remain alive amidst an competition oxford entropic wasteland in which the earth’s elevations have eroded to quotes, a near-uniform surface, its water vapor has dissipated, and its surface temperature has dropped too low to sustain life. Essay Macallan Estate. In between these two apocalyptic scenarios, Flammarion inserts a chapter summarizing actual historical catastrophes and panics, including Krakatoa’s eruption (160-62), “in order to consider this new fear of the end of the world with others which have preceded it” (133). Quotes. Flammarion writes of Krakatoa, “Those who escaped, or who saw the catastrophe from some vessel, and a photographic of the macallan lived to welcome again the light of day, which had seemed forever extinguished, relate in terror with what resignation they expected the end of the quotes conclusions, world, persuaded that its very foundations were giving way and that the essay ritual among, knell of a universal doom had sounded” (161). M. P. Shiel’s apocalyptic novel The Purple Cloud (1901) is set in the much more immediate future, and it twice compares events in the early twentieth century to Krakatoa’s eruption and after-effects. In the first instance, the narrator, Adam Jeffson, recounts: [I]t was at sunset that my sense of the wondrously beautiful was roused and excited, in spite of that burden which I bore: for, certainly, I never saw sunsets . . . so flamboyant, exorbitant and distraught. . . Conclusions. . But many evenings I watched it with unintelligent awe, believing it but a portent of the unsheathed sword of the Almighty, until one morning . Essay On Body The Nacirema. . . In Essay. I suddenly remembered the wild sunsets of the nineteenth century witnessed in Europe, America, and, I think, everywhere, after the eruption of the the nacirema, volcano of Krakatoa. (77-78) Adam has good reason to think the wild sunsets are a portent of apocalypse since the burden he bears is to in essay, live in the aftermath of law essay a worldwide catastrophe.
Having been the first man to reach the North Pole, Adam gradually realizes, as he returns home to England, that he is the last man left alive. A purple cloud of poisonous gas has enveloped nearly the entire planet, sparing only the very northernmost latitudes. It is this memory of the quotes conclusions, Krakatoa sunsets that leads Adam to suspect the essay ritual the nacirema, source of the poison cloud was a volcanic eruption. This indirection surrounding the quotes in essay conclusions, novel’s central event—the volcanic eruption—distinguishes The Purple Cloud from earlier disaster narratives discussed by Nicholas Daly. In Shiel’s story, the difference vs essay, volcano’s eruption is not the in essay, dramatic climax; instead, over eighty percent of the novel focuses on Adam’s survival after the disaster. Adam frequently, and at great length, describes dead people and destroyed property, but he encounters them months or years after they perished. The novel does not offer a detailed, direct description of the actual eruption, and hence does not use the eruption itself as spectacle. Adam eventually stumbles across an eyewitness account of the eruption, but the account is brief, and Adam finds it two decades after the fact (180). Albert Tissu, a passenger on board the ship the Marie Meyer (180), witnesses a volcanic island emerging from the sea and on body among the nacirema records the quotes conclusions, event in his journal: “we descry a shade rising, a shade, a mighty back, a new-born land, bearing skyward ten flames of fire, slowly, steadily, out of the sea” (181). Tissu hopes to be immortalized for essay on body the nacirema, documenting such an extraordinary event. He continues writing until the quotes, moment he unexpectedly succumbs to the almond-scented cyanide gas released from the volcano: “I rush down, I write it. . . . Essay Ritual The Nacirema. There is a running about on the decks—an odour like almonds—it is so dark, I—” (182).
Shiel’s inclusion of a shipboard eyewitness is in keeping with the significance of quotes conclusions sailors’ accounts for understanding Krakatoa. The Royal Society Report suggested, “Perhaps . Essay Ritual The Nacirema. . . the most important evidence of what was actually going on at Krakatoa during the crisis of the eruption is that derived from witnesses on board ships” (Symons 15), and the Report includes a three-page list and a map detailing the ships in or near the in essay, Sunda Strait during or soon after the eruption (Symons 15-18). Even Shiel’s choice of the ship’s name, the Marie Meyer , seems to difference research, echo one of the ships closest to the Krakatoa eruption—the Dutch trade vessel the Marie (Symons 15). Tissu’s shipboard account is not the only example of quotes in essay The Purple Cloud mimicking the methods of representation through which witnesses reported and scientists studied the Krakatoa eruption. The telegraph and the periodical press also play prominent roles in Shiel’s novel. As Adam returns to Europe from the dissertation on credit in banks, North Pole and searches for other survivors, he thinks of, but rejects, the telegraph and the wireless (the recently invented radio) as means of expediting his search: “I had some knowledge of the Morse code, of the quotes in essay conclusions, manipulation of tape-machines, telegraphic typing-machines, wireless transmitting . . . so I could have wirelessed, or tried to essay the holy, wire from Bergen, to somewhere; but I would not: I was so afraid; afraid lest for ever from nowhere should occur one replying click, or stir of dial-needle” (78). Adam fears these technologies’ speed and scope will only hasten the certainty of his complete isolation.
So horrifying is this prospect that he focuses on the absence of impersonal, mechanical clicks and dials rather than the absence of the urgent interpersonal communication they were meant to quotes in essay conclusions, facilitate. Adam has good reason to dissertation on credit risk in banks, fear the telegraph’s silence. As he discovers through reading old newspapers, those yet unaffected by the cloud inferred its location and speed based on cessations of telegraph contact. One report in quotes in essay conclusions, The Kent Express laments, Communication with Tilsit, Insterburg, Warsaw, Cracow . . Difference Research Paper. . and many smaller towns immediately east of the 21st of longitude has ceased during the conclusions, night, though in some at least of them there must have been operators still at their posts, undrawn into the westward-rolling torrent: but as all messages from Western Europe have been met only by that mysterious muteness which, three months and two days since, astounded civilisation in the case of Eastern New Zealand, we can only competition oxford, assume that these towns, too, have been added to the mournful catalogue; . . . the rate of the slow-riding vapour which is touring our globe is no longer doubtful, having now been definitely fixed by Professor Craven at 100 ? miles a day—4 miles 330 yards an hour. (86-87)
Such “mysterious muteness” happened on a more local scale immediately after the quotes conclusions, Krakatoa eruption. On the day of the management in banks, catastrophe, the telegraph operator at Batavia wired to quotes conclusions, Singapore, “unable [to] communicate with Anjer—fear calamity there” (qtd. in Simkin and dissertation risk management in banks Fiske 14). Shiel’s fictional newspaper article also resonates with the scientific analysis of Krakatoa in the periodical press, which included discussion of the speed at which particles from the quotes conclusions, eruption spread over a photographic essay macallan estate, the earth’s surface. Adam finds additional scientific analysis when he reads the archives of The Times in their London office, and finds an ongoing debate about the quotes, composition of the deadly cloud. He finds an article by a Dublin scientist named Sloggett to be most persuasive, and Adam’s praise of Sloggett includes the a photographic essay, novel’s second explicit reference to Krakatoa: This article was remarkable for its discernment, because written so early—not long, in fact, after the cessation of communication with Australia, at which date Sloggett stated that the character of the in essay, devastation not only proved an eruption—another, but far greater Krakatoa, doubtless in some South Sea region—but indicated that its most active product must be, not CO, but potassic ferrocyanide (K 4 FeCn 6 ). (109) Shiel here uses the difference paper, public’s memory of in essay conclusions Krakatoa and intensifies it, by making his fictional eruption even more catastrophic in competition, force and more deadly in content than the in essay conclusions, disaster that inspired it. When Krakatoa exploded on 27 August 1883, it cloaked the surrounding area in essay of the macallan estate, darkness, inundated nearby shores, and killed tens of thousands. Over 7,000 miles away in quotes in essay conclusions, England, sensitive instruments recorded air and sea waves, and observers admired and feared the lurid atmospheric effects.
But Krakatoa’s eruption also instigated scientists from the holy varied specialties to cooperate with each other and to conclusions, seek the public’s help in producing the massive Royal Society Report. The eruption and its aftereffects inspired Tennyson to a photographic, depict a turning point in Western history and conclusions Shiel to imagine a harrowing future of dissertations human history’s end. Shiel’s protagonist laments, “nothing could be more appallingly insecure than living on a planet” (182). Krakatoa’s catastrophic eruption and its worldwide effects demonstrated the conclusions, precariousness, and law essay competition oxford the interconnectedness, of life on earth. Monique R. Morgan is an Associate Professor of quotes in essay conclusions English at essay macallan estate McGill University, where her research and teaching focus on Romantic and Victorian literature, narrative theory, poetics, and early science fiction. Her monograph, Narrative Means, Lyric Ends: Temporality in the Nineteenth-Century British Long Poem , was published by Ohio State University Press in 2009. She is currently working on her second book, tentatively titled Estranged Cognition: Narrative and Epistemology in Victorian Science Fiction . HOW TO CITE THIS BRANCH ENTRY (MLA format) Morgan, Monique R. Quotes In Essay. “The Eruption of Krakatoa (also known as Krakatau) in 1883.” BRANCH: Britain, Representation and Nineteenth-Century History . Ed. Dino Franco Felluga. Extension of Romanticism and dissertation risk management in banks Victorianism on the Net . Web. [Here, add your last date of in essay conclusions access to BRANCH].
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Roos, David A. “The ‘Aims and Intentions’ of Nature .” Victorian Science and gore family Victorian Values: Literary Perspectives . Eds. James Paradis and Thomas Postlewait. In Essay. Spec. issue of Annals of the New York Academy of the Sciences 360 (20 Apr. 1981): 159-80. Print. Shiel, M. Of The. P. The Purple Cloud . 1901. Rev. ed. 1929. Quotes Conclusions. Intro. John Clute. Lincoln: U of Nebraska P, 2000.
Print. Simkin, Tom and Richard S. Fiske. Krakatau 1883: The Volcanic Eruption and Its Effects . Washington: Smithsonian Institution P, 1983. Print. Swinburne, Algernon Charles. “A New-Year Ode: To Victor Hugo.” Swinburne’s Collected Poetical Works . Difference Research Paper Vs Essay. Vol. 2. London: William Heinemann, 1927. 865-82. Print. Symons, G. In Essay Conclusions. J., ed. The Eruption of Krakatoa, and Subsequent Phenomena : Report of the Krakatoa Committee of the Royal Society . London: Trubner, 1888. Google Books . Web.
4 Sept. 2011. Tennyson, Alfred Lord. “St. Difference Research Vs Essay. Telemachus.” The Poems of Tennyson . Ed. Christopher Ricks. 2nd ed. Vol. 3. Berkeley: U of quotes in essay California P, 1987. 224-27. Print. Thornton, Ian.
Krakatau: The Destruction and Reassembly of an Island Ecosystem . Research Vs Essay. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1996. Print. Winchester, Simon. Krakatoa: The Day the World Exploded: August 27, 1883 . New York: Harper, 2003. Print.
Wood, Gillen D’Arcy. “1816, The Year without a Summer.” BRANCH: Britain, Representation and Nineteenth-Century History . Ed. Dino Franco Felluga. In Essay Conclusions. Extension of Romanticism and Victorianism on gore the holy the Net . Web. 4 Sep. 2012. Zaniello, Thomas A. “The Spectacular English Sunsets of the 1880s.” Victorian Science and Victorian Values: Literary Perspectives . Eds.
James Paradis and Thomas Postlewait. Spec. issue of Annals of the New York Academy of the Sciences 360 (20 Apr. 1981): 247-67. Print.  Discussions in English usually refer to the island and volcano as “Krakatoa.” The name now used by local inhabitants, and by international scientists who study the island, is “Krakatau,” which was the name used in 1883 by the Dutch, who controlled the Dutch East Indies (today known as Indonesia). Richard Hamblyn claims there have been at least sixteen different spellings for quotes in essay, the island (131). Since this essay is concerned with late-nineteenth-century British representations of the volcano, it adopts the usage in most of its sources and refers to the island and volcano as Krakatoa.  There is some uncertainty about the exact times of the third and fourth large explosions. Ian Thornton estimates the third to have occurred just after 10:00 a.m. (13) rather than precisely at 10:02, and he gives varying times for the fourth explosion—sometimes 10:52 a.m. (14), and sometimes 10:45 a.m (18).
Simkin and Fiske note previous reports of 9:58, 10:00, and 10:02 for the time of third great explosion, but decide on 9:58 for their chronology (38), and they give 10:45 as the dissertations online, time of the quotes in essay conclusions, last explosion but acknowledge that the Royal Society claims 10:52 (40). Hamblyn misleadingly refers to the 10:02 eruption as Krakatoa’s “final blast,” “terminal eruption,” and difference paper “final act of destruction” (160, 158, 157).  Simkin and Fiske give a more conservative timeline: “Darkness covered the Sunda Straits from 10 a.m. on the 27th until dawn the next day” (15).  The first scientists to study the islands after the 1883 eruption agreed that all life had been killed, but in 1929 C. A. Quotes In Essay. Backer suggested that some species may have survived the competition, eruption, spurring decades of debate (Thornton 79). Currently the vast majority of biologists who study Krakatoa think all life was killed (Thornton 93).  The authors of the Royal Society’s 1888 report on Krakatoa also emphasized the global reach of quotes in essay conclusions Krakatoa’s effects, and the telegraph cables which carried news of them.
The Royal Society report begins: “During the closing days of the month of August, 1883, the telegraph-cable from Batavia carried to Singapore, and thence to every part of the civilised world, the news of a terrible subterranean convulsion—one which in its destructive results to life and property, and in law essay oxford, the startling character of the world-wide effects to which it gave rise, is perhaps without a parallel in historic times” (Symons 1).  According to David Roos, such a conjunction of science and art would have appealed to quotes in essay conclusions, Nature ’s founder and online editor, Norman Lockyer, who wanted the journal’s contents to include all branches of quotes in essay conclusions knowledge and oxford its readers and in essay conclusions contributors to include both trained scientists and interested laymen. As evidence of Lockyer’s success, Roos cites Hopkins’s letter (173), Lockyer’s own reviews of Royal Academy of Art exhibitions (172), and the frequent contributions of John Brett, “a member of vidal essay the holy both the Astronomical Society and the Royal Academy of Arts” (171).  Altick claims Swinburne “hold[s] the quotes, mirror of artifice up to dissertations online, nature” by “using his favorite image of flame and fire to describe sunsets which witnesses agree were marked by diffused rather than concentrated light” (259). Altick makes a valid point about the diffuse light of the quotes, Krakatoa sunset, yet, as we have seen, Swinburne was far from alone in using the analogy of essay ritual fire.  Altick complains that Tennyson’s individual observations of the quotes, Krakatoa sunsets are “clouded by the dramatic or allegorical context” (260), and that “the lines he wrote have no necessary impress of personal experience” (258). In contrast, I think Tennyson successfully subsumes details of the Krakatoa phenomena to his dramatic and allegorical purposes.  There may be some ambiguity in Tennyson’s phrase “indrawing sea,” depending on the imagined perspective. The sea could be surging in toward the law essay competition oxford, land, or the sea could be drawing itself in away from the shore and stranding a ship that had been anchored. Both cases have parallels with the Krakatoa eruption, which created tsunamis but also caused sea levels to fall in in essay conclusions, some locations (Thornton 13).  In its happy ending, Blown to Bits differs from other disaster narratives designed to elicit “the pleasure of the reader or viewer in destruction—of people, of property, of hopes” (Daly 255).
Ballantyne does describe Krakatoa’s destructive effects in chapter 29, but in a detached, impersonal tone.  Compare the opening of this passage to the nearly identical phrasing in law essay competition oxford, the Royal Society Report: “The Island of Java, with an area about equal to that of England, contains no fewer than forty-nine great volcanic mountains, some of which rise to a height of 12,000 feet above the sea-level. Of these volcanoes, more than half have been seen in eruption during the short period of the European occupation of the island, while some are in a state of almost constant activity. Hot springs, mud-volcanoes, and vapour-vents abound in Java, while earthquakes are by in essay conclusions, no means unfrequent” (Symons 4).  In this focus on dissertation on credit in banks survival, The Purple Cloud more closely resembles the disaster narratives that followed it rather than those that preceded it.
According to Daly, “In twentieth- and twenty-first-century disaster texts the interest often resides in the post-disaster society, or the family unit that survives, say, malevolent weather, town-swallowing geological events, or nuclear armageddon” (255-56). Adam has the chance to form a family unit (and possibly repopulate the world) when he discovers a female survivor. One of Daly’s twentieth-century examples is the film The World, The Flesh, and the Devil (280 n1), which is quotes in essay conclusions, a very loose adaptation of The Purple Cloud .
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Best of quotes in essay conclusions, luck! I’ve worked in the same industry for on credit management in banks the past 13 years. Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each. The jobs have been similar, so the experience looks a bit repetitive. I need to find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions? It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. Good luck on the job hunt! hi resume genius.. i need template resume that suitable for quotes in essay trainer and coach.. can u suggest to me with template is suitable.. #128578;
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Everything is carefully layered, so it#8217;s super easy to difference research, edit and use. The download link is on our Behance page https://www.behance.net/gallery/28935295/FREE-Resume-Template. These are amazing! I would also suggest checking out resumator.qwilr.com. wow#8230;. I’m feeling proud that three of quotes, those best CV are from Bangladesh. Essay On Body Among. A small country with a huge talents ! :) So sweet. Yes have seen many talents from Bangladesh and worked with them as well.
Looks like your website has been rethemed. Nice. Such a brilliant website you have there. I have seen you guys from old times when there was psdgraphics, freepsdfiles like that. Good times. I had one too. But doesnt matter now. :) The link for #8216;Freebie Resume cover letter (PSD)#8217; is currently dead. Can you fix it ? Hi! Do you mind sharing your Etsy template with me?
Thanks in advance! Finally! A site with working INDD download links and nice layouts. Thank you! hmm, i thought INDD was most suitable for magazine like designs. Time to find and make more. Would be great if all the in essay, Dropbox designs can be reuploaded to a file transfer service without limits.
You might want to try MediaFire or Google Drive. true.. dropbox is gore family, getting bad. Mentioned link is not working. (Dropbox 429 error). can you please help me with this file. thankyou for quotes conclusions, marketing your website, but no thanks really, cause the on credit risk management in banks, cv designs there lack creativity, are very bland and are paid. thanks for providing such an ideas introducing me to conclusions, a new world of presentation. Excellent Publication Allie Kingsley, I#8217;m happy that i came across it. ;) thnk you so much. :) Wow! all templates is awesome! thanks for share. Glad to know you like the collection. :) Great posting about free template. Law Essay. hmm it is. Let me see what can be done.
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essay on man themes Pope wrote his Essay on Man in rhyming verse. Quotes In Essay Conclusions! Certainly today, we think anybody that writes poetry is one who is a bit odd, to online say the least. Back in the eighteenth century, it was not so strange. Pope stated that he had two reasons for writing his essay in such a manner. First, he thought that principles, maxims, or precepts so written, both strike the reader more strongly at first, and are more easily retained by him afterwards. The second reason that Pope gave is that he thought that he could express himself more shortly this way than in prose itself. I here make comments about the expressions and thoughts of Pope in his essay. Conclusions! I have quoted at length from his essay.
Certainly there is much I have left out, because, likely, certain verses referred to events, persons and things of the early eighteenth century which, quite frankly, I am unfamiliar with. Spattered throughout Pope's work are references to God and His great domain. Macallan! Such references in the writings out of the eighteenth century are not strange. The livelihood of conclusions, writers, by and large -- as was with the risk management in banks case of all artists back then -- depended almost entirely on the generosity of church and state, so it was necessary in those days that writers give due regard to religious authority. Believing that if Pope were looking over my shoulder he would have no objection, I have left out quotes in essay conclusions, religious epaulets. Within the first few lines, we see Pope wondering about the fruitlessness of life. We have no choice: we come to gore vidal essay it, look out and quotes conclusions, then die. Difference Paper! What we see as we look out on the scene of man is quotes in essay conclusions, a mighty maze!
But Pope does not think this complex of existence is without a plan. Man might sort through the maze because he has a marvelous mental faculty, that of reason; man can determine the nature of the world in competition oxford which he lives; he can see that all things have bearings, ties and conclusions, strong connections and essay, nice dependencies. He, who thro' vast immensity can pierce, See worlds on worlds compose one universe, Observe how system into system runs, What other planets circle other suns, Look'd thro'? or can a part contain the whole?
Is the great chain that draws all to agree, - And, drawn, supports - upheld by God or thee? In his next stanza, Pope makes reference to presumptuous man! Why should one be disturbed because he cannot immediately figure out all of the in essay conclusions mysteries with which he is presented? It cannot be expected that one part of existence (man) should understand all the essay family other parts, he then continues: As of thy mother Earth, why oaks are made. Taller or stronger than the weeds they shade. And all that rises, rise in due degree; Then, in the sale of reas'ning life, 'tis plain. There must be, somewhere, such a rank as Man. When the dull ox, why now he breaks the in essay clod, Is now a victim, and now Egypt's god, - Then say not Man's imperfect, Heav'n in fault, - Say rather Man's as perfect as he ought:
His knowledge measur'd to his state and place, His time a moment, and a point his space. Pope continues with this theme into paper vs essay, his third stanza, in saying Heav'n from all creatures hides the book of fate, and continues: The lamb thy riot dooms to bleed to-day, Had he thy reason, would he skip and play? Pleas'd to the last he crops the flow'ry food, And licks the hand just rais'd to shed his blood. Who sees with equal eye, as God of in essay, all, A hero perish, or a sparrow fall,
Atoms or systems into ruin hurl'd, And now a bubble burst, and now a world. Then giving way to his religious bent, makes reference to on body ritual among the great teacher Death and continues with his most famous lines: Hope springs eternal in the human breast; Man never is, but always to be blest: The soul uneasy and confin'd from home,
Rest and quotes conclusions, expatiates in a life to come. Next, Pope deals with native people of the on body ritual among uncivilized territories of the world, and quotes conclusions, how they do not get hung up on such large questions as are expressed in vidal the holy family Pope's essay: Lo, the poor Indian! whose untutor'd mind. Sees God in clouds, or hears him in the wind; His soul proud Science never taught to quotes in essay stray. Far as the gore essay the holy family solar walk or milky way; Yet simple Nature to in essay his hope has giv'n, Behind the cloud-topp'd hill, a humbler heav'n;
Some safer world in competition oxford depth of conclusions, woods embrac'd, Some happier island in the wat'ry waste, Where slaves once more their native land behold, No fiends torment, no Christians thirst for gold! To be, contents his natural desire; He asks no angel's wing, no seraph's fire: But things, admitted to that equal sky,
His faithful dog shall bear him company. Next, we see Pope start to develop the theme that runs throughout his essay; man is essay, part of in essay conclusions, a larger setting, a part of nature. Man depends on difference vs essay, nature for his very substance, and yet, treats her roughly. Destroy all creatures for thy sport or gust, Yet cry, if Man's unhappy, God's unjust; Ask for what end the heav'nly bodies shine,
Earth for whose use, Pride answers, 'Tis for quotes conclusions mine! For me kind Nature wakes her genial pow'r, Suckles each herb and spreads out gore the holy, ev'ry flow'r; Pope asserts that man is ruled from within, by his reason and by his passion. Better for us, perhaps, it might appear,
Were there are harmony, all virtue here; That never air or ocean felt the wind; That never passion discompos'd the mind. But all subsists by elemental strife; And passions are the elements of conclusions, life. The gen'ral Order since the whole began. Is kept in Nature, and is kept in Man. Passion may be equated to instinct; and instinct is the sole guide of past online, animals.
Instinct is all that animals need as evolution has fitted each animal to his home environment, unlike man who is in want of the strength of bulls, the fur of quotes, bears. Here with degrees of swiftness, there of a photographic of the macallan, force: All in conclusions exact proportion to the state; Nothing to add, and nothing to gore abate. Each beast, each insect, happy in its own: Is Heav'n unkind to conclusions Man, and gore essay family, Man alone? Shall he alone, whom rational we call, Be pleas'd with nothing, if not bless'd with all? Again, Pope emphasizes how nature all good and wise. and quotes in essay, what it gives, and what denies has perfected itself and many of vidal the holy, its creations: The spider's tough how exquisitely fine! Feels at quotes in essay conclusions, each thread, and lives along the line:
In the nice bee, what sense so subtly true. From pois'nous herbs extracts the healing dew? In nature, we find life in a complete variety, - vast chain of being everything beast, bird, fish, insect. Or in the full creation leave a void, Where, one step broken, the on credit risk in banks great scale's destroy'd:
From Nature's chain whatever link you strike, Tenth or ten thousandth, breaks the chain alike. The point, I think, is quotes in essay, that there is a fearful balance of nature in all its variety, and we dare not destroy one aspect of nature for fear of destroying the whole. All this dread order break - for whom? for thee? Vile worm! - oh madness! pride! impiety! In the last line of law essay competition oxford, Pope's first epistle, he bangs home the importance of the ruling mind of nature, that while some parts might seem to quotes in essay conclusions us to be absurd, it is part of the general frame that all of nature, including ourselves, are but parts of one stupendous whole.
This whole body of nature is past dissertations online, through all life and extends throughout all of the universe and operates unspent. Pope concludes his first epistle: Safe in the hand of quotes conclusions, one disposing Pow'r, Or in the natal, or the mortal hour. All Nature is paper, but Art, unknown to quotes in essay conclusions thee; All chance, direction, which thou canst not see. All discord, harmony not understood, All partial evil, universal good: And, spite of pride, in erring reason's spite, One truth is clear, whatever is, is right.
Pope opens his second Epistle much the same as he opened his first. A Photographic Of The Macallan! What is the quotes function of vidal essay the holy, man, positioned as he is somewhere between a god and a beast. Man, during that brief interlude between birth and death, experiences a chaos of thought and passion, all confus'd. He finds on earth the Great lord of quotes, all things, yet a prey to all. Man's function, Pope concludes, is to make a proper study of mankind ; man is to know himself.
What man will come to know is that he is on credit risk in banks, ruled by quotes in essay conclusions passion; passion is the law essay competition oxford ruler and reason it's counsellor. Alas what wonder! Man's superior part. Uncheck'd may rise and quotes in essay, climb from art to vidal essay the holy family art; But when his own great work is but begun, What Reason weaves, by Passion is undone. It is in quotes the nature of man to first serve himself; but, on account of reason, to do so with the long range in essay on body the nacirema view. Two Principles in human nature reign; Self-love, to urge, and Reason, to restrain;
Self-love still stronger, as its objects nigh; Reason's at distance, and in prospect lie: A person is quotes in essay, driven by passion, driven by his desire for management pleasure; temptation is strong and quotes conclusions, passion is thicker than arguments. However, a person soon learns through bitter experience that one cannot let his or her passions run wild. Attention, habit and experience gains; Each strengthens Reason, and Self-love restrains. Self-love and Reason to one end aspire, Pain their aversion, Pleasure their desire,
Pleasure, or wrong or rightly understood, Our greatest evil, or our greatest good. Passions, tho' selfish, if their means be fair, List under reason, and deserve her care. On life's vast ocean diversely we sail, Reason the card, but passion is the gale;2. Love, Hope, and Joy, fair Pleasure's smiling train, Hate, Fear, and Grief, the family of Pain, These mix'd with art, and to due bounds confin'd, Make and maintain the research vs essay balance of the mind:
Pope's theme is again repeated: the two driving forces of in essay, man are his reason and his passion. Essay On Body Ritual! However, passion is the king and reason but a weak queen. What can she more than tell us we are fools? Teach us to quotes in essay mourn our nature, not to mend. A sharp accuser but a helpless friend! Reason (th' Eternal Art, educing good from ill) is not a guide but a guard. Passion is the mightier pow'r. On Body The Nacirema! Envy, Pope points out as an conclusions, aside, is something that can be possessed only by those who are learn'd or brave.
Ambition: can destroy or save, and makes a patriot as it makes a knave. With Pope's thoughts, it soon becomes clear one should not necessarily consider that envy and ambition are in themselves wrong. They are moving forces in a person and if properly guided, can serve a person well. As, in some well-wrought picture, light and research, shade. And oft so mix, the diff'rence is too nice, Where ends the quotes in essay virtue, or begins the vice. And virtuous and vicious ev'ry man must be, Few in past dissertations the extreme, but all in the degree; Each person is driven by self-love, but on the same occasion each on the other to in essay depend, a master, or a servant, or a friend, bids each on other for assistance call. Each person seeks his own happiness, seeks his own contentment; each is proud in what he or she has achieved, no matter what another person might think of those achievements. Law Essay Competition Oxford! Whate'er the quotes in essay passions, knowledge, fame, or pelf,
Not one will change is neighbour with himself. The learn'd is happy nature to explore, The fool is essay on body ritual among, happy that he knows no more; The rich is happy in the plenty given, The poor contents him with the care of Heaven, See the blind beggar dance, the cripple sing. The sot a hero, lunatic a king;
The starving chemist in his golden views. Supremely bless'd, the in essay poet in of the macallan estate his Muse. None of us should be critical of another person's choice in life, who is to know it is right. Behold the child, by nature's kindly law, Pleased with a rattle, tickled with a straw:
Some livelier plaything give his youth delight, A little louder, but as empty quite: Scarfs, garters, gold, amuse his riper stage, And beads and prayer-books are the in essay toys of age: Pleased with this bauble still, as that before, Till tired he sleeps, and life's poor play is o'er. Pope returns, in his third Epistle, to his ever present theme, all is natural in nature and gore family, man is a part of quotes in essay conclusions, nature. He first observes how plastic nature is, how everything is dependant on one and the other, is attracted to law essay one and quotes in essay conclusions, the other, down even to single atoms. Everything it's neighbour to difference vs essay embrace. (While Pope did not do so, he might just as easily have observed that things in in essay nature repel one another, equally so. All things, in the final analysis, are held in the balance, suspended, so it seems, between the two great forces of attraction and repulsion.) All forms that perish other forms supply, (By turns we catch the vital breath, and die) Like bubbles on the sea a matter borne,
They rise, they break, and to that sea return. Nothing is foreign; parts relate to whole: Then, Pope picks up once again his theme of the ruling principles, reason and passion. Here in his third Epistle, he refers to instinct as the unerring guide that reason often fails us, though sometimes serves when press'd. Essay The Nacirema! But honest instinct comes a volunteer, Sure never to o'ershoot, but just to hit, While still to wide or short is human wit;
Sure by in essay quick nature happiness to gain, Which heavier reason labour at in vain. Instinct can be seen at work throughout nature, for past dissertations online example, Who make the spider parallels design . without rule or line? Not just the spider does things by in essay instinct, man does. Research! The obvious example is his artistic work, but our instincts serve us on a much broader range. Think! And you will wonder about many of the daily things that are done, automatically it seems. Quotes In Essay! What, exactly, is essay family, it that prompts us to do things. In Essay! Who calls the council, states the essay on body ritual among the nacirema certain day, Who forms the phalanx, and who points the way? Pope then comes to a rather critical passage in his essay, when he deals with family units in the animal kingdom versus human beings.
The fact of the matter is, family units do not count for much in the animal kingdom, at any rate, not for in essay conclusions long. However, family connections for human beings extend over essay of the macallan, a long period, indeed, over a lifetime. I would observe that it is an quotes in essay conclusions, evolutionary development, needed because of the long time required before a child passes into adulthood. These family feelings are important for the development and cohesion of the family, but not necessarily good when extended to the larger group, society as a whole (this is a theme that I have developed elsewhere (EconEcon.doc) and which someday I hope to put up on the 'net.). Thus beast and law essay competition oxford, bird their common charge attend, The mothers nurse it, and the sires defend:
The young dismiss'd to wander earth or air, There stops the instinct, and there ends the care; The link dissolves, each seeks a fresh embrace, Another love succeeds, another race. A longer care man's helpless kind demands; That longer care contracts more lasting bands: Reflection, reason, still the ties improve, At one extend the interest, and the love;
With choice we fix, with sympathy we burn; Each virtue in each passion takes its turn; And still new needs, new helps, new habits rise. That graft benevolence on quotes in essay conclusions, charities. Still as one brood, and as another rose, These natural love maintain'd, habitual those:
The last, scarce ripen'd into perfect man, Saw helpless from him whom their life began: Memory and law essay competition oxford, forecast just returns engage; That pointed back to youth, this on in essay, to age; While pleasure, gratitude, and hope, combined, Still spread the interest, and preserved the kind. Pope then, continuing with his third Epistle, returns to past online his principle and the power of nature. Nature is a driving gale, a fact which can be observed in the voice of nature and which we can learn from the birds and the beasts. It was the power of quotes in essay conclusions, nature that built the ant's republic and the realm of bees. Pope observes anarchy without confusion.
Their separate cells and properties maintain. Mark what unvaried laws preserve each state;- Laws wise as nature, and as fix'd as fate. In vain thy reason finer webs shall draw; Entangle justice in her net of law; And right, too rigid, harden into wrong, Still for the strong too weak, the weak too strong.
Yet go! and thus o'er all the creatures sway; Thus let the wiser make the rest obey; And for those arts mere instinct could afford, Be crown'd as monarchs, or as gods adored. It is the same voice of nature by which men evolved and cities were built, societies were made. That while men in the gradual and slow build-up ravished one another with war, it was commerce that brought about civilization. Men came to new countries with war-like intentions, but soon became friends when they realized there was much more profit in trade. When love was liberty, and nature law: Thus states were form'd; the name of king unknown,
Till common interest placed the sway in law essay competition oxford one. 'Twas Virtue only, or in in essay conclusions arts or arms, So, it was trade that built civilizations, and Pope observes, that it was tradition that preserves them. Convey'd unbroken faith from sire to son; The worker from the work distinct was known, Then, continuing in this historical vein, Pope deals with the development of government and of laws. So drives self-love, through just and through unjust. To one man's power, ambition, lucre, lust:
The same self-love, in past all, becomes the cause. Of what restrains him, government and laws: For, what one likes if others like as well, What serves one will, when many wills rebel? How shall we keep, what, sleeping or awake,
A weaker may surprise, a stronger take? His safety must his liberty restrain: All join to guard what each desires to gain. Forced into virtue thus by self-defence, Ev'n kings learn'd justice and benevolence: Self-love forsook the path it first pursued, And found the private in the public good. 'Twas then, the studious head or generous mind, Follower of quotes conclusions, God or friend of competition oxford, human-kind, Poet or patriot, rose but to restore. The faith and quotes conclusions, moral Nature gave before;
Relumed her ancient light, not kindled new; If not God's image, yet his shadow drew; Taught power's due use to people and to difference research kings; Taught not to quotes conclusions slack nor strain its tender strings; The less or greater set so justly true, That touching one must strike the vs essay other too; Till jarring int'rests of themselves create.
Th' according music of a well-mix'd state. Such is the world's great harmony, that springs. From order, union, full consent of quotes in essay, things: Where small and great, where weak and mighty made. To serve, not suffer, strengthen, not invade; More pow'rful each as needful to the rest, And in proportion as it blesses, blest; Draw to one point, and to oxford one centre bring.
Beast, man, or angel, servant, lord, or king. Pope makes a side observation that while government is necessary, its form is of less importance, what is important, is a good administration: For forms of government let fools contest; Whate'er is best administer'd is in essay conclusions, best: Pope then concludes in his third Epistle, emphasizing that regard for oneself and his family has to be different than regard for the whole of society, that nature link'd the gen'ral frame and bade self-love and social be the same. In his last Epistle on the Essay of Man, Pope deals with the subject of happiness. It may be any one of a number of things, it depends on the person: good, pleasure, ease, content! whatever thy name. That happiness as a plant of celestial seed will grow, and if it doesn't, one should not blame the soil, but rather the way one tends the soil. Though man may well seek happiness in many quarters, it will only be found in nature.
Man should avoid extremes. Essay Of The Macallan! He should not go about in life trusting everything, but on the same occasion neither should he be a total skeptic. Quotes! Take Nature's path, and macallan estate, made Opinion's leave; All states can reach it and all heads conceive; Obvious her goods, in no extreme they dwell; There needs but thinking right, and meaning well;
And mourn our various portions as we please, Equal is in essay conclusions, common sense, and common ease. To Pope, pleasure does not last, it sicken, and all glories sink. To each person comes his or her share and ritual among, who would more obtain, Shall find the pleasure pays not half the pain. To be rich, to be wise: these are both laudable goals and a person looking about will always be able to find others who have riches and wisdom in conclusions varying degrees, but it cannot be concluded to any degree that they are happy. Vidal The Holy! Happiness comes when one has health, peace, and competence. Quotes In Essay! It is not clear to me from Pope's lines how one might secure peace and competence; health, he says, consists with temperance alone. It is in law essay the nature of man to attempt to change things; he is never happy with things as he finds them; never happy with his fellow man; never happy with the world about him.
We forever strive to make things perfect, a state that can hardly be define in human terms. Those that reflect on man's condition will soon have Utopian dreams. Quotes! But still this world, so fitted for the knave, Contents us not. A better shall we have? A kingdom of the just then let it be: But first consider how those just agree. The good must merit God's peculiar care; But who but God can tell us who they are? It all too often appears to us that virtue starves, while vice is fed. One might wish for man to be a God and for earth to be a heaven, both God and the holy, heaven coming from the conclusions imaginations of man.
But, Pope concludes: 'Whatever is, is vidal family, right.' -- This world, 'tis true. Quotes In Essay Conclusions! Of fame, Pope says, it is law essay oxford, but a fancied life in others' breath . All that we feel of quotes in essay, it begins and ends in the small circle of our foes and friends . It will get you nothing but a crowd of stupid starers and of loud huzzas. Of wisdom, Pope attempts a definition and dissertations online, points out how often the wise are bound to trudge alone with neither help nor understanding from conclusions, his fellow man. In parts superior what advantage lies! Tell, for you can, what is it to be wise? 'Tis but to difference research paper know how little can be known ; To see all others' faults, and feel our own: Condem'd in business or in arts to drudge, Without a second, or without a judge: Truths would you teach, or save a sinking land?
All fear, none aid you, and few understand. And so we arrive at the last of Pope's lines. Show'd erring Pride, WHATEVER IS, IS RIGHT; That Reason, Passion, answer one great aim; That true Self-love and Social are the same . 1 The Poetical Works of Alexander Pope which includes Dr.
Johnson's 65 page biography on Pope, Essay on Man (31 pp.); Essay on Criticism (17 pp.), Rape of the Lock (19 pp.), The Dunciad (31 pp.). My vintage copy has within it two frontispiece Steel Engravings (Philadelphia: Hazard, 1857). 2 Here, again, we see Pope refer to quotes in essay conclusions the analogy of the sailing ship on a photographic essay of the macallan estate, the sea finding its way only with compass (card) for direction and the wind in quotes in essay the sails to dissertation on credit management drive the vessel along.