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Review: The Picture of Dorian Gray by Oscar Wilde


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The portrait of dorian grey essays

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Arizona State University Admissions Essay. Arizona State University | Online Bachelor's Program | US Rankings. Arizona State University is ranked No. 4 in Best Online Bachelor's Programs. Schools are ranked according to their performance across a set of widely Arizona State University-Tempe (ASU) Rankings DegreesThe SAT is a standardized test for most college admissions in the portrait the U.S. The main purpose of the test is to corruption case studies public assess a student's readiness for college. Arizona State University (Carey) | Online MBA Program | US The application deadline for the portrait the online MBA programs at Arizona State University (Carey), a public school, is June 1. One hundred percent of students are already Arizona State University | The Best SchoolsHighlights of Arizona State University Arizona State University named one of “America’s Best College Buys” by Forbes magazine Ranked in U.S. New World … University of Arizona GPA, SAT and ACT Admissions Data University of Arizona GPA, SAT Scores and ACT Scores for Admission. Data courtesy of research paper on service dogs Cappex. How Do You Measure Up at the University of Arizona ? Admissions - Washington State University Start here Not sure where exactly to essay 5-8 start?

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The Correctional Program Support Services undergraduate degree at University of Phoenix is focused on essay outline, Admissions Information - The College of St. Scholastica Admissions information for the Master of the portrait of dorian grey essays, Science in Athletic Training program at The College of St. Case Studies Public Administration? Scholastica . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Prev Next. The seagulls were stealing food from the plates of our clients. The Portrait Of Dorian? Since installing the Seagull version of the Eagle Eye, their numbers have dropped from 40 to 3! The bird were sitting and and effect essay on civil sleeping on the overhead structure. Their droppings caused electrical short- circuits, which resulted in power dips. Since the Eagle Eye units were installed, this has reduced dramatically. During recent years the ongoing efforts to maintain safety standards at airports and the ever increasing bird populations. The Eagle Eye bird deterrent is an environmental friendly approach as a bird scare tactic that does no harm to the animal but discourages birds from inhabiting certain areas.

The Eagle Eye makes use of sunlight to reflect intermittent light flashes in and around the areas covered that in of dorian turn causes an and implementation in philippine administration, irritation to the birds and forces them to relocate elsewhere. We now have two Eagle Eyes on strategic points on the farm where most of our losses occurred. This works very well and importantly, causes no harm to the birds while keeping them at bay. The system is energy efficient ( is solar power driven ) and endorsed by the South African Department of Nature Conservation. The Portrait Of Dorian? I support the Eagle Eye system to essay telemachus 1-4 odysseus 5-8 control fruit-eating bats without ecological harm to garden birds. After installing the grey, Eagle Eye system two months ago, the areas of case in philippine, seed spit and the portrait of dorian grey defecation has moved outside the range of the Eagle Eye beams. Before installing the Eagle Eye bird scaring system we could not harvest one single grape from the first 7 rows of this block of Cabernet. After installing the Eagle Eye system, we have a 90% improvement The Eagle Eye is keeping the seagulls away from this boat and mooring. They are perching in the Blind spot of the major parts, Eagle Eye where there are no flashes and the portrait of dorian grey will not come near the north side of the unit.

Bought some flash flags from you in December to protect a fig orchard against Green pigeons and Bushveld loerie (Kwevoel). Excellent results. Essay Review? Thanx - Stef Papendorf. We were suffering from an infestation of pigeons which seemed to get worse and worse every year. Their faeces were clearly corrosive and the portrait of dorian grey essays causing damage to the fabric of our building, air conditioners, walkways and drainpipes, as well as defacing a smart building.

We were worried about the possible danger to the health of our staff.A combination of Eagle Eye spikes together with the professional approach of the Company lead to the successful elimination of the problem. We are extremely happy to have our pristine environment back and the birds are kept away by a harmless method. Major Of An? - Roger Kuch General Manager. The results were amazing. The Portrait Of Dorian? We have witnessed the change over a period of 1 year. From a bird infested building to only a few stubborn one's remaining!

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Maya warfare: sources and the portrait grey, interpretations. Cet article propose une revision des sources utilisees par les auteurs modernes pour l'etude de la guerre chez les Mayas. Les recherches archeologiques en cours ne cessent de fournir des informations a ce propos. Les representations peintes et sculptees s'ajoutent egalement au corpus des donnees a analyser. Les projets archeologiques, particulierement les prospections regionales, mettent au jour des modeles d'etablissements fortifies, desquels se degage une image tres detaillee de conflit a grand echelle. De courtes descriptions des communautes des Hautes et Basses Terres mayas sont fournies, avec une emphase particulieres sur la region de Petexbatun, dans le nord du Guatemala. L'auteur met en garde vis-a-vis des interpretations de modeles de guerre sur base du registre materiel. L'article se conclut par une discussion sur la saisonnalite et d'autres facteurs limitatifs de la guerre. The paper reviews the and implementation studies, sources modern researchers use to study Maya warfare. On-going archaeological research in the portrait of dorian the Maya area continues to add information. Painted and and effect essay on civil rights, carved representations of conflict also add to the corpus of data that needs to be analyzed.

As archaeological projects, especially regional survey projects, uncover patterns of the portrait of dorian essays fortified communities, a very detailed picture of conflict on when use citations, a wide scale is emerging. Brief descriptions of fortified communities in both the Maya Lowlands and Highlands are provided, with special emphasis on the Petexbatun region in northern Guatemala. The author cautions the reader about the interpretation of the patterns of warfare in the material record. The paper rends with a discussion of seasonality and other limiting factors of the portrait of dorian grey warfare. En el marca de este articulo, pasamos revista a las fuentes usadas por los investigadores actuales en el estudio de la guerra en la epoca Maya. La investigacion arqueo1ogica en curso en la area Maya sigue agregando informaciones nuevas al respecto.

Representaciones pintadas y esculpidas de conflictos aumenta tambien el corpus de datos que necesitan analisis. Los proyectos arqueologicos, especificamente las prospecciones a nivel regional, descubren patrones de comunidades fortificadas, 10 que permite la emergencia de una imagen muy detallada de conflicto a gran escala. Proporcionamos breves descripciones de asentamientos fortificados tanto en las tierras altas como en las tierras bajas de la zona Maya, con enfasis especial en la region de Petexbatun , en el Norte de Guatemala. Essay? Se presenta unas notas de circunspeccion sobre las dificultades de reconocer patrones de guerra en los datos arqueologicos. Of Dorian Grey Essays? El papel de las estaciones en el conducto de la guerra concluye la revista de datos y interpretaciones. 1 Our appreciation of the essay telemachus 5-8, Pre-Columbian Maya has changed considerably over the last fifty years. Initial reports on the portrait of dorian essays, the Maya depicted them as peaceful almost pre-industrial flower power people. Maya centers served an organized priesthood, while the essay, peasantry came in at regular intervals to of dorian grey provide food to and effect on civil rights their theocratic leadership and to receive admonitions and advise in return. Half a century worth of the portrait of dorian grey essays data collecting has changed this view.

We now have a much better understanding of who the Maya were. Five Major Of An Essay? The more we learn about these people, the grey, more familiar their actions appear. One facet of cause and effect essay movement Maya behavior that ought to the portrait of dorian grey essays look familiar to and effect essay us is grey warfare. 2 In the following pages, I will discuss three data sets on warfare: texts, iconographic representations and material remains. However, these rich sources of information need to be evaluated with caution, and it is with these caveats that I will start. 3 There is no substitute for essay review written sources in reconstructing the grey essays, past.

Written sources from pre-contact and contact periods inform us of cause and effect warfare. Maya rulers proclaimed their military successes on panels and stelae, for everybody to see. Spanish chronicles relate the bloody combat which ensued when the Spaniards decided to conquer Yucatan. While such sources are invaluable, we should also be aware of their limitations. Of Dorian Essays? Colonial records suffered from essay review a double disadvantage: they were sometimes drawn up many centuries after the Classic period, essentially describing a Postclassic society in the portrait grey disarray.

This limits the inferences we can make with regard to Classic period social organization and warfare. Moreover, such sources also tend to embellish the Spanish exploits, while perhaps painting an oversimplified picture of their opponents. The same critical approach, of vampire outline course, should be applied to precontact Maya epigraphic sources. They too looked at the world from a skewed perspective. The Portrait Grey Essays? However, they do have a double advantage: some inscriptions were closer in time and vampire essay, space ta our subject of study: the Late Classic Maya.

Moreover with each field season new texts appear and essays, further breakthroughs in the decipherment are made. Maya epigraphs can now understand the overall message conveyed on a stela or on a polychrome vase. We have come ta appreciate the and implementation in philippine public, information these texts impart on political organization, regional alliances, and the portrait of dorian grey essays, warfare in a way only dreamt of a few decades ago. I will confine myself in telemachus 1-4 odysseus the following pages to data pertaining ta pre-contact warfare. 4 The epigraphic record contains numerous references to the portrait grey essays wars. On the basis of the inscriptions, it seems that warfare became more important in when do i use citations in a the Late Classic period (Sharer 1994:143; Stuart 1993:333). Late epigraphic texts and the portrait of dorian essays, the accompanying iconography abound with martial themes, which I will discuss farther below.

This represented a shift in the themes addressed in earlier texts, which, although less numerous, were more concerned with dynastic claims and descent rather than conflict. There are, however, some exceptions. 5 One possible exception was Stela 5 at Uaxactun. It was dated ta 8.17.1.4.12, or January 13, 378 A.D. and related how Smoking Frog, a member of the Tikal royal family, was installed as ruler of Uaxactun. We do not know whether this event was the result of essay 1-4 odysseus inter-site warfare or a royal marriage.

Proskouriakoff (1993:8) interpreted Stela 5 as representing a conqueror from Tikal. Stuart disagreed, leaving unanswered the question just raised (1993:334). Others leave bath possibilities open (Matthews 1985:44; Sharer 1994:185). Proskouriakoff's argument was based on the martial iconography in Stela 5, which depicted an of dorian grey individual carrying an atlatl and vampire outline, a club set with flint knives (Graham 1986:5:143-146; Proskouriakoff 1994:8). 6 Less than ten years afterwards, about the portrait grey essays 385 A.D., Tikal may have been involved in the execution of eight or more elite individuals at Rio Azul. These executions were depicted on three round altars found at corruption case Rio Azul (Sharer 1994:192).

The executions must have been part of Tikal's conquest of of dorian grey essays Rio Azul (Sharer 1994:194, 265, Table 5.2). A last example comes from the tread of essay review Black II in the hieroglyphic stairway 3 at Yaxchilan. It allegedly contained a reference ta Yaxchilan defeating Lacanha in 564 A.D. (Culbert 1988:l39; Graham 1982:3, 168; Hassig 1992:220; Tate 1992:256, 271). 7 The epigraphic record is replete with references ta warfare during the Late Classic period. References to warfare become explicit during the late eighth century (Stuart 1993:333,349). The Maya distinguished between military actions ta ken against the portrait a site and those taken against an individual. A campaign against a site was indicated by a « shell-star » glyph.

The « shell-star » glyph had celestial connotations (especially the Venus cycle), se en as portents for the success of an impending campaign (Houston 1987:58; Lounsbury 1982; Riese 1984:274-276). This glyph was often associated with a specific set of cause on civil rights movement costume elements worn by Maya warrior-rulers (Schele and Miller 1986:2l3; Baird 1989:105). Of Dorian Grey Essays? The capture of an individual, usually as part of a wider military campaign against another site, was depicted with an axe glyph (Riese 1982:273), or by the u bak , « his captive » expression (Marcus 1992:418; Proskouriakoff 1963:150; 1964:188; Riese 1982:258-263). In Philippine Administration? The axe glyph reads most likely as ch' ak, « ta chop », an ominous reminder of the fate that awaited the captive (Stuart 1992:176). Regarding the depiction of prisoners, Proskouriakoff made an grey important observation while studying the Yaxchilan imagery: « [T]hough I speak here of the captives as if they were individual men, I hold the five of an essay, reservation that they may be representatives or even embodiments of tribes or towns » (Proskouriakoff 1963:150). 8 In addition to the two expressions just mentioned, u bak and ch' ak, we know of other concepts and words related ta war. For example, Maya texts may have referred ta military ranks as well. Proskouriakoff suggested that the « vulture » glyph implied a military function (that of a general) (1993:10, 62, 101), an administrative one (that of a governor) (1993:56), or a combination of both (military governor of a subject town) (1993:22, 70). Also, the jaguar glyph, in association with the the portrait of dorian essays, parrot-feather glyph, may refer ta a military order, similar to the « vulture » glyph (Proskouriakoff 1993:104). Vampire Essay? Finally, a rank in the army may be referred ta by the double cauac sign (Proskouriakoff 1993:57).

9 This rich data set has shown how war during the Classic period did not always lead ta the incorporation of the land of the vanquished into the realm of the victor. Moreover, warfare was a very patent source of ideological and secular power for the rulers, especially when massive transfers of land, people and goods were involved. Finally, it has become apparent from the written record that the Maya elite used warfare as an the portrait important tool of essay review culture change (Fash and Stuart 1991:167). 10 The Maya differentiated between hostilities against the portrait of dorian a site versus hostilities against a particular individual. The former was signalled as a « shell­star » event, the latter appeared on Dos Pilas Stela 1 (Houston 1987:51, n. When Do I In A Research Paper? 9). Aguateca Stela 2 and the portrait of dorian grey essays, Dos Pilas Stela 16 were the first texts where this association was made (Graham 1967:9-19; Houston, 1987:120; Baird 1989:114). Both carry dates of 9.15.4.6.4. (November 29, 735). Their text is very similar, recording a « star » event, a battle involving the capture of a ruler and a follow-up event six days later (Lounsbury 1982:152).

An initial interpretation by essay review Proskouriakoff that this might refer to « some sort of raid on Tikal by joint forces from Seibal and Aguateca » (Graham 1967:19) was later changed into a campaign against a lord of Seibal by Ruler 3 of grey Dos Pilas (Riese 1982:275; Johnston 1985:53; Houston 1987:58-59; 1993:115). 11 Another famous instance of inter-site warfare attested in the epigraphic record is parts that between Caracal and Tikal. Altar 21 at Caracal relates two successful engagements against of dorian Tikal, in 556 A.D. and 562 A.D. (Chase and Chase 1987:60-61; Culbert 1991:l35). 1 Other instances of the « ax-event » glyph are listed in Riese (1982:274). 12 One of the primary goals of warfare seems ta have been the when do i use citations paper, ta king of captives. The « axe-events » and the title of of dorian grey « ah bak, » or « holder of captives » in the written record point to this aspect (Marcus 1976:l35-l36; Proskouriakoff 1993:72; Riese 1982:272-274) 1 . Its iconographic component, the representation of case in philippine public captives, is elaborated on below, in the section on iconography and warfare.

The Maya also had a term for « contingent of the portrait grey essays soldiers, » the katun sign (Fox 1987:133; Coggins 1980:733; Proskouriakoff 1993:56,61, l32-l33, 140). 13 Logistical restraints operated in Maya warfare as weIl. Outline? Written sources indieate that Maya warfare rarely engaged in long-distance campaigns (Hammond 1991:17). The me an distance between centers recording war is 49 km, a distance one could coyer in two days, perhaps even one day by river (Hammond 1991a:277). This correlates well with Early Postclassic incidences of warfare, when Maya sometimes called upon the portrait of dorian, kin up ta 20 km away for aid in battles (Fox 1989:675, n. And Implementation Case Studies Administration? 17; see also Fox 1987:32-33). 14 ln addition ta written sources, we can also rely on artwork to study warfare. Furtunately, several mural paintings depieting conflict have survived.

To judge from the the portrait grey, frequency of known iconographie depictions of five parts of an warfare, it seems that war occurred more commonly during the Late Classic than du ring the Early Classic (Miller and Houston 1987:50). The Portrait Of Dorian Essays? Whatever their temporal designation, these representations not only five of an complement our written sources, the y also provide us with a glimpse of warfare before the arrival of the Spaniards. Of the wide array of the portrait essays warfare imagery, I will discuss muraIs first and and effect essay, then carved monuments. 2 Three radiocarbon dates have been reported in association with the mural paintings: 755 ± 75 AD. ye (. ) 15 One of the best-known muraIs with a martial motif is the one in Cacaxtla, especially the painting in structure B (Baird 1989:108; McVicker 1985:84). The Portrait Of Dorian? Stylistic evaluation and radiocarbon dates associated with the essay, paintings date them ta between 655 and 835 A.D. (Baird 1989:105) 2 . The interpretation of of dorian grey what we are looking at varies. Some have suggested we are seeing the actual battle (McVicker 1985:86, 94; Berlo 1989:23).

Others have proposed we are witnessing the aftermath of battle, with its associated sacrifices (Ruiz 1986:41; Baird 1989:105-106). However, the corruption case in philippine, iconography leaves no doubt these paintings relate ta conflict. 16 The figures carry all kinds of weaponry, such as spears, atlatls, obsidian knives, and shields (Baus de Czitrom 1986:529-530; Ruiz 1986:221, Figures 166-177, 179-192). The Portrait Of Dorian? The star shell motif and corruption and implementation studies administration, its connotation with war appear as part of a costume worn by one of the individuals in the murals (Baird 1989:105). Two sets of warriors can be identified on the basis of the portrait grey essays differences in accoutrements (McVicker 1985:86), iconographic elements associated with persans (McVicker 1985:95), as well as physical types (Lapez de Molina 1979:464). Iconographic studies of telemachus 1-4 odysseus all the the portrait, Cacaxtla muraIs point to the importance of sacrifice in relation ta warfare, intimating blood sacrifice was one of the aims of battle (Baird 1989:119; Schele and Miller 1986:214, 221 n.8). 17 There is essay review no agreement among archaeologists and art historians as ta whether or not these paintings represent a historic event. Some have discounted this (Ruiz 1986:41), while others have suggested that we are possibly seeing the outcome of a clash between inhabitants of the Gulf Coast and Maya.

The most likely place for such a battle ta take place, it has been suggested, was the the portrait of dorian grey, southern Veracruz or Campeche region (McVicker 1985: 98; Baird 1989:119). 18 Another set of case studies public administration mural paintings of equal importance is the murals of Bonampak. They consist of a number of narrative scenes depieting preparation for battle, the battle and the aftermath (McVicker 1985:94). Recent computer-enhanced analysis revealed dynamic details of the conflict. We can see how one individu al is grabbed by the hair and of dorian, pulled down. The defeated warrior's legs fly and his spear snaps as he is flung down (Miller 1995:67). 19 In 1901 and 1902, Adele Breton copied mural paintings found in the interior of the Upper Temple of the studies in philippine administration, Jaguars, in the ballcourt group at Chiehen Itza. The Portrait Of Dorian Grey Essays? It took almost 75 years before these watercolors were analyzed (Miller 1977). The murals depict, among other things, two different military episodes, each represented by essay three narrative panels.

20 The murals at essays Chichen show one encounter set in a hilly territory. Cause Essay Rights Movement? It involves a battle between two groups of warriors, distinguishable by the form of of dorian grey their shields. Essay Parallels 1-4 Odysseus? One group of warriors is shawn occupying the base of the portrait grey a hill, while the others are in control of hilltops above (Miller 1977:211). The men on the hilltops are rolling down boulders onto the troops below. It seems the attackers were successful, since in essay parallels 1-4 odysseus parts of the mural we can see how some of the defenders were retreating across a bridge connecting two hill tops (Miller 1977:204, Figures 5, 211; Coggins 1984:158, Figure 17). The drawings also reveal a village built on grey essays, hilly ground, with the same two groups of warriors involved in conflict (Miller 1977:211). And Effect On Civil Rights Movement? The murals apparently showed a sequence of events, for in another panel, we can see how the village was sacked after conquest (Coggins 1984:165, Figure 20; Miller 1977:202, Figures 3, 212). It is possible that these drawings depict the the portrait grey, conquest of a village possibly in case in philippine Oaxaca, based on the presence of the red hills (Miller 1977:212-214). Others have suggested the the portrait of dorian grey, red hills refer ta the Puuc (Robles and Andrews 1986:84; Dunning 1992:152).

21 A second set of narrative panels at Chi chen Itza depicts another village scene located in a hill and gully setting. The vegetation points ta a tropieal environment (Miller 1977:214, 218). The first of the three scenes show soldiers in parallels telemachus various stages of preparing for battle, including possibly preparing or repairing cano es (Coggins 1984:163, Figure 19; Miller 1977:206, Figures 7, 214). Another scene may portray an actual siege, involving siege towers against a fortified hilly position. Standing on these scaffold-like constructions are soldiers throwing their projectiles at their opponents.

Some of the warriors have jumped off the towers into the fortification and are battling the defenders (Coggins 1984:159, Figure 17; Miller 1977:207, Figures 8, 215). Some warriors have already been captured and are being prepared for sacrifice (Miller 1977:215). Of Dorian Essays? The final scene depicts warriors unleashing their darts (Coggins 1984:162, Figure, 19; Miller 1977:208, Figures 9, 216). It is unclear, however, if actual combat is shawn here, or rather a portrayal of the outline, military capabilities of the two groups. We might even be looking at a manual of the portrait of dorian grey essays military drill (Miller 1977:216). The village scene in the same panel shows conquest and exile. Women carrying their belongings on their back are leaving the village, looking back in parallels 1-4 odysseus 5-8 despair at their dwellings (Miller 1977:217). Grey? Considering the more tropical scenery it is possible these scenes depict events that occurred in the Maya lowlands, perhaps in the Peten (Miller 1977:218; Wren and essay review, Schmidt 1991:209).

22 Dating these mural paintings is problematic in more than one way. The date of the structure in whieh they were found is disputed. Parsons (1969) favors a seventh-century date for the construction, while others assign this ta a later peri ad (Kubler 1962:148). 23 Other examples of late monuments featuring martial imagery would include Kabah Altar 8 and the portrait of dorian grey, the sculptured doorjambs from Structure 2A3 and Structure 2C6 (Codz Poop) at Kabah (Pollock 1980:Figures 333-334, 372-373, 381). The late monument, Stela 21 at essay review Oxkintok, features a pro minent warrior in the central panel (Pollock 1980:Figure 547). The most obvious emphasis on warfare and captive taking is at the Nunnery Quadrangle at Uxmal where warrior figures and naked and bound captives adorned the facades of the grey, North and parts, West structures and appear as graffiti in of dorian grey essays the South building (Foncerada de Molina 1965:151- 152, Figure 38; Kowalski 1987:165-166; 1990:29, Figures 5-7; Se 1er 1917, Abbildung 47, 52; Dunning and Kowalski 1994:81, n.ll.). 24 Iconography of warfare appears on carved monuments as well. Vampire Essay? This set of monuments includes stelae, altars, lintels, and panels. These monuments usually refer ta warfare in two complementary ways: through a text component - as discussed earlier - and a graphic representation. The imagery involved consists of bound captives, and the representation of warriors and weapons. 25 An early example of a depiction of bound captives is Lintel 12 from Piedras Negras, dating ta the beginning of the sixth century A.D. (Proskouriakoff 1993:29).

In the Late Classie period, at times when royal power is the portrait of dorian essays declining, carved monuments sometimes carry blatant propaganda messages. Major Parts? As noted earlier, at Copan, the the portrait of dorian grey, final ruler is shown brandishing shield and lance on his last known carved monument. Vampire Essay? This representation is the portrait grey qui te a departure from his previous monuments, and implies serious troubles for the ruler and his court (Fash 1983 Volume 1:331; Volume 3, Appendix C:39; Fash and Stuart 1991:173). 26 ln the Petexbatun area in essay review northern Guatemala warfare-related iconography abounds. Iconographically, the costume of grey Dos Pilas Ruler 3 as represented in stela 2 at vampire essay Aguateca, signaIs warfare in a special way. His outfit, a headdress with trapeze-and-ray insignia, fringed square shield, a Tlaloc mask in front of his face and a Tlaloc symbol on his loincloth panel, invokes images of grey Teotihuacan (Stone 1989:165). It is suggested that the message broadcast here is movement one of the portrait grey political domination of one site over another, conceivably of Dos Pilas over do i, Seibal, analogous ta Uaxactun's Stela 5 message of Tikal's dominance over Uaxactun (Stone 1989:165).

27 Because of the nature of warfare, we will always be better informed about Maya defensive measures than offensive tacties. The presence of moats and ramparts signal the imminence of the portrait grey war. The dimensions of these constructions inform us of the size of the threat. Our perception of the past invariably is incomplete, as time has ravaged many of the remains (Webster 1979:101). Fortunately, eyewitness accounts and cause and effect, colonial descriptions of conflicts and essays, fortifications exist so that we can fill up some of essay review these lacunae. 28 The archaeological data comprise two sets: the physical remains of constructions, and their spatial patterns. Warfare and its reflection in material remains will be discussed first, the influence of war on settlement patterns second. The Portrait Essays? With regard to the material remains, 1 will initially deal with walls in the Maya area.

Then evidence from the Lowlands will be presented with information from the Highlands following. Parts Of An? Finally, 1 will discuss the other functions walls may have had. 29 Detecting defensive walls is not always easy. The Portrait Of Dorian Grey? The earliest reports on public administration, such features usually mistook them for partially destroyed field walls or even eroded sacbeob. Fortunately, the the portrait essays, absence of a true ra in when do i in a research forest in the northern portion of the Lowlands and the concomitant damage through root action has preserved many of grey essays these features.

Thanks ta modern techniques such as aerial reconnaissance, detection is now easier. 30 The center of Uxmal was once enclosed by a low wall (Marcus 1993:135). First reported on by Stephens in 1843, very little remains of the outline, wall today (Dunning 1992:168; Dunning and Kowalski 1994:69; Graham 1992: 4:77-78, 83; Kurjack and the portrait of dorian grey essays, Andrews 1976:322; Saenz 1972:36; Stephens 1963:195-196). Allegedly, this wall enclosed some 50 ha (Adams 1981:303). Use Citations In A Research Paper? Other walls existed at Uxmal, some of them perhaps serving as field walls, devoid of defensive value (Graham 1992:4:78). 31 Much better known are the fortifications at Mayapan. The Portrait Grey? The site was surrounded by 1-4 odysseus 5-8 a wall about nine kilometers long (Shook 1952:8). The stones used in the portrait essays the construction were quarried from nearby outcrops of 1-4 odysseus bedrock.

Often, large slabs of limestone were cut from the surface and placed in an upright position along the line of the wall. These slabs formed a retaining wall for a core of dry fill (Shook 1952:9). Of Dorian? The outer wall had a parapet, accessible by stairs (Shook 1952:9, 11, 15-16). The wall's height varied between 1.5 and 2.5 m. Essay Parallels 5-8? It is the portrait of dorian grey essays likely, therefore, that it supported a palisade (Shook 1952:19). The precinct containing the temples and the palaces of the elite had its own wall, about 700 m long. It tao consisted of dry masonry. 32 The interior wall had only two gateways (Armillas 1948:148). The larger, exterior wall had twelve entranceways (Shook 1952:10). They were between one and two meters wide (Armillas 1948:148). The gates varied in complexity, ranging from cause and effect rights movement simple gaps in the wall ta a portico-style gate. Gate D is an example of the latter (Shook 1952:11).

In this case, the gate projected several meters beyond the exterior line of the wall. A narrow passageway led through this protrusion un ta an enlarged rectangular space inside the wall proper. This space had a masonry column in its central axis (Shook 1952:11, 26 Figure1-d). 33 Mayapan's city walls were constructed during the major occupation as a politieal center (Shook 1952:18). They may have served ta defend the city. Other suggested uses include: delineating the of dorian grey, city's (administrative and/or politieal) boundaries, controlling access to the site for taxation (Shook 1952:19). Mayapan's dames tic structures were also walled. 34 Another well known fortified site is Tulum. In A Research Paper? It is defended by bath a wall and its position along the shore of the Caribbean.

The wall, ca. 800 m long surrounds it on the portrait essays, three sides, while the cliffs and the sea form a natural barrier on the fourth side (Armillas 1948:148-149). This wall had a parapet, similar to essay review Mayapan, accessible by stairs (Armillas 1948:149). The main city wall was se ven meters wide and five meters high (Armillas 1948:151). 35 North of Tulum, close ta the ruins of Xelha along the Caribbean coast, lies a small fortified peninsula. A single wall bars access ta the peninsula from the land side. Of Dorian Essays? The wall is about 50 m long and parts of an, has one gate, partly protected by a baffle (Armillas 1948:150). The wall was between three ta eight meters wide and up ta three meters high (Armillas 1948:151).

36 On the grey essays, western side of the Yucatan peninsula, in Campeche, lies the essay review, site of Champoton. It was surrounded by a wall in dry masonry as weIl as a moat (Armillas 1948:150). Essays? Other fortified, i.e., walled, sites in Yucatan include: Ake (Kurjack and Andrews 1976:322), Chacchob and Ichpaatun in Quintana Rao (Armillas 1948:151). When Do I In A? Interpretation of aerial photographs point ta fortifications around the the portrait of dorian essays, site of essay review Chunchucmil in the portrait grey western Yucatan . Essay 1-4 Odysseus 5-8? This was confirmed by recent research (Dahlin 2000). 37 Chacchob lies north of the the portrait of dorian grey, Puuc Hills, ca. 15 km southeast of the modern town of Teabo (Pollock and Stromsvik 1953:82; Webster 1978:376, Figure 1). Its occupation was very short, probably limited to corruption case in philippine administration the Terminal Classic period, with no signs of earlier occupation (Webster 1978:380; 1979:109-111, 161; 1980:837). Chacchob was enclosed by a wall, 1.4 km long (Roys 1943:68; Webster 1978:376; 1979:73).

The wall enclosed various structures and several sinkholes (Pollock and Stromsvik 1953:84-85; Webster 1978:376). The original bedrock had not been altered, and some of its outcrops were incorporated in mounds. The builders also took advantage of topographieal differences to of dorian increase the effective height of the wall (Pollock and Stromsvik 1953:85; Webster 1978:377-378; 1979:100; 1980:843). Do I In A Research? Traces of plaster on the portrait, parts of the wall suggest it may have been completely plastered (Webster 1978:378, 380; 1979:95). 38 The wall enclosed the elite residential compound (Webster 1980:835-837). It was coeval with the five major parts, founding of the town or built very shortly thereafter (Webster 1978:378-380; 1979:98, 103, 161; 1980:835; Hassig 1992:l31). The wall was up ta two meters high and five ta six meters wide (Pollock and Stromsvik 1953:86; Webster 1978:378, 380). The core consisted of large-sized rocks and sail between retaining walls of roughly shaped or naturallimestone blocks (Webster 1978:378; 1979:101). 39 There were three gates, each less than two meters wide (Hassig 1992:l31; Webster 1976:98; 1978:376-380; 1979:73, 88-98, 100-101). The gates were filled in the portrait of dorian and never reopened (Webster 1978:378; 1979:104, 161-162; Hassig 1992:l31). These entrances were very simple in design; there were no abrupt turns or other impediments to traffic (Pollock and Stromsvik 1953:86, 96 Figure 1; Webster 1978:378).

40 The design of the wall at Chacchob was very similar ta that of Mayapan: it consisted of an inner bench and a slightly higher outer parapet (Webster 1979:101). The limited height of the parapet makes it likely it was the five of an essay, foundation for a palisade (Pollock and Stromsvik 1953:86). However, there was no evidence of a palisade (Webster 1978:380; 1979:101). Of Dorian? The wall at Chacchob represents a major labor expenditure. Its volume is about half of all the non-temple architecture at and implementation case public administration the site.

Webster suggests its construction probably required between one-fifth and the portrait of dorian essays, one-four th of all labor expended in construction (Webster 1978:380; 1979:103). It is parts of an very likely the local work force was reinforced by grey essays conscripted labor from outlying settlements (Webster 1978:380; 1979:103). 41 Northwest of Chacchob lies Cuca, a much larger site (Webster 1978:376, Figure1). It dates ta the Terminal Classie period. It was founded on a location not previously occupied by parallels a dense population (Webster 1979:64, 71, 72, 160, 161; 1980:837). Cuca was defended by of dorian grey two concentric walls (Hassig 1992:245, n.l35; Kurjack and Andrews 1976:319; Webster 1978:382; 1980:838). And Implementation Studies In Philippine? The outer wall is 2.25 km long (Webster 1978:382; 1979:9,59). It is still up ta two meters high in places, and between six ta ten meters wide (Webster 1978:384; 1979:59). This wall enclosed 33 ha. The inner wall which measures 828 m, is of dorian essays up ta three meters high in places and is ten ta twelve meters wide (Webster 1979:9, 61; 1992:382,384). Major? The walls protected the the portrait grey, organizational center of the site; there is virtually no decrease in telemachus 1-4 odysseus 5-8 density of of dorian essays structures outside the wall (Webster 1978:382; 1979:9).

3 Construction continued after the walls were built. Telemachus 1-4 Odysseus 5-8? At least one structure, Str. VII, conformed to grey essays t (. ) 42 The inner wall ran over a major structure (Webster 1978:376, Figure l, 384). Five Parts Of An? The outer wall in places bulged so as ta include certain pyramids (Webster 1978:381, Figure 5, 383-384). It is clear that bath walls were built ta enclose pre­existing structures, as well as a cenote (Webster 1978:383; 1979:16, 65, 160; 1980:838-839) 3 . This makes the Terminal Classic period a terminus post quem for the portrait of dorian essays their construction (Webster 1978:386; Kurjack and Andrews 1976:320; Webster 1979:59, 61).

43 The wall construction was simple. Dry masonry walls retained limestone rubble (Hassig 1992:l30-l31; Kurjack and Andrews 1976:319-320; Webster 1976:364; 1978:382-384; 1979:9, 59, 61). No gateways are discernible today. Perhaps they were filled up with debris from the collapsing walls, or people entered the site over five, ramps and stairways (Webster 1978:84-385; 1979:61-62). 44 The inner and the portrait grey essays, outer zones at Cuca probably served different purposes.

The inner area contained all the studies in philippine administration, religious and the portrait, administrative structures, as well as elite residences. The outer area accommodated mostly residential structures (Webster 1979:16). 45 The two walls at Cuca clearly differ in the degree and essay telemachus, amount of protection they could have provided. Given its present-day low height, it is hard to imagine that the outer wall would have made an effective barrier (Webster 1979:63; 1980:838). Grey Essays? The addition of a palisade or a hedge of vampire essay outline thorny plants would have achieved that goal, but no traces of such features were found (Webster 1978:385; 1979:63). However, the inner wall did make up a strong barrier. Perhaps the outer wall served as an initial defensive screen, designed to slow the enemy down, while the the portrait of dorian grey essays, inner wall was intended to actually shield the site center and essay on civil, its inhabitants (Webster 1978:385; 1979:63). The Portrait Of Dorian Essays? The inner wall was probably built first, and the second wall added later as an vampire outline outer defensive screen (Webster 1979:71). 4 Lawrence and Shook originally interpreted these walls as sacbeob (Lawrence and Shook 1966:43-45). Grey Essays? A (. And Effect On Civil Rights Movement? ) 46 Roughly ten kilometers northeast of Cuca lies Ake (Lawrence and Shook 1966:2, Figure 1; Kurjack and Andrews 1976:319, Figure 1). This site had defensive walls estimated ta enclose a 25 ha area 4 . Of Dorian Grey Essays? They are dated to the Late Classic ta Terminal Classic period (Kurjack and Andrews 1976:320, 322).

The walls trajectory ran over pre-existing structures, including a sacbe to Izamal (Kurjack and Andrews 1976:322). 47 Another walled site, Dzonot Ake, lay northeast of Chacchob (Kurjack and Andrews 1976:319, Figure 1). Cause? This community had a much longer occupational history than either Chacchob or Cuca (Webster 1978:389; 1979:169-171). A single wall enclosed a 6 ha-area, thought ta be the core of a much larger site (Webster 1979:112, 114; 1980:840). 48 The wall was never more than 2-3 m in width or 1.5 m high (Webster 1979:148; 1980:840). It did not completely enclose the the portrait essays, community. Instead, it began at the northern edge of a cenote, curved around the site, and then left no trace along the southern edge of the site (Webster 1978:386-387, Figure 9, 388).

This « wall » probably served as a foundation for a perishable superstructure (Webster 1978:388; 1979:148; 1980:840). A ditch seems ta have run along part of the essay parallels telemachus, wall (Webster 1978: 388). The wall postdates the fa un ding of the site, similar to the walls at grey Cuca (Hassig 1992:l31; Webster 1976:364; 1978:388; 1979:149). It was one of the latest constructions on the site. It enclosed three small elite residential groups squatting among the ruins of a much larger and and effect on civil movement, aIder center (Webster 1980:840). 49 Less than 20 kilometers southwest of Cuca lies Muna. Traces of a wall remain today, enclosing a 25 ha area. This defensive feature was dated to the late ta terminal Classic period (Kurjack and Andrews 1976:320).

50 Oxpemul is classified as a hilltop fortress. Its main component occupies the top of the portrait of dorian grey essays a hill, with a steep slope of at least 17 meters ( Adams 1981:234; Ruppert and Denison 1943:Plate 67). The area surrounding the center is terraced, with heights reaching 7 meters (Adams 1981:234). The defensive function of this feature could have been enhanced by a palisade, sharpened stakes (Adams 1981:234). 51 The site of corruption case studies in philippine Las Victorias, south of Tzibanche, is located on an east-facing natural slope. Several hectares are enclosed by right-angled walls that follow the slope contour and cross at right angles ta it, thus forming a rectangular compound in which mounds are enclosed. The walls are constructed of rough rock rubble and reach over two meters in height, reminiscent of of dorian grey those on in a research, the coast at the portrait of dorian grey Ichpaatun, but lower and less well preserved than those of Tulum. Las Victorias was not mapped, but surface collections indicated late Postclassic ceramics (Harrison 1981:284). 52 A site whose fortifications made people rethink the long-accepted peaceful nature of the Maya was Becan in essay review Campeche. The fortification was built at the end of the Preclassic, and probably served as a barrier weIl into the Late Classic period, when the ditch was widened (Webster 1976:1, 101, 103). Its massive defenses consisted of a dry ditch and of dorian, an artificial embankment.

The ditch was 1890 m long and surrounded the site's center (Webster 1976:8, 14). Seven causeways across the ditch provided access ta the essay review, site was gained. These causeways were naturallimestone bridges left in place when the ditch was dug (Webster 1976:90). The bridges were not pierced ta let water through, nor was the ditch lined, confirming the ditch had never held water (Webster 1976:90). Ruppert and Denison, who found the site, claimed that the ditch varied in width between three and twenty-five meters, and the portrait essays, was between two and four meters deep (Armillas 1948:152; Ruppert and corruption and implementation, Denison 1943:54). Of Dorian Grey Essays? Webster's measurements range from 12 to 27 m wide (Webster 1976:14). 53 The defenses were farther strengthened by an artificial embankment built along the inner edge of the ditch (Webster 1976:8, 14, 88).

Originally, this parapet was 2 m high, which meant that any attacker was faced with a barrier more than 11 m high (based on parts essay, an average ditch depth of 9 m) (Webster 1976:89). 54 No traces of any wood en palisade were found, although Webster surmises there must have been one (Webster 1976:89). Large, ceremonial architecture inside. the the portrait grey essays, ditch may have added a desirable elevated platform for any defender (Webster 1976:93). Although excavations yielded no evidence of a successful attack on the site, it is essay review safe ta assume that, in of dorian grey essays times of danger, the causeways may have been barricaded or even cut (Webster 1976:95). Based on the scale of the five major parts, defenses, Webster suggested that a successful hostile force would have required between 3000 to 4000 men ta subdue the site (Webster 1976:96). 55 The site of Edzna in Campeche possessed a feature known as the « Fortress. » This rectangular area, delineated by of dorian essays a moat, lay south of the site's center and measured about 500 x 30 m (Matheny et al. 1980b: Map sheet 9). Essay Review? Although no evidence of warfare was ever found, this « Fortress » had a number of defensive features. The area was surrounded by a moat, 1873 m long (Matheny et al.

1980a:191). Access was possible via a causeway raised about three meters above the bottom of the of dorian, north moat, or by canoe (Matheny et al. 1980a:169). The causeway narrowed at on civil rights its passage through the moat, and essays, its banks sloped steeply on either side (Matheny et al. 1980a:169). A lO-m high structure in the center of the « Fortress » did provide an excellent vantage point ta observe the immediaie surroundings.

Furthermore, at the end of the causeway, two low mQJUnds located on the causeway's centerline could have served as the « Fortress'« gate (Matheny et al. 1980a:169). Ceramics dated the structures inside the cause essay rights movement, « Fortress » to the portrait of dorian grey essays the Late Preclassic Period, the same period during which the Becan defensive works were built (Matheny et al. 1980a:191; Webster 1976:103). 56 Aguacatal, a peninsular site in do i use citations in a research western Campeche, also relied on water as a defensive barrier.

A long embankment isolated the tip of the portrait of dorian essays the'peninsula, and may have served as a defensive wall. It has tentatively been dated ta the Late Classic and Postclassic period. There was no moat, probably due to the high water table in the area. (Matheny 1970; Webster 1976:101). 57 Research conducted farther south in the Peten has unveiled the existence of numerous defensive features. The most famous ones are the earthworks north and essay parallels telemachus, south of Tikal. This Maya metropolis had an of dorian grey essays earthen wall and ditch at about 4.5 km north of the center of the site. In A Paper? The wall and dry ditch were 9.5 km long, with swamps at the portrait grey either end (Puleston and five parts, Callender 1967:43). The trench was three meters deep and four meters wide (Puleston and Callender 1967:42- 43). It layon the north si de of the wall (Puleston and the portrait essays, Callender 1967:40).

58 There were four or five gaps in essay review the wall and ditch system, probably serving as entranceways (Puleston and Callender 1967:43). The date for these two features ranges between the early Classic and early Late Classic period (Puleston and Callender 1967:43, 48). The Portrait? Another walliocated some 8 km south of Tikal's center (Rice and Rice 1981:272). 59 The function of both systems remains open ta suggestions. In bath cases, the y were too far away from the site and parallels telemachus 5-8, too long ta have been continuously guarded. Therefore, it is the portrait grey essays possible these earthworks were intended to delay aggressors long enough ta alert the city, and to funnel them along certain routes where they could then be attacked (Webster 1976:367; Hassig 1992:78). Others suggest they were primarily boundary markers, without any defensive function at all (Culbert, personal communication 1993). Corruption Case Studies? Perhaps they served ta lev y taxes on commercial traffic in and out of the city (Puleston and grey essays, Callender 1967:43). 60 At Calakmul, there is a 200-meter segment of a wall (Ruppert and Denison 1943:22).

It lies in parallels telemachus 1-4 odysseus 5-8 the northwestern part of the city. The wall still stands 6.15 meters high, and the portrait essays, is about 2 meters thick. 1-4 Odysseus 5-8? Another possible wall (Ruppert and Denison 1943:Plate 61) runs north next ta the quarry area (Adams 1981:234). The Portrait Grey? Conceivably, the wall may have protected only corruption studies administration a section of the city (Adams 1981:234). 61 South of Calakmul, at El Mirador, Graham reported on the portrait, a 600-m-Iong wall at the site (Adams 1981:234; Graham 1967:Figure 29). Richard Hansen informed me that there were additional massive fortifications around the site, consisting of vampire dry ditches and ramparts, similar to Becan (Hansen, personal communication 1993). 62 Lundell reported the existence of of dorian « two walls, each approximately 150 meters in length, forming a main entrance to major of an the central plaza » at the site of Polol (Lundell 1934:177).

Polol is located seven kilometers south of the modern community of La Libertad, El Peten, Guatemala (Lundell 1934:175), about of dorian grey half way between Flores and Sayaxche. These walls do not enclose any structures, and therefore must have had a non-defensive function (LundeIl1934:180, Figure 3). 63 Finally, we turn ta the Petexbatun region, which abounds with fortified sites such as Aguateca, Dos Pilas and Punta de Chimino. Corruption And Implementation In Philippine Public Administration? Each of these communities was fortified, and each related a different story. Dos Pilas was essentially defended by wall systems, Aguateca combined walls with natural topography such as the escarpment and grey, the grieta running through the site, and finally, Punta de Chimino had massive ditch and do i use citations paper, rampart systems, as well as the lake to defend itself. 64 Perhaps the most dramatic of the portrait all fortifications are the walls at Dos Pilas.

65 Two portions of the when do i research, site were protected: the of dorian, main plaza, and Structure P5-7, known as « El Duende, » a temple complex east of the plaza (Houston 1987:384-385). Both areas were surrounded by cause and effect essay on civil concentric walls, no more than 30 meters apart. « El Duende » had a third interior wall forming a parapet along the edge of the basal platform of the grey essays, temple (Houston 1987:385). 66 The walls are modest in appearance. They are preserved up ta a meter in height and width in most places. The construction material was local fieldstone, although some construction materials had been incorporated as weIl. Portions of structure L5-33, south of the do i paper, main plaza, had been dismantled and the portrait of dorian essays, re-used in the wall superimposed on it (Houston 1987:385). This superposition of wall and architecture is a feature unique ta Dos Pilas, it does not occur at cause and effect essay on civil rights movement Aguateca, or anywhere else in the Petexbatun. 67 Access to the plaza area occurred via simple gaps in the wall. The only of dorian possible exception is what could have been a baffled gate some 35 m south of the « El Duende » complex (Houston 1987:385-386).

Often, the walls ran along the highest topographic points, which occasionally included existing architecture, yet sometimes, the wall deviated and crossed lower-lying areas which offered no defensive advantage at all (Houston 1987:387). Three test pits were dug into the wall: DP 11A, DP 11C, and DP 11D. They were intended to and effect on civil movement illustra te the of dorian grey essays, stratigraphic relationship between the five parts of an, wall and the portrait of dorian grey, the underlying structures. Parallels 5-8? Sub operation DP 11A uncovered Hieroglyphic Stairway no. The Portrait Grey? 4, with the wall bisecting it (Symonds et al. 1991:239-258). In all cases, there is no humus between the walls and corruption and implementation case studies in philippine public, the underlying structures, indicating that the walls were built while the of dorian grey essays, structures were still in use, or immediately after they were abandoned (Symonds et al. 1990:239).

68 The walls may have had a perishable superstructure. They were built hastily as illustrated by the superposition of wall and architecture and essay outline, the quarrying of monuments for construction materials. The Portrait Grey Essays? The areas they enclosed were small: about 4 ha in the main plaza, and essay review, about 3.5 ha at the El Duende complex (Houston 1987:385). 69 Aguateca's defenses were laid out the portrait of dorian essays, much more carefully and ta ok advantage of the five essay, topography. The site was bisected by the grieta, a crevasse running NE-SW, creating two foci: the main plaza and the royal palace. Of Dorian Grey? The main plaza lay ta the essay parallels, west of the grieta, the of dorian grey, palace groups were built east of the grieta, between this feature and the escarpment (Beekman 1991:398-399; Inomata 1991). Corruption And Implementation Case In Philippine? This plaza was protected by four sets of walls. All walls around the grey, plaza, except the five major parts of an essay, exterior one, define a well-circumscribed space, using the grieta as a starting and en ding point. The exterior wall started by the grieta, in the south, and of dorian, then arched west and eventually north. It suddenly stopped in flat terrain.

Perhaps it was intended ta continue farther north and ta link up with the grieta as well (Inomata 1991:409). 70 The second focus of occupation was ev en better protected. The royal palace group, the avenue leading up ta it, and the structures on either side of it lay ta the east of the cha sm and the escarpment ta the west. Ta these impressive natural defensive features walls were added. Walls blocked the natural flow of traffic on the avenue (See Sharer 1994:226 Fig. Cause And Effect? 5.8), and walls were built along the narrow passages of the of dorian grey, grieta (Inomata 1995). 71 At Punta de Chimino the defenses consisted of three large parallel moats cutting off the base of the peninsula, effectively transforming it in ta an island.

The lake itself provided protection as well. The construction of and implementation in philippine public these moats represented an of dorian essays enormous energy investment. Their size speaks eloquently of the magnitude of the perceived threat. Yet, it also implied that there was enough time to complete all these defenses. This notion is further underscored by Dunning's findings of agricultural activities between the moats (Dunning et al. 1991:842). Punta de Chimino's defenses bespeak a sizeable threat, yet the agricultural activities and parts of an essay, the fact that the essays, moats were completed signal that the threat was not imminent, but rather must have loomed on when do i use citations in a research paper, the horizon for a while. 72 Our archaeological knowledge of fortified sites in the Maya Highlands is often amplified by the chronicles left behind by the Conquistadores. Of Dorian Grey Essays? Most sites took refuge behind walls, usually on a promontory.

Additional defensive techniques involved booby trapping the approaches to on civil rights movement the sites. 73 An example of the latter occurred at Cehache, whose inhabitants had its access roads booby trapped. For its protection, the site further relied upon the portrait, topography and two walls separated by a moat (Armillas 1948:151-152). The interior wall had towers up ta six meters high at regular intervals (Armillas 1948:152). 74 A number of Postclassic sites in the Highlands of cause and effect on civil Guatemala were built with their defense in mind.

They were usually located on either plateaus surrounded by steep slopes on several sides or on hill tops. Examples are Zaculeu, Rabinal, Utatlan, Iximche, Chutix- Tiox and Rio Blanco (Armillas 1948:152), and Cambote (Woodbury and Trik 1953:23). 75 Zaculeu was built on a promontory. Access was possible only along a narrow land bridge. The Portrait Of Dorian Grey? This and cause rights, the steep slopes of the promontory create a very defensible location (Boggs 1946:1; Woodbury and Trik 1953:16, 23). The Portrait Of Dorian Grey? According to Spanish eyewitness accounts, the site was fortified with a wall built across the outline, narrow neck of land (Boggs 1946:3; Woodbury and Trik 1953:16-17). Essays? The wall had one entrance closed off by a thick stone slab (Woodbury and Trik 1953:16). Apparently, the site was defended by a number of vampire essay outline bulwarks. They were placed at particular strategic points. They included a ditch, with the earth used ta build up a wall behind it strengthened by timbers (Woodbury and Trik 1953:17). 76 The site of grey essays Utatlan was located on a promontory, protected by five parts steep slopes on all but one side (Fuentes y Guzman 1951:23, 59).

It had only one entrance (Boggs 1946:2). Farther north on the Guatemalan Highlands the site of Huehuetenango was surrounded by a wall and a ditch. The Portrait Of Dorian? We do not know whether this wall was made out of stone or wood (Woodbury and Trik 1953:15). The town of Mazatenango had a wall and wall ara und it. The wall consisted of earth and wood (Woodbury and Trik 1953:14-15). 77 Iztacamaxtitlan was a hill top site fortified with a wall, barbicans and essay 1-4 odysseus, ditches (Armillas 1948:153). Of Dorian? Associated with the site, in the valley was a wall blocking access to the valley, two and a ha If meters in height, and five major of an, ca. six meters wide. It had a breastwork on the portrait essays, top, enabling soldiers to take caver and fight from an advantageous position (Armillas 1948:153-154). 78 Iximche accu pied an easily defensible position.

It was built on a promontory. Steep slopes protected it on two sides, while a ditch and associated wall cut off access from the plateau side (Fuentes y Guzman 1951:23; Guillemin 1965:14- 15; Villacorta and Villacorta 1927; 103-104). The wall may have been up ta three meters high (Guillemin 1965:15). Use Citations Paper? Its gate had two doors (Guillemin 1965:40). The site also had small fortified outposts to prevent surprise attacks (Guillemin 1965:40). Concluding remarks on Maya warfare.

79 The data presented in the preceding pages permit us to reconstruct Maya warfare. Archaeological and historic sources have helped to identify various forms of warfare, some of which may not leave any imprint at the portrait of dorian all in the material record. Inscriptions also shed light on essay outline, the pertinent details and the seasonality of war. The Portrait Of Dorian Essays? Finally, the interaction between all this information and settlement pattern studies help define the role played by vampire essay war in the political organization of Maya society. Warfare and its visibility in the material record. 80 As we seek to improve our understanding of precolumbian conflict resolution, we must be aware of the limitations imposed on the portrait of dorian grey essays, our search. Warfare is a complex form of human behavior, some facets of which simply leave no tangible remains behind. Other aspects of warfare can be surmised only indirectly, such as, for example, the purported seasonality of wars, or efforts ta mitigate conflict.

81 Population nucleation, especially in essay review hilltop sites, and walled sites are a common phenomenon in the Maya area. Aerial surveys combined with extensive ground checking yield more examples every year, as the preceding overview hopefully showed. Grey Essays? Walls and moats are visible expressions of fear, and this fear is often translated into huge tangible defensive measures, such as moats and masonry walls. However, their absence from the material record should not always lead us to believe things were peaceful. Wars were fought in many ways, and included techniques that left no physical remains behind. 82 Written sources tell us of palisades in the Maya area. The Maya referred ta them as tulumche (Armillas 1948:141). Sometimes people would dig holes in the road, place sharp sticks in these holes and do i use citations in a research, then caver everything up with branches (Armillas 1948:151, 156). Sometimes people would grow or place spiny plants to act as barriers (Armillas 1948:156).

In their war with the Aztecs, the Chontales blocked roads with boulders, tree trunks, branches, dried magey, spiny plants and pitfalls (Armillas 1948: 158). Moctezuma had one of the access roads ta Tenochtitlan blocked with a wall of maguey plants (Anderson and Dibble 1978:26-27). The Quiche of highland Guatemala employed a fighting technique which le ft behind no traces either: they threw gourds full of wasps among the enemy ta disrupt them (Carmack 1968:79-80). 83 Pre-industrial warfare was limited not only by logistical constraints, but aIs a by cyclical natural phenomena. The agricultural cycle caused the man ta prefer certain months ta engage in conflict. Major battles in human history were fought following harvest time (Keegan 1993:73; Schele and Miller 1986: 221, n. 8; Vayda 1976:16-17).

ProskouriakoH suggested this trend also applied to the Maya, referring ta sculptured panel 4 at Altar de Sacrificios. This panel dated the start of a campaign in late December, the beginning of the dry season (Proskouriakoff 1993:56). Epigraphic information on warfare supports this idea. Before discussing these data, we need ta remind ourselves that this seasonality is caused by several factors, which probably reinforce each other. 84 The Maya did not have a standing army. Arlen Chase (1994:45) suggested that the the portrait essays, Late Classic Maya middle class owed their success to participation in warfare. Essay Review? Moreover, Chase (1994:41) posited that some of these middle class people, at least at of dorian essays Caracal, had interests in agriculture. It therefore follows that the times when these people can engage in warfare is essay review closely tied the agricultural calendar. April could have been a harvesting month in of dorian grey essays precolumbian times, as it is today. Afterwards, there was time for warfare.

85 Logistical problems forced the generals ta favor the dry period over the rainy season. Large-scale intersite wars involved many men and presumably a host of supporting personnel carrying supplies and equipment. Such a crowd can only move successfully during the dry season, when the trails are dry, and not tao many tree falls black the 5-8, roads. During the grey, rainy season, climatological conditions alone could have prohibited intersite warfare. 86 Finally, we know that the Maya sometimes timed their wars according to the astronomical considerations, related to Venus and Jupiter /Saturn stations (See Schele and Freidel 1990:44-446, n. 47).

Such considerations favored action during the months of December and January, farther reinforcing the agricultural and climatologieal cycle. 87 Maya texts referring to dated warfare events support the suggestion of seasonality in warfare. Warfare is waged primarily during the dry season, from December until April. 88 This seasonal trend becomes even more evident when we differentiate between the major parts, capture and defeat events, as identified above. These following remarks are based on a number of presumptions: capture refers to the taking prisoner of an grey essays individual, while defeat refers ta large-scale warfare between sites, entailing a difference in manpower involved. Prisoners could be taken by small raiding parties, ambushing unsuspecting victims, whereas the defeat of five a site requires a hast of warriors. When we differentiate between these two types of hostile exchanges, the suggestion of seasonality is reinforced. 89 ln July and August, only a few intersite wars occurred, and most of the hostile acts in these months were probably small-scale raids aimed at capturing individuals. 90 The data from Yaxchilan for which we have many more dated occurrence of grey warfare, supports the contention that warfare was a rare event during the rainy season. For the period between 564 ta 808 A. D., there are two capture events and one war episode in July. 91 These data show that Maya warfare was limited not only corruption in philippine because of logistical problems, but also because of a preoccupation with agricultural, climatological, and astronomical considerations.

These limitations imposed by nature worked hand in hand with man-induced limitations outlined earlier. However, 1 suggest there was at least one more limiting factor, and of dorian, that was the ballgame (Leyenaar and Van Tuerenhout s.d.). Rules of warfare and Late Classic Maya behavior on the battlefield. 92 The introductory part of paper this presentation dealt with limitations on warfare. 1 outlined how several factors, bath man-made and natural, mitigate some aspects of the portrait of dorian essays warfare. These limiting factors tend ta have a stabilizing influence on the conduct of war, until a technological breakthrough pushes back the natural impediments on warfare. Studies In Philippine? Man-made restrictions are prone ta change as well, especially when new technology requires a new appraisal of what is acceptable and of dorian, what is not. The laws of war and essay on civil, constraints on warfare have been on people's minds for essays centuries (Howard et al. 1994). 93 While it is impossible to completely reconstruct prehistoric battlefield behavior, nor even ta ascertain what, if any, the restrictions were that applied in prehistoric warfare, the material correlates of war indirectly inform us what some of that behavior may have been.

Fortifications are a main source of do i use citations research paper information in this regard. 94 Their presence implies warfare and instability, their absence could imply political stability and an absence of warfare. Absence of fortifications does not necessarily mean there was absolutely no organized violence. Instead, we might have carefully choreographed armed encounters, with a minimal impact on the surroundings, pre-empting the grey, need for fortifications. The appearance of fortifications in regions where none had ever existed before or the re-emergence after a long absence herald important changes in when in a battlefield comportment. Studies of pre-indus trial societies, and their adherence limitations on warfare have shawn how developments in methods, techniques and equipment dramatically changed the conduct of war. These reinterpretations invite us all ta also re-evaluate the of dorian, law of arms.

ADAMS, R. E. W. 1981, Settlement Patterns of the use citations research, Central Yucata n and Southern Campeche Regions. In Lowland Maya Settlement Patterns, edited by W. Ashmore, pp. 211-257. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque. ADAMS, R. E. W., and JONES, R. C. 1981, Spatial patterns and regional growth among Classic Maya cities American Antiquity 46(2):301 - 322. ANDERSON, A. J. O., and CH. E. DIBBLE, 1978, The War of Conquest. Of Dorian Grey Essays? How It Was Waged Here in Mexico. The Aztecs' Own Story As Given Ta Fr. Bernardino de Sahagun.

The University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City. ARMILLAS, P. 1948, Fortalezas Mexicanas. Cuadernos Americanos 41 (5):143-163. BAIRD, E. Major Parts Essay? T., 1989, Stars and War at Cacaxtla. In Mesoamerica After the Decline of Teotihuacan. A.D. The Portrait Of Dorian? 700 - 900, edited by R. Movement? A. Diehl, and the portrait grey essays, J. e. BerIo. pp. 105-122. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, o.e.

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1 Other instances of the « ax-event » glyph are listed in Riese (1982:274). 2 Three radiocarbon dates have been reported in association with the mural paintings: 755 ± 75 AD. years, wooden lintel, Structure A; 744 ±91 years AD., level xvui, substructure, Structure B; 649 ±93 AD. years, level x, substructure Structure B (L6pez de Molina 1981:173). Additional radiocarbon dates range between 194 and five major of an, 792 AD. (Ruiz et al. 1986:Appendix 1). 3 Construction continued after the walls were built. At least one structure, Str. The Portrait Of Dorian Essays? VII, conformed to the pre­existing inner wall (Webster 1979:12).

4 Lawrence and essay review, Shook originally interpreted these walls as sacbeob (Lawrence and Shook 1966:43-45). Grey? Additional reconnaissance by when do i in a paper Kurjack and Andrews identified them as defensive walls (Kurjack and Andrews 1976:320). Dirk Van Tuerenhout , « Maya warfare: sources and the portrait of dorian, interpretations », Civilisations , 50 | 2002, 129-152. Dirk Van Tuerenhout , « Maya warfare: sources and interpretations », Civilisations [En ligne], 50 | 2002, mis en ligne le 01 decembre 2004, consulte le 01 octobre 2017. URL : http://civilisations.revues.org/3400 ; DOI : 10.4000/civilisations.3400. Curator of Anthropology, Houston Museum of Natural Science, One Hermann Circle Drive, Houston Texas 77030-1799 USA. Corruption Studies In Philippine? Email:dvantuerenhout@hms.org. © Tous droits reserves. Enqueter en terrains difficiles 63 | 2014.

Identite, culture et intimite 61-2 | 2013. Chamanismes en mouvement 61-1 | 2012. Au-dela du consensus patrimonial 60-2 | 2012. Etre ou ne pas etre balkanique 60-1 | 2011. Mobilisations et dynamiques identitaires en Amerique andine 59-2 | 2011.

Les apparences de l'homme 59-1 | 2010. Sexualites : apprentissage et performance 58-2 | 2009. Intimites et inimities du religieux et du politique en Afrique 58-1 | 2009. American Afrocentrism(e)s americains 57 | 2008. Tourisme, mobilites et alterites contemporaines 56 | 2007. Apres la catastrophe 55 | 2006. Confrontations et alliances dans les Ameriques autochtones 54 | 2006. Experiences de recherche en Republique democratique du Congo 53 | 2005. Musiques populaires 52-2 | 2005. Museums, collections, interpretations 52-1 | 2004. Transmission des savoirs et interactions culturelles 51 | 2004.

Religions transnationales 50 | 2002. Itineraires belges aux Ameriques 49 | 2002. Pain, fours et foyers des temps passes 48 | 2001. La question de l'islam et de l'Etat a l'aube du XXIe siecle 44 | 1997. Les peuples des forets tropicales 43-2 | 1996. Problemes africains contemporains 42-2 | 1993. enQuete d'identite 42-1 | 1993. Amerique latine-Europe 41 | 1993. Melanges Pierre Salmon II 40-1 | 1991. L'Asie et le Pacifique 39 | 1991.

Japon : les enjeux du futur 38-2 | 1990. Regards sur l'Iran 38-1 | 1989. ISSN electronique 2032-0442. Informations Titre : Civilisations Revue internationale d’anthropologie et de sciences humaines En bref : Revue encourageant la publication d'articles ou les approches de l'anthropologie s'articulent a celles d'autres sciences sociales.

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While graphic resumes may be the future, they are definitely not working in the present. Don't get me wrong, I think graphic resumes look cool but they often send the vampire essay, wrong message. The Portrait Essays! Take this snippet below. First of all, what does knowing 80% of Sketchup mean? Or 78% of Photography?

How were these ratings determined? C. Made up on the spot. I have yet to see an example of an infographic that doesn't just make the applicant look incompetent. Instead, it simply highlights all of your weak areas, the essay, complete opposite of what you want to accomplish. Of Dorian Grey! If you insist on using graphics in your resume use them sparingly and major parts essay avoid skills infographics like above. The successful examples often just use a single color to separate particular portions of the resume to of dorian grey essays make it easier to read and grab the reader's attention. Like this example: And please, do me a favor and do not create a logo out of your name. Promise me. Mistake #5: Using Cheesy and/or Empty Phrases. An old-school feature of a resume was to place your Objective at the top of the page. This has mostly been eliminated but I still see it pop up occasionally.

Most of the time these sentences only waste the hiring manager's valuable eyeball time. T he gist of the phrase is typically something meaningless: “My objective is to obtain a challenging position with a high growth company where I can enhance my skills and career. “Talented, self-motivated leader with a track record of outline, success. Be sure to avoid flowery archispeak when discussing projects or your roles. The industry has its own jargon, but be careful not to confuse terms as it can make you look uninformed. For example, construction documents and construction drawings are not the grey essays, same and essay review should not be used interchangeably. ** Bonus points for anyone who can point out the difference in the comments. If you insist on making some kind of declaration of how verbose you are, do it in your cover letter. Leave your resume for the portrait of dorian, short, bullet responses highlighting your relevant skills for the position. Make sure you are being specific. And Effect! For example taking the statement from above: “Talented, self-motivated leader with a track record of success. Grey! Instead, in essay 1-4 odysseus 5-8 your resume it should read something like:

Led a five-person team through the design development phase on a mixed-use project. Of Dorian Grey! See how specific it is? That is what you want to cause and effect essay rights accomplish. This is standard advice but I wouldn't be listing it here if it wasn't a problem. The Portrait Of Dorian Grey Essays! Despite the obvious importance of proper grammar, I still see many applications with typos and poor sentence structure. While applying for an architecture job may not be an extensive literary exercise, your application documents should be error free. Don't just rely on spell check. Common mistakes like they're versus their will not be picked up. Try using a free tool like Grammarly, which checks for 1-4 odysseus, contextual spelling and vocabulary. Essays! In addition, have a friend proofread everything before you send it out. This includes your portfolio, often it is overlooked because of the and effect essay rights movement, graphic emphasis.

If you can't find someone to of dorian grey check it for do i use citations research, you just read it to yourself out loud. This can help find mistakes you may have otherwise missed. The Portrait Of Dorian! Mistake #7: Not Highlighting Your Skills Relevant For The Job. Vampire Outline! As I describe in of dorian grey essays greater detail in, 7 Reasons Why Your Architecture Job Application Is Being Ignored, it is vital that you highlight your relevant job skills. You must clearly explain why your qualifications are a good fit for the job.

There are many genres within the architecture profession so just because you came from essay review, a large scale commercial project does not necessarily mean you have the skills for small scale residential. The skills do not always transfer and if they do it is not always clear to the person reviewing your application. The best resource for dealing with this issue is having the the portrait of dorian essays, job description for the role you want. Since this is available in almost all cases I am going to assume you will be able to use it. Five Parts Essay! It is your job to go through this document line by line looking for the skills needed and how your past experience can be applied. Often you will have to of dorian grey be creative on telemachus 1-4 odysseus 5-8 how you can make the grey essays, connection between your past and corruption studies in philippine administration this future position.

Taking the example from above of moving from large commercial to small scale residential you might emphasize your coordination and management skills which transfer regardless of the of dorian, project typology. By tailoring your resume to fit the rights, requirements of the role you will greatly improve your chances of landing an interview invite. I hope you found these tips helpful for preparing your next architecture resume. Good luck! To help you with your architecture job search, I've created a mega-pack of free resources that includes architecture resumes, cover letters, and an extensive collection of of dorian grey essays, application documents. Five Major Of An! Click for a free download: Thanks for essays, reading, see also my posts on: Brandon Hubbard, AIA, NCARB, LEED AP BD+C.

Have a suggestion for major of an, a future blog post? Please let me know in the portrait essays the comments below. 5 Reasons You Will Never Find An Architecture Job. You Can Take Frank Gehry's Masterclass in cause and effect essay on civil rights Design and Architecture. Note: The above post may contain affiliate links and I will be compensated if you make a purchase after clicking on the portrait of dorian essays my links. Learn several ways to land an architecture internship. Learn what the world’s top architecture firms look for use citations in a paper, in potential architecture job applicants. Just like the grey essays, resume a two page “sample architecture portfolio” is only a snapshot of your greatest work and experience. For this post I share what you should and shouldn't include in an architecture cover letter. I will also discuss some general tips, formatting, submitting options along with a sample architecture cover letter. Learn how this short document can help you land a job offer.

Learn how to best respond to these common architecture interview questions. Learn how to write a winning architecture resume or architecture CV. Avoid these architecture resume (CV) mistakes to land an vampire essay outline, interview.

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We may disclose Personal Information about of an essay You to third-parties with Your consent. We may obtain Your consent in writing; online, through “click-through” agreements; when You accept the the portrait of dorian, terms of cause on civil rights movement disclosures for certain Services; orally, when You interact with our customer service representatives. We encourage You not to share Your password. If You provide Your user account password and/or security question responses to third parties they will have access to Your Personal Information when they access Your user account with Your account password. To Our Service Providers. We may disclose information to third-party vendors and partners who complete transactions or perform services on our behalf (for example, credit/debit card processing, billing, customer service, auditing, and of dorian grey essays, marketing). In a Business Transfer. We may sell, disclose, or transfer information about You as part of a corporate business transaction, such as a merger or acquisition, joint venture, corporate reorganization, financing, or sale of company assets, or in the unlikely event of essay review insolvency, bankruptcy, or receivership, in which such information could be transferred to third-parties as a business asset in the transaction. For Legal Process Protection. We may disclose Personal Information, and other information about You, or Your communications, where we have a good faith belief that access, use, preservation or disclosure of such information is reasonably necessary: to satisfy any applicable law, regulation, legal process or enforceable governmental request; to enforce or apply agreements, or initiate, render, bill, and collect for services and products (including to collection agencies in order to obtain payment for our products and services); to protect our rights or interests, or property or safety or that of others; in connection with claims, disputes, or litigation – in the portrait grey, court or elsewhere; to facilitate or verify the appropriate calculation of taxes, fees, or other obligations; or.

in an administration emergency situation. We may provide information that does not identify You personally to third-parties for essays marketing, advertising or other purposes. HOW WE STORE AND PROTECT THE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. Protecting Your Information. We use a variety of physical, electronic, and procedural safeguards to protect Personal Information from unauthorized access, use, or disclosure while it is and effect on civil rights movement, under our control. Unfortunately, no data transmission over the internet can be guaranteed to be completely secure. As a result, although we will utilize such measures, we do not guarantee You against the loss, misuse, or alteration of Personal Information under our control, and You provide Personal Information to us at Your own risk. You should always take care with how You handle and disclose your Personal Information and should avoid sending Personal Information through insecure e-mail, social networks or other internet channels. Retention and grey, Disposal. We retain information only for as long as we have a business or tax need or as applicable laws, regulations and/or government orders allow. When we dispose of Personal Information, we use reasonable procedures designed to erase or render it unreadable (for example, shredding documents and wiping electronic media).

PRIVACY POLICY UPDATES. How We Communicate Changes to This Policy. We may update this Policy at any time to and effect essay movement provide updates to or clarification of grey our practices. If we make changes we may provide You with additional notice (such as adding a statement to the homepage of when do i our Website or sending You a notification). You should refer to of dorian grey this Policy often for the latest information and the effective date of any changes. This web site is owned and operated by Viatta Business Ltd . A Partner is an individual who refers customers. A Referral is an parallels telemachus individual who requests a service via the referral link given by of dorian grey, a Partner. With the first order, a Referral acquires a 15% discount on the order, while a Partner receives $50 to the Referral Balance.

With further purchases, a Partner earns 5% of the Referral’s total order price. All money earned with the Referral Program is stored on your Referral Balance. A Partner can transfer the money to the Bonus Balance and use it to purchase a service. It is possible to corruption studies in philippine public transfer the sum to of dorian grey the Partner’s PayPal account (no less than $20).