Essay college application motivation
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Motivation letter and motivation essays: college applications
away' essays/2007 Note the thinking here: Problems are caused by people who don't do their job well, so finding someone to blame is the application, first step to correcting problems. Scholtes notes: The era of management that began in the mid-1800's can be characterized as management by services, results.. Since managers could no longer do the work themselves or direct others in the doing of the work, managers exercised their authority by holding people accountable for motivation, results. In the custom essays services, 1950's, management by essay college application, results reached its epitome in MBO (Management By Objectives) and performance appraisals, the characterization, Harvardization of train-wreck management. He goes on to say that at the time, this theory of management was the best available, and it succeeded in creating order out of chaos. People like Whistler, McCallum, Frederick Taylor or Henry Ford in the United States or Darby, the Stephensons, or Brunel in application motivation, England were pioneers. they did their best and, by and large, what they did was very good. Agile software development places a strong emphasis on putting change into the hands of front-line people on self-directed teams - isn't this contrary to Deming's philosophy? Writing in 1995, Scholtes lists what he calls fads for addressing systemic problems: empower people, put them into self-directed teams, motivate them, offer incentives, reengineer and reinvent them. And then he says: All of the empowered, motivated, teamed-up, self-directed, incentivized, accountable, reengineered, and reinvented people you can muster cannot compensate for a dysfunctional system. A well-run organization with well-functioning systems allows people from characterization essay top to application bottom do work of which they can be proud. So where does this leave us? Which is more important - process or people? Let's go back to the source of the abolition essay, Toyota Production System, Taiichi Ohno, and see what he had to say about process - how it is established and how it is changed.
Process AND People. Ohno believed that the primary job of team leaders (first line supervisors) is the constant improvement of the way work gets done. Work standards should be written and posted, but this had better not take very long because the standards should change all the time - at least once a month. Essay College Motivation! Standards are not about abolition thesis how work should be done, but how work is being done. You don't want the standard to essay college application be too perfect, because that leaves no incentive for characterization essay, workers to improve their standards. If workers are annoyed by a standard, they are expected to change it. They do not drop a suggestion in a suggestion box, they do kaizen. That is, workers - led by their team leader - do many rapid experiments, find a better way, agree on the improvement, quickly document the college motivation, new way, and use it.
When a standard is improved, the decision for the change must be made by services, the people doing the work, so they won't feel it is being forced upon them. Scholtes takes process improvement assessment programs such as ISO 9000 to task because even though they seem good on application the surface, they have some problems: The pursuit of quality must be guided by a larger context than certification - it requires a holistic, integrated, long term commitment. Certification is not equal to satisfied customers - you can do the wrong thing as long as you do it consistently. Assessment has a tone of paternalism and mistrust - it replaces internal motivation with external motivation. Assessment assumes that inspectors are all the dependency, same - but inspections are not standardized. A certified process is difficult to college application motivation change - Ohno would be appalled. When Deming said change the best college service, system, he was talking about essay college application changing the complex, interrelated processes used to get work done. Deming believed that changing the system is strong dependency thesis management's primary job, and in essay college motivation, order to do this, managers need competency in four areas: Appreciation for the overall system in which work is done An understanding of writers variation - and the true relationship between cause and effect Constant pursuit of learning (improvement) through designed experiments An understanding of the psychology of people When all of these areas are balanced and working together, great things can happen. Bringing Lean to Software Development.
Imagine that you are responsible for driving a truck across America, along highways, through cities and around detours, dealing with whatever idiosyncrasies that weather and traffic might throw at you. Now imagine that your job is not to drive the truck, but program a computer to drive the truck for you. How would you go about this task? Unfortunately, it has been conventional wisdom in software development to separate design from essay college coding, coding from testing, and software from the system it supports. This gives us development processes that ignore the essay thesis, learning loops necessary to essay discover the logic of a complex system, create concrete representations of the essay about yourself, system, make sure that these work together, and over time, grow a system that becomes capable of accomplishing the complete job. In software development, we have been asked to motivation solve too many truck-driving problems. And when it turns out trusting yourself that we have been handed an impossible problem, it#8217;s usually the developers not the process or the scale of the problem that are held responsible for the failure. Essay Application Motivation! For those who look upon Lean as a set of operational practices, it doesn#8217;t make sense to apply Lean to software development. College Writing Service! Inventory, motion, variation, overproduction the wastes of an operational process don#8217;t translate easily to essay application motivation the job of creating the brains of a system and essay thesis, making it smarter it over time. In fact, software development has long been plagued by inappropriate comparisons with other fields.
Too often, analogies are created by someone who has only application motivation a passing acquaintance with a field. For example, someone who knows little about construction might say: #8220;Buildings are completely designed before construction starts if it works for buildings, why can#8217;t it work for software?#8221; I once discussed this analogy with a group of dependency construction superintendants, who just about laughed me out of the motivation, room. They live in a world of incomplete and conflicting drawings, master schedules that bear no resemblance to reality, owners who regularly change their minds, and the constant threat of essay about yourself lawsuits. I didn#8217;t run into the term #8220;waterfall#8221; until 1999, and when I learned what it meant, I did not understand how it could possibly work. Therefore I was not surprised to discover that #8220;waterfall#8221; processes really don#8217;t work what surprised me was the fact that conventional wisdom held that they should work. I decided that the application motivation, time had come for a paradigm shift in software development, similar to the paradigm shift that manufacturing experienced during the 1980#8217;s and early 90#8217;s. The core problem in software development can be boiled down to the intense pressure for a #8220;plan#8221; that lays out about trusting what the software will be able to essay application motivation do, how long it will take, and strong, what it will cost and essay, the subsequent expectation that development will follow this #8220;plan#8221;. The problem is magnified when the software is expected to be developed independently from the system for which the software will supply the brains. Why is planning a problem? Isn#8217;t a plan essential?
As Dwight Eisenhower once said: planning is indispensable, but plans are useless. Embedded in every development #8220;plan#8221; is essay a forecast a guess really of what will happen in the future. Plans that separate the logic of a system from the application motivation, system itself are based on an additional layer of essay about trusting yourself guessing ahem forecasting. If we base the college, development of a complex system on forecasts, we are doing forecast-driven development. If we develop and deploy small useful feature sets and get them working incrementally, then we are doing feedback-driven development. For simple systems, either approach will work. For large, complex or evolving systems, the only feasible approach is feedback-driven development. References and Notes. Licklider, L.C.R. (1960). Man-Computer Symbiosis IRE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics, v.HFE-1. p.4-11.
How Does Toyota Do it? (Book Review) The Art of best writing Ingenuity. The pressure to innovate falls on the individual every single individual in the company. First, ingenuity means connecting with your work, whatever it is, understanding why it is important, and college motivation, making sure that it is a good fit with your skills and interests. If it isn#8217;t create a job that is. Second, ingenuity means constantly experimenting to figure out how to do that job better. Third and most important, everybody is expected to use their ingenuity everybody all of the time. The Pursuit of dissertation Perfection . There is college motivation no such thing as perfection but aspiring to achieve perfection is nevertheless the goal. A good example of this principle can be found in the Fast Company article No Satisfaction at Toyota, an article about constant innovation at the Georgetown Kentucky factory.
Read the article, it does a fantastic job at explaining the pursuit of perfection. The Rhythm of Fit . Innovation is always obvious after the fact. But discovering the obvious is not such an easy task. It requires that you are grounded in today, yet have a clear vision of tomorrow. It requires systems thinking, rather than program thinking. And it requires the right social context one that inspires rather than suppresses creativity. Essay! Practices: Let Learning Lead . Real learning is not about application motivation books or lectures or workshops.
It is about constantly trying things and finding out what works. Thesis! Learning involves asking the right questions much more than finding the right answers. Learning means moving the Scientific Method from PhD programs in Universities to the shop floor and essay application motivation, the knowledge worker. Learning comes first. Learn to See. Walk in the shoes of the front line worker. Live the life of the customer. Data is essay important, but it#8217;s interpretation that converts data into information. Learn to walk around and essay college application motivation, observe what is really happening. Watch your customer, become your customer, involve your customer. Design for Today . As good as Toyota is at anticipating the future, their innovations are always grounded in clear and present needs demographic shifts, energy shortages, safety concerns.
The idea is, as hockey great Wayne Gretzky once said: #8220;Skate to best service where the application motivation, puck is going to be, not where it has been.#8221; Market leaders don#8217;t so much create markets as they understand where the market is going to go, and skate there. Think in Pictures. Capture the Intangible . The most compelling solutions are often perceptual and college service, emotional.#8221; May says. For example, when the Lexus team was designing the car, the entire team spend three months living in luxury in southern California, just to feel what their customers felt. They learned that luxury cars were not transportation, they were a safe sanctuary and quiet escape.
Provide an #8216;experience#8217; instead of a #8216;product#8217;. Leverage the Limits. This chapter centers on a wonderful story about Toyota#8217;s North American Parts Operations (NAPO) stretch goals. In the year 2000, Jane Beseda, newly appointed vice president and essay, general manager, challenged NAPO with ten audacious and mutually competing goals, including inventory reduction, response time reduction, and waste reduction. The goals were such that they could only be achieved by departments working together across what had been organizational boundaries, and the results were nothing short of amazing. Master the Tension. Writing! A McKinsey study on global productivity in the late 1990#8217;s found that the companies which improved productivity the most were invariably companies in highly competitive industries. These companies had to essay application motivation find a better way of doing things it was a matter of survival but could not afford to trusting yourself throw money at essay college application motivation the problem. We agree with May constraints coupled with challenge provide the best college writing service, breeding ground for innovation.
Run the Numbers .There is essay motivation a place for instinct, but temper it with facts. Custom Essays! Think hard about what the important numbers are and they are often not the obvious ones. Essay Motivation! With insight into strong dependency thesis what numbers are important, capturing and analyzing data will confirm instinct (or not) and motivation, uncover patterns that are otherwise invisible. Make Kaizen Mandatory. Best College Service! Standards exist to be challenged and essay, changed. Essay! They are the current best-known way of doing things, and they are documented and followed by everyone.
But they objective is to change the standard, to keep on improving the way things are done. Taiichi Ohno once said #8220;Something is wrong if workers do not look around each day, find things that are tedious or boring, and then rewrite the procedures. Even last month#8217;s manual should be out of date.#8221; Keep it Lean. Scale it back, keep it simple, make it flawless, let it flow. May notes #8220;We are hardwired to hunt, gather, and horde. To think more. So lean runs counter to human nature. Getting lean requires fighting the basic instinct to add, accumulate, store. College! Lean requires a precise understanding of value: the who, what, when, where, how, and why of the college writing, customer#8217;s need. It means getting that value to them without complexity creeping in. Get this book.
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resume playback Resume Media has evolved into a collection of features that might. appeal to college motivation, users who have libraries of best college, video and audio files. Designed in Windows. Essay Motivation? Mostly works in Linux.
Not yet in OSX. Resume Media displays the essay yourself saved positions of all media as well as a. bookmark where last played in college each table. Essay About? Media segments can be. defined without editing your file allowing you to watch or listen. to your favorite parts. Media can be automatically added or removed. from a table when the media stops or finishes. College? Old-style tv video. ratios can be adjusted without going to the VLC menu each time. There are fun settings to sample media for a number of seconds or.
play at different speeds. And more. album. The resume feature then allows you to play and stop and. quickly resume whichever entries interest you at about, the time until you. have finally completed the college motivation list. Sort the list to thesis, see which entries. you have started. chapters. Essay Application? Never lose your place. Adjust 'rewind' time to your liking.
to help re-sync your memory with the story. Adjust 'playback speed' to speed up (or slow down) that over-acting narrator or to save time. Then go to best college writing, the segments list to play whichever highlights that. friends and relatives are leaning over your shoulder to see. You can also tag the individual titles in a single file album. a table. Then, when you are ready, move one entry to VLC, expand it, and import the college application media list back to abolition essay, a different table for execution. The playing media is bookmarked with an '*' symbol. When finished, the bookmark advances to the next unfinished media. If all media finished, the bookmark increments to essay motivation, the next media.
There's a convenient button to play the bookmark where you left off. Play unfinished or whole table with options to randomize and loop. * Designed in Windows. Mostly works in Linux. College Writing Service? Does not work in OSX.
See Mac Attack and Licking Linux near the end of the description. * If this version is not available in the VLC Addons Manager, you can. install it manually from essay college this Addons site. Open zip file, copy the lua. file to C:Users%UserName%AppDataRoamingvlcluaextensions. or %homedir%/.local/share/vlc/lua/extensions/ for Linux (unhide .local)
Create ..luaextensions directory if necessary. Delete old versions. When installed, restart VLC and check 'Resume Media' in View menu. (Extensions must be checked each time VLC is opened. It's OK. ) * A Command prompt window will flash in Windows the first time only. to create the essay data directory ..vlcVLC Resume Media. Note: The [play/options] menu changes while VLC playlist is playing. * If the VLC playlist is stopped (not playing), then you can click. [play/options] [add VLC] to add the VLC playlist to current table. * If the VLC playlist is playing (or paused), then you can click.
[play/options] [position] to application, add the playing media to the table. * There's a setting to allow automatic new entries when media stops. * Click [play/options] [settings] to access the settings table. * There is a media-just-started tolerance of 60 seconds, so you have. 60 seconds to sample media without saving the characterization essay stop position. * When resuming, position will rewind 5 seconds from college saved position. * Settings 'media-just-started' and writing service, 'rewind' are adjustable. * In the event there are identical media names in the VLC playlist, Resume Media assumes they are truly identical (same media file). * Operations are performed on current table.
Switching tables while. media playing may cause stop position to be updated in the new table. * Marking a table with '*' will remove media from table when finished. * The number of tables is adjustable from 1 to 50 tables. * Higher tables are not deleted when the number of tables is lowered.
* To delete a table datafile, remove all contents and remove mark '*'. * Combining tables saves the highest position of duplicate entries. * When sorting by time, 'Finished' media will always be at the bottom. * You can set media saved positions to application motivation, 'hh:mm:ss' or to 'Finished'. * 'Finished' media will not update position unless reset to 'hh:mm:ss'. * 'Finished' media will remain in strong any table when replayed to essay college motivation, the end. * You can backup your tables if needed by copying the strong dependency thesis data directory. (In the data directory, the table # in essay college each file is the file # plus 1) * If you open Resume Media while a media is cheap uk, playing, the college next stop. event will be undetectable. Stop and restart media to cheap dissertation writers uk, allow detection. or click [play/options] to manually save the position without stopping.
useful for making convenient tables of playlists. Note that the saved. position and college motivation, bookmark are meaningless for essays these files and do not. respond as expected. two instances of VLC must switch to different tables so that the. instances do not overwrite each other's tables. changes and need to restore a table, then go to [settings] and enter: restore t1 | restore t1 t2 | restore all , where.
t1 = table to restore, t2 = alternate destination, all = all tables. There are three Key=Value parameters which can be set for each. media in motivation any table. The two picture keys are described in cheap dissertation writers the Picture. section following this and apply to video only. The third key is: A reasonable range for % is application motivation, 25 to 300 and the default is about trusting yourself, RMP=100. The motivation for essay college application motivation adding the speed key is to allow up or down tuning. of an instrumental audio to sync it with a live instrument performance. (See Pitch setting in the Fun Settings section further down.) * If the strong thesis Playback Speed setting in the Settings table is essay application, set to other. than 100 (also see Fun Settings) then that speed setting overrides the.
individual RMP speed keys for each media. * Go to custom essays, the Resume Media Settings and allow application of keys. * While a media is essay application, playing (or paused), go to: [play/options] [keys] to set the best service keys for media in the current table. * Spaces are not allowed in Key=Value. * To delete a key, enter Key= (no value) or remove Key= altogether. * To delete all keys, clear the college application motivation input line. * There is one level of [undo], then [cancel] will reset the keys to. the values before [keys] was pressed. * There is a Keys setting in the Settings table which is 1, 2 or 3: 1= Do not apply keys (existing keys are preserved in the tables) 2= Apply keys.
Also, when in the [keys] input screen, corresponding. keys which have been placed in the playing media's metadata (explained. further down) will be read from the best service metadata and placed in the input. box to essay, allow easy manual entry of the dependency thesis key values into the table. 3= Apply keys.
Also, corresponding keys which have been placed in. the playing media's metadata will be read from the metadata and. automatically entered into the table for that media. Note: It may take several plays to college application, successfully read the metadata. You can place keys (ex. Best College? RMP=102) in a media file's metadata comments. section to save the keys with the essay college media file when not in a table. * Changing metadata is easier in Windows.
Go to Properties Details Comments. If you select a group of essay, similar files, you can change them. all at once. Remove write-protection first. * When in the [keys] or [segments] screen, you can enter getallkeys in the input line to retrieve all keys (including segment keys) into. the input line for easy transfer to a file's metadata comments section.
* Segments are also keys, but their structure is normally hidden. Be careful when including segment keys in the metadata, since they can. be long. The limit using Windows properties is. (Be careful changing metadata using VLC. I have seen media corrupted.) I might generalize to allow any vlcrc parameter to be used as a key. Let me know if you want a particular VLC parameter added to application motivation, the. keys to allow individual media adjustment and I will check it out. Parameters differ in success when applied by lua extensions.
Users with videos or tv recordings that need picture adjustment might. be tired of manually adjusting the picture in VLC each time they play. There are Resume Media keys to adjust aspect-ratio and crop values. automatically while a video is essay trusting yourself, playing. * Picture keys are RMA=nn:mm and RMC=nn:mm where nn:mm are ratios. (Ex. RMA=16:11 might make a boxy tv video aspect-ratio more appealing.) * See the Keys section above to application motivation, enter keys into the table. * For technical reasons, application of picture keys is prompts, limited to. single selection plays initiated from any one of the Resume Media play.
options. Multiple selections will play normally. Since videos are. usually long, playing one at a time should not be an issue. Segmenting of media allows you to set start and college application motivation, stop times and name. the segments for any media (usually video, but audio also).
Resume. Media will play the segments while ignoring the other parts. * Go to the Resume Media Settings and dependency thesis, allow segmenting of media. * Play any media in the current Resume Media table. (Pausing is ok, since a paused media is essay motivation, still considered to be 'playing'.) * Now click [play/options] [segments] to strong dependency thesis, prepare to edit segments. * Click [get] without selection to college motivation, add media position to the input box. With a selection, [get] will load existing segment into the input box. * Segment elements are [start stop name]. Best College Service? Get a start and stop time, add an optional name, click [save].
Save order is based on start time. - The start/stop times will be switched if they are out of order. - Type 'end' instead of a time to college application motivation, indicate play to end of media. - The segment name cannot contain parentheses, ( or ). * You can [delete] unwanted segments. * Segment play is limited to single plays initiated from Resume Media. Multiple selections will play normally without segments. * Setting mousewheel to position control in VLC Hotkey Preferences. can make locating start and stop times more convenient. * There is writers uk, a Resume Media setting to set the VLC Fullscreen setting. Use this to essay college, keep segment play in a window or fullscreen.
An alternate. Fullscreen setting in the VLC Video Menu lasts for dissertation writers one VLC session. * For consistent window viewing, you might want to consider unchecking. 'Resize Interface to essay application motivation, Video size' in VLC Interface Preferences. * By default, the media name will show on a video at the beginning of. each segment. There is a VLC Video Preference setting to turn that off. attempt is made to best college service, make the segments behave like a single file. The. segments will play in order and then the media will be marked finished. The media can be stopped and resumed in any segment.
You can click. later in the time line and Resume Media will play the segment closest. to the time clicked. Clicking past the last segment will finish media. If [^loopv] selected in [play More] then the segments will loop. so the media will just play from there until it hits the end time of. the segment it was playing.
Resume Media can detect When you click. past the application motivation segment end time and thereby decide what should be done next. Clicking Play in VLC instead of Resume Media will not play segments. If you highlight some segments, then when the current segment ends, Resume Media will loop the best college highlighted segments. This allows you to.
dynamically choose which segments will play. Also, clicking later in. the time line (past the segment end) will play the next highlighted. segment instead of the one closest to essay college motivation, the time clicked, thus allowing. you to dependency, jump through the highlighted segments. Essay Application? When there are no. highlights or you exit from the about trusting yourself segment list, segments play normally. Be careful not to click [delete] when segments are highlighted. * Run time lets you sample all media for essay a set number of seconds. * Start time lets you start further into the media. A saved position.
will override this value. * Playback speed lets you, say, listen to custom services, an audio book faster or. have fun with a video, etc. * Pitch setting allows the audio pitch to vary or be unaffected when. playback speed is varied. Allows tuning of instrumental audio media. * Loop setting allows automatic looping when playing from Resume Media. that one song or piano piece out of essay college motivation, a 100 you are looking for.
(Use saved positions combined with Run time for best college writing service deep sampling.) I have not had access to essay application, a Mac for a while now. Mac users who want to. experiment to get Resume Media working on OSX can try the essays following: Set allowosx = true near top of motivation, lua file for Resume Media to best writing, run. For tinkerers only. Don't get mad at anyone. Back up your lua file. Go down to osx_display() function and tinker with display settings. There is some additional explanation of the display issues there. When (if) the display works, I will check the essay motivation rest of the functions.
*** constructive comments are welcome *** The dialog window starts out essay trusting yourself, large and gets longer with each operation. the VLC developers, and accepted. There hasn't been any movement on. fixing this issue since 4/27. The VLC team needs programmers to help.
to make Resume Media for OSX possible. Everything seems to work properly in application Linus except segmenting. I will work to fix this issue. Please let me know if there are. other repeatable issues that you would like me to address.
Thanks. If you like this program, please put your mouse cursor on dependency thesis, the 'Score' at the top and click the plus sign when it appears. Thanks!! Last changelog: 2015-09-24 V3.40 61675. Detect XP in addition to later Windows. Setting to show/hide playlist control buttons in Resume Media. Setting to always loop selections played from essay college application motivation Resume Media.
Setting for constant/variable audio pitch when playback speed changed. Added key to allow individual media playback speeds. 2015-07-14 V3.38 58343. Fix button-click function re-entry issue for uk Linux. 2015-07-10 V3.37 58099. Now also works in essay Linux for services the most part. Table data moved to college, VLC Resume Media directory in the vlc directory. Tables backed up before a session and restorable during the session.
2015-07-01 V3.36 57668. Correct media finished flag in segment play. 2015-06-30 V3.35 57615. Correct looping issue in custom services segment play. 2015-06-30 V3.34 57605. Correct 'run-time' setting behavior. Segment play order now correct if segments should happen to overlap. 2015-06-18 V3.33 56938. Segments can be dynamically selected for college play in the segments list. 2015-06-12 V3.32 56608. Improve some behaviors.
2015-05-31 V3.31 56015. Correct label in table view. 2015-05-31 V3.30 56000. Reverse default table behavior to not automatically add/delete media. Settings can be changed as needed to essay about trusting, automate add/delete behavior. 2015-05-28 V3.30 beta1 55803. Introduction of media segmenting. 2015-05-27 V3.23 55668. Correct picture key handling when table order changes.
2015-04-13 V3.22 50813. Use the input box to set picture keys, saved positions and college application motivation, settings. Change to picture-adjust keys only strong dependency thesis allowed when video playing. Setting to suppress automatic new table entry when media stops. 2015-03-24 V3.21 47979. Playback speed can now be set without restarting VLC. 2015-03-17 V3.20 46639. New settings for start time, run time and college motivation, playback speed
Correct picture adjustment settings altered in custom essays services V3.10. New setting to close or hide Resume Media when 'X' clicked. Eliminate one second delay between button clicks. Settings table now has its own button in application the [play] menu. Allow copy as well as move when combining tables. Improve a few behaviors. Display and best college service, adjust picture keys for college application motivation the whole table. A manual update will now also update 'Finished' media. Setting to show bookmarked table entries in list of tables. Advance bookmark when bookmarked media set to 'Finished'.
Setting to allow manual or automatic picture adjustment. Version 3 with simpler handshaking with VLC. Bookmark feature added to keep track where last played. Play Bookmark/Unfinished/Table/Selection with Random/Loop options. Revert to version 2.40 due to unresolved issue in best college version 3. V2 main menu and other buttons improved. Bookmark and autoplay features added. Table can be randomized manually or in autoplay. Main menu and other buttons improved. If media is essay college application, playing, clicking [import/play] will now do a manual.
update of the playing position without stopping the media. Improved text-reading economy using patterns. Cosmetic changes only. Modified a few labels. Dissertation? More intuitive. 'Keep Media' mark is now '*' instead of 'K'.
User settings (variables) are now adjusted in college application the dialog window. Removed the instances/exclude/busy complexity and issues, thus. simplifying Resume Media and custom essays, the dialog for the majority of users. Moved user variables to top of essay application motivation, download file for essay trusting easy adjustment. New variables to essay college application motivation, adjust size of table dialog window. Set variable simple = true to force a single hidden table with no. table dialog window. Control media and resume from the VLC playlist. Rewind 5 seconds when resuming (adjustable variable 'rewind').
Selection no longer needed before entering Set/Delete mode. Set default media-just-started to 60 rather than 30 seconds. Set media completed flag to 'Finished' rather than 00:00:01. You can now reset media to 00:00:00 or set to 'Finished.' Amend the previous update to dissertation uk, include the case where the media is paused. If the essay application motivation table dialog 'Play' button is about yourself, clicked while media is playing, the media.
stop position will now update before selected entries are enqueued in VLC. One click can stop/enqueue or enqueue/play but not stop/enqueue/play. Allow media to essay application, remain in an excluded table when completed. Set X for normal exclude or K to keep media with time reset to 00:00:01. Disallow automatic resume if Resume Media is opened while media is. playing, because the next stop event is undetectable in this case. Correct dialog update if media stopped during the tables dialog display. Correct open table option broken in last update.
Refine the abolition essay thesis media detection to eliminate spurious updates. A few other minor improvements. Resume Media will now open even if all tables are busy or excluded. This should be rare, but it allows recovery if tables are orphaned. Message saying that busy tables cannot be combined. Correct multiple-selection delete and move operations. Support for multiple tables. Entries can be sorted by time or name. Add ability to rearrange table and to import the application VLC playlist. * To add it automatically, click [Play/Options] and then [Settings]. Near the bottom, change Block- to Allow new table entry when media stops.
From then on, when you stop a media in VLC, Resume Media will add the essay trusting yourself media name and stop position to the current table if it is essay college application motivation, not already there. Good luck, Rocky. I can open the extension from the menu under VLC/Extensions but the window that opens never contains anything. I've also tried setting 'simple = true' in the file and still no luck, and also various ways of pausing/stopping/closing a video. and create subdirectory ..luaextensions. and created a text file named VLC Resume Media V3.lua 2. Type Cntl-A to highlight the whole file contents. 3. Type Cntl-C to essays services, copy the application motivation file contents to the clipboard. 4. Dependency? Open the VLC Resume Media V3.lua file you created in college application a text editor like Notepad.
5. Essay Prompts? Type Cntl-V to copy the contents into the file. Essay? Close the file. 6. Open VLC and go to View menu at about trusting yourself, the top. 7. If everything went as planned, you will see Resume Media V3 at the bottom of the View Menu. 8. Click it, and the Resume Media dialog window will open. Getting the college motivation same result as others - Resume pops a large window, striped, with no content, titled 'Resume Media Table 1'. I use windows 7 and when I press the download button I am immediately transferred to a txt page which says this - -- VLC Lua Extension by Rocky Dotterer 5/5/2014. filename = -- change if you want file(s) in your own directory.
How can I download the Extension? 2015-09-24 V3.40 61675. Detect XP in essay addition to later Windows. Setting to show/hide playlist control buttons in college Resume Media. Setting to always loop selections played from characterization essay prompts Resume Media. Setting for constant/variable audio pitch when playback speed changed.
Added key to allow individual media playback speeds. 2015-07-14 V3.38 58343. Fix button-click function re-entry issue for Linux. 2015-07-10 V3.37 58099. Now also works in Linux for the most part. Table data moved to VLC Resume Media directory in the vlc directory. Tables backed up before a session and restorable during the session.
2015-07-01 V3.36 57668. Correct media finished flag in segment play. 2015-06-30 V3.35 57615. Correct looping issue in segment play. 2015-06-30 V3.34 57605. Correct 'run-time' setting behavior. Segment play order now correct if segments should happen to overlap. 2015-06-18 V3.33 56938. Segments can be dynamically selected for play in the segments list.
2015-06-12 V3.32 56608. Improve some behaviors. 2015-05-31 V3.31 56015. Correct label in table view. 2015-05-31 V3.30 56000. Reverse default table behavior to not automatically add/delete media. Settings can be changed as needed to college motivation, automate add/delete behavior. 2015-05-28 V3.30 beta1 55803.
Introduction of media segmenting. 2015-05-27 V3.23 55668. Correct picture key handling when table order changes. 2015-04-13 V3.22 50813. Use the input box to set picture keys, saved positions and settings.
Change to picture-adjust keys only abolition allowed when video playing. Setting to suppress automatic new table entry when media stops. 2015-03-24 V3.21 47979. Playback speed can now be set without restarting VLC. 2015-03-17 V3.20 46639. New settings for essay college application start time, run time and playback speed Correct picture adjustment settings altered in V3.10. New setting to close or hide Resume Media when 'X' clicked. Eliminate one second delay between button clicks. Settings table now has its own button in essays the [play] menu. Allow copy as well as move when combining tables.
Improve a few behaviors. Display and adjust picture keys for application the whole table. A manual update will now also update 'Finished' media. Setting to cheap, show bookmarked table entries in list of tables. Advance bookmark when bookmarked media set to 'Finished'. Setting to essay motivation, allow manual or automatic picture adjustment. Version 3 with simpler handshaking with VLC. Bookmark feature added to cheap dissertation, keep track where last played. Play Bookmark/Unfinished/Table/Selection with Random/Loop options.
Revert to version 2.40 due to unresolved issue in version 3. V2 main menu and other buttons improved. Bookmark and autoplay features added. Table can be randomized manually or in autoplay. Main menu and other buttons improved. If media is playing, clicking [import/play] will now do a manual. update of the playing position without stopping the media. Improved text-reading economy using patterns. Cosmetic changes only.
Modified a few labels. More intuitive. 'Keep Media' mark is now '*' instead of 'K'. User settings (variables) are now adjusted in the dialog window. Removed the college application motivation instances/exclude/busy complexity and issues, thus.
simplifying Resume Media and cheap dissertation, the dialog for the majority of application, users. Moved user variables to essay trusting, top of download file for easy adjustment. New variables to adjust size of table dialog window. Set variable simple = true to force a single hidden table with no. table dialog window. Control media and application motivation, resume from the VLC playlist.
Rewind 5 seconds when resuming (adjustable variable 'rewind'). Selection no longer needed before entering Set/Delete mode. Set default media-just-started to college writing service, 60 rather than 30 seconds. Set media completed flag to 'Finished' rather than 00:00:01. You can now reset media to 00:00:00 or set to 'Finished.' Amend the previous update to include the case where the media is paused. If the table dialog 'Play' button is clicked while media is playing, the media. stop position will now update before selected entries are enqueued in VLC. One click can stop/enqueue or enqueue/play but not stop/enqueue/play. Allow media to essay application motivation, remain in an excluded table when completed.
Set X for normal exclude or K to strong thesis, keep media with time reset to 00:00:01. Disallow automatic resume if Resume Media is opened while media is. playing, because the essay college application next stop event is dissertation writers, undetectable in this case. Correct dialog update if media stopped during the tables dialog display. Correct open table option broken in last update.
Refine the media detection to eliminate spurious updates. A few other minor improvements. Resume Media will now open even if all tables are busy or excluded. This should be rare, but it allows recovery if tables are orphaned. Message saying that busy tables cannot be combined. Correct multiple-selection delete and move operations. Support for multiple tables.
Entries can be sorted by time or name. Add ability to rearrange table and to import the VLC playlist.
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resume on usb device Picture a setup of plugged-in hubs and devices such as that on the right. What we need to remember is that, at any point in time, only the host OR one device can be transmitting at a time. When the host is transmitting a packet of data, it is sent to every device connected to an enabled port. Application Motivation. It travels downwards via each hub in the chain which resynchronises the data transitions as it relays it.
Only one device, the addressed one, actually accepts the data. (The others all receive it but the address is custom services wrong for them.) One device at a time is able to college transmit to the host, in cheap dissertation response to a direct request from the host. Each hub repeats any data it receives from a lower device in an upward only direction. Downstream direction ports are only essay application enabled once the essay trusting, device connected to essay application motivation them is addressed, except that one other port at a time can reset a device to address 0 and then set its address to a unique value. At each end of the characterization essay prompts, data link between host and device is a transceiver circuit. Essay College. The transceivers are similar, differing mainly in the associated resistors. A typical upstream end transceiver is shown to the right with high speed components omitted for clarity.
By upstream, we mean the end nearer to custom essays services the host. Application. The upstream end has two 15K pull-down resistors. Each line can be driven low individually, or a differential data signal can be applied. The maximum 'high' level is 3.3V. The equivalent downstream end transceiver, as found in a device, is shown to strong the right. When receiving, individual receivers on application motivation each line are able to detect single ended signals, so that the so-called Single Ended Zero (SE0) condition, where both lines are low, can be detected. There is also a differential receiver for reliable reception of data. Downstream End Transceiver (Full Speed) At the device end of the about, link a 1.5 kohm resistor pulls one of the lines up to a 3.3V supply derived from VBUS. This is on D- for essay application a low speed device, and on D+ for a full speed device. (A high speed device will initially present itself as a full speed device with the pull-up resistor on D+.)
The host can determine the required speed by strong thesis, observing which line is pulled high. Given that there are just 2 data lines to use, it is surprising just how many different conditions are signaled using them: When no device is plugged in, the host will see both data lines low, as its 15 kohm resistors are pulling each data line low. When the essay application motivation, device is plugged in to the host, the host will see either D+ or D- go to a '1' level, and will know that a device has been plugged in. The '1' level will be on D- for a low speed device, and writers, D+ for a full (or high) speed device. The state of the essay application, data lines when the pulled up line is custom essays high, and essay college application, the other line is low, is called the abolition essay thesis, idle state. This is the application, state of the lines before and after a packet is sent.
To make it easier to best college talk about the states of the essay motivation, data lines, some special terminology is abolition essay used. Essay. The 'J State' is the same polarity as the idle state (the line with the pull-up resistor is high, and the other line is low), but is being driven to that state by either host or device. The K state is just the opposite polarity to the J state. The Single Ended Zero (SE0) is when both lines are being pulled low. The J and K terms are used because for Full Speed and Low Speed links they are actually of opposite cheap dissertation uk, polarity. This table has been simplified from the application, original in the USB specification. Please read the original table for complete information. This is the cheap dissertation writers uk, illegal condition where both lines are high. It should never occur on a properly functioning link.
When the host wants to start communicating with a device it will start by applying a 'Reset' condition which sets the device to its default unconfigured state. The Reset condition involves the host pulling down both data lines to low levels (SE0) for at college, least 10 ms. The device may recognise the reset condition after 2.5 us. This 'Reset' should not be confused with a micro-controller power-on type reset. It is a USB protocol reset to ensure that the device USB signaling starts from a known state. The End of essay prompts Packet (EOP) is an SE0 state for 2 bit times, followed by essay college application motivation, a J state for 1 bit time. One of the features of USB which is an essential part of today's emphasis of 'green' products is prompts its ability to power down an unused device.
It does this by suspending the device, which is achieved by not sending anything to essay application the device for 3 ms. Normally a SOF packet (at full speed) or a Keep Alive signal (at low speed) is sent by the host every 1 ms, and this is what keeps the device awake. A suspended device may draw no more than 0.5 mA from Vbus. A suspended device must recognise the resume signal, and also the best college writing service, reset signal. When the host wants to wake the device up after a suspend, it does so by reversing the polarity of the essay application motivation, signal on strong dependency the data lines for at least 20ms. College Application. The signal is completed with a low speed end of packet signal. It is also possible for essay prompts a device with its remote wakeup feature set, to initiate a resume itself. It must have been in college motivation the idle state for at least 5ms, and must apply the wakeup K condition for between 1 and strong dependency, 15 ms.
The host takes over the driving of the resume signal within 1 ms. This is represented by a Low speed EOP. It is college sent at least once every millisecond on characterization essay prompts a low speed link, in order to essay motivation keep the device from suspending. The packet could be thought of as the smallest element of data transmission. Each packet conveys an integral number of bytes at the current transmission rate. Before and after the packet, the dependency, bus is in the idle state. You need not be concerned with the detail of syncs, bit stuffing, and essay, End Of Packet conditions, unless you are designing at the silicon level, as the Serial Interface Engine (SIE) will deal with the details for you.
You should just be aware that the SIE can recognise the start and end of a packet, and that the packet contains a whole number of bytes. In spite of about trusting this packets often expect fields of data to cross byte boundaries. Essay College. The important rule to remember is that all usb fields are transmitted least significant bit first . So if, for college service example, a field is defined by motivation, 2 successive bytes, the essay trusting yourself, first byte will be the least significant, and the second byte transmitted will be the most significant. The complexities and speed of the USB protocol are such that it is not practical to expect a general purpose micro-controller to be able to implement the essay college motivation, protocol using an instruction-driven basis. Dedicated hardware is required to deal with the time-critical portions of the specification, and services, the circuitry grouping which performs this function is referred to as the essay college application motivation, Serial Interface Engine (SIE). Data Fields are Transmitted Least Significant Bit First. The first time when you need to know this is when you are defining 'descriptors' in your firmware code.
Many of these values are word sized and you need to essay prompts add the bytes in the low byte, high byte order. A Single Packet. Before we continue, some definitions. Each USB device has a number of endpoints. Each endpoint is a source or sink of data. A device can have up to essay college motivation 16 OUT and 16 IN endpoints.
OUT always means from cheap dissertation uk, host to device. IN always means from device to host. Endpoint 0 is a special case which is a combination of endpoint 0 OUT and essay, endpoint 0 IN, and is used for controlling the best writing, device. A logical data connection between the host and a particular endpoint, in which we ignore the lower level mechanisms for actually achieving the data transfers. Simple transfers of data called 'Transactions' are built up using packets. The first byte in every packet is a Packet Identifier (PID) byte. College Application Motivation. This byte needs to be recognised quickly by the SIE and so is essays services not included in any CRC checks. It therefore has its own validity check.
The PID itself is college application 4 bits long, and the 4 bits are repeated in thesis an complemented form. The PID is shown here in the order of transmission; lsb first. A CRC is a value calculated from a number of data bytes to form a unique value which is transmitted along with the data bytes, and then used to validate the correct reception of the data. USB uses two different CRCs, one 5 bits long (CRC5) and one 16 bits long (CRC16). See the USB specification for college application details of the algorithms used.
There are 17 different PID values defined. This includes one reserved value, and one value which has been used twice with different meanings for two different situations. Notice that the first 2 bits of a token which are transmitted, determine which of the 4 groups it falls into. This is why SOF is officially considered to be a token PID. * Bits are transmitted lsb first. Used for SETUP, OUT and service, IN packets. They are always the first packet in a transaction, identifying the targeted endpoint, and the purpose of the transaction. The SOF packet is also defined as a Token packet, but has a slightly different format and purpose, which is essay college described below. The token packet contains two addressing elements: This device address can address up to 127 devices. Address 0 is strong dependency reserved for a device which has not yet had its address set.
There can be up to 16 possible endpoints in a device in each direction. The direction is college implicit in the PID. OUT and SETUP PIDs will refer to the OUT endpoint, and an IN PID will refer to college writing the IN endpoint. Used for DATA0, DATA1, DATA2 and MDATA packets. Essay College. If a transaction has a data stage this is the packet format used. DATA0 and DATA1 PIDs are used in Low and Full speed links as part of an error-checking system.
When used, all data packets on a particular endpoint use an alternating DATA0 / DATA1 so that the endpoint knows if a received packet is the one it is expecting. Cheap Dissertation Writers Uk. If it is not it will still acknowledge (ACK) the packet as it is correctly received, but will then discard the data, assuming that it has been re-sent because the host missed seeing the ACK the motivation, first time it sent the data packet. DATA2 and MDATA are only used for high speed links. Used for ACK, NAK, STALL and NYET packets. This is the packet format used in custom essays the status stage of a transaction, when required. Receiver acknowledges receiving error free packet. Receiving device cannot accept data or transmitting device cannot send data.
Endpoint is halted, or control pipe request is not supported. No response yet from receiver (high speed only) The Start of Frame packet is sent every 1 ms on full speed links. College Application. The frame is used as a time frame in which to schedule the data transfers which are required. For example, an isochronous endpoint will be assigned one transfer per frame. On a low speed link, to preserve bandwidth, a Keep Alive signal is sent every millisecond, instead of a Start of Frame packet. Best Service. In fact Keep Alives may be sent by a hub on a low speed link whenever the hub sees a full speed token packet. At high speed the 1 ms frame is divided into 8 microframes of 125 us.
A SOF is sent at the start of each of these 8 microframes, each having the same frame number, which then increments every 1 ms frame. A successful transaction is college a sequence of three packets which performs a simple but secure transfer of data. For IN and OUT transactions used for essays services isochronous transfers, there are only 2 packets; the essay application motivation, handshake packet on the end is writing omitted. This is because error-checking is not required. There are three types of transaction.
In each of the illustrations below, the essay motivation, packets from the uk, host are shaded, and the packets from the device are not. A successful OUT transaction comprises two or three sequential packets. If it were being used in an Isochronous Transfer there would not be a handshake packet from the device. On a low or full speed link, the PID shown as DATAx will be either a DATA0 or a DATA1. An alternating DATA0/DATA1 is application used as a part of the error control protocol to (or from) a particular endpoint. A successful IN transaction comprises two or three sequential packets. If it were being used in an Isochronous Transfer there would not be a handshake packet from the abolition, host. Here again, the DATAx is either a DATA0 or a DATA1. A successful SETUP transaction comprises three sequential packets.
This is similar to an OUT transaction, but the data payload is exactly 8 bytes long, and the SETUP PID in the token packet informs the college motivation, device that this is the first transaction in dissertation a Control Transfer (see below). As will be seen below, the SETUP transaction always uses a DATA0 to motivation start the data packet. There are four different ways to transfer data on a USB bus. Each has its own purposes and characteristics. Each one is built up using one or more transaction type.
Regular Opportunity for status updates, etc. Guaranteed fixed bandwidth. Bulk transfers are designed to writers uk transfer large amounts of data with error-free delivery, but with no guarantee of bandwidth. The host will schedule bulk transfers after the other transfer types have been allocated. If an OUT endpoint is defined as using Bulk transfers, then the host will transfer data to essay college it using OUT transactions. If an IN endpoint is defined as using Bulk transfers, then the host will transfer data from it using IN transactions. The max packet size is 8, 16, 32 or 64 at full Speed and 512 for essays high speed. Bulk transfers are not allowed at low speed.
Use Bulk transfers when you have a lot of data to shift, as fast as possible, but where you would not have a large problem if there is a delay caused by insufficient bandwidth. The diagrams to the right illustrate the possible flow of events in the face of errors. If the IN token packet is not recognised, the device will not respond at all. Otherwise, if it has data to send it will send it in a DATA0 or DATA1 packet, If it is essay not ready to send data it will send a NAK packet. Strong. If the endpoint is essay college application motivation currently 'halted' then it will respond with a STALL packet. In the cheap dissertation writers uk, case of DATA0/1 being sent, the host will acknowledge with an ACK, unless the data is college motivation not validly received, in which case it does not send an ACK. Custom Essays Services. (Note: the essay college, host never sends NAK!) If the cheap writers uk, OUT token packet is not recognised, the device will not respond at all. It will then ignore the DATAx packet because it does not know that it has been addressed. If the OUT token is recognised but the DATAx packet is not recognised, then the device will not respond.
If the data is received but the device can't accept it at this time, it will send a NAK, and college application motivation, if the endpoint is currently halted, it will send a STALL. Interrupt transfers have nothing to do with interrupts. The name is chosen because they are used for the sort of purpose where an interrupt would have been used in earlier connection types. Interrupt transfers are regularly scheduled IN or OUT transactions, although the IN direction is the more common usage. Typically the strong dependency, host will only fetch one packet, at an interval specified in essay college application motivation the endpoint descriptor (see below). The host guarantees to perform the IN transaction at custom essays, least that often, but it may actually do it more frequently.
Interrupt packets can have any size from 1 to 8 bytes at low speed, from 1 to 64 at full speed or up to 1024 bytes at high speed. Use an interrupt transfer when you need to be regularly kept up to date of any changes of status in a device. Examples of their use are for a mouse or a keyboard. Error control is very similar to that for essay motivation bulk transfers. Isochronous transfers have a guaranteed bandwidth, but error-free delivery is not guaranteed. The main purpose of isochronous transfers is applications such as audio data transfer, where it is strong important to maintain the data flow, but not so important if some data gets missed or corrupted. An isochronous transfer uses either an essay, IN transaction or an OUT transaction depending on the type of endpoint.
The special feature of these transactions is that there is no handshake packet at college service, the end. An isochronous packet may contain up to 1023 bytes at full speed, or up to 1024 at high speed. College Application. Isochronous transfers are not allowed at services, low speed. This is a bi-directional transfer which uses both an IN and an OUT endpoint. College. Each control transfer is made up of from 2 to several transactions. It is service divided into college motivation, three stages. The SETUP stage carries 8 bytes called the Setup packet. This defines the request, and specifies whether and how much data should be transferred in the DATA stage. The DATA stage is optional.
If present, it always starts with a transaction containing a DATA1. Uk. The type of transaction then alternates between DATA0 and DATA1 until all the required data has been transferred. The STATUS stage is a transaction containing a zero-length DATA1 packet. If the DATA stage was IN then the STATUS stage is OUT, and vice versa. Control transfers are used for initial configuration of the device by the host, using Endpoint 0 OUT and Endpoint 0 IN, which are reserved for this purpose.
They may be used (on the same endpoints) after configuration as part of the device-specific control protocol, if required. The max packet size for the data stage is 8 bytes at low speed, 8, 16, 32 or 64 at full Speed and 64 for high speed. Notice that it is not permitted for a device to respond to application a SETUP with a NAK or a STALL. (same as for bulk transfer) (same as for bulk transfer) We have examined 4 different types of data transfer, each of which uses different combinations of packets.
We have seen Control Transfers which every device uses to characterization prompts implement a Standard set of requests. Essay College. And we have seen three other data transfer types, which a device might use depending on its purpose. Next we will examine the standard set of requests which every USB device has to implement.
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15 Pilates Moves That Get Results. What sets Pilates apart is its focus on college application motivation, toning the muscles with springs, bands, or your own body weight. Alycea Ungaro, author of 15 Minute Everyday Pilates, shares her routine for best college writing service, beginners. Some moves are shown using Pilates studio equipment, but you can do most moves at motivation, home. Check with a doctor first if you're a man over 45 or a woman over 55, or if you have a medical condition. This classic move helps flatten the tummy by using your abs efficiently.
Hold on behind the knees, scoop the belly in, and curl down to the floor to get into position. Now curl the head and shoulders up slightly, lower back still pressed to the floor. About Yourself? Pump the arms up and down in college application, small motions at your sides. Breathe in for five and out for five until you hit 50 pumps. Essay? Sit up and repeat for a total of essay motivation, 100 pumps. In a studio, you can try the Pilates hundred on a reformer, a spring-based resistance machine. Lie on your back with your legs in table-top position or extended at a 45-degree angle. Pull the straps down next to your abdomen. Curl the head and shoulders up and pulse your arms up and down. Breathe in for five and out for five until you reach 100 pulses. If any move doesn't feel right, check with a fitness professional.
Begin this starter sit-up with your legs straight in front of characterization prompts, you. Extend your arms over your legs and lower your head between your arms. Curl backward, bending your knees, and stop halfway down. Raise your arms straight up and pull your abs in tightly. Exhale and application motivation lower your arms as you curl back up.
Do 6-8 reps at essay, a moderate pace. As you become more advanced, try lowering all the way to the floor. If sit-ups give you a sore neck, try this alternative. Lie flat with the end of essay college application, a resistance band or towel tucked under the center of your back. Bend your knees and grab the other end of the band above your head.
Inhale and use your ab muscles to slowly peel your body up, letting your head rest against the band. Exhale and return to the starting position. Do five reps, making sure your abs do all the work. Dependency? Keep that resistance band handy for college, this waist-toning move. Sit with your legs a little more than hip-distance apart. Writers? Hold the band between your hands and application motivation raise your arms overhead. Exhale as you turn to one side, using the services, muscles in your waist. Inhale as you reach the arms out and back, keeping the hips in place. Exhale and return to starting position.
Alternate for essay application, a total of four sets on each side. Lower Back: Shoulder Bridge, Part 1. As you strengthen your abs, it's vital to tone the back of the body as well. Lie on your back with your knees bent and your feet hip-width apart. Keep your arms at essay thesis, your sides and essay college application raise your hips without arching your back. Essays? Tighten the muscles of your buttocks and hamstrings, and hold for five breaths. Lower down one vertebra at a time to the floor if you're stopping here, or go on application, to the essay, advanced posture.
Lower Back: Shoulder Bridge, Part 2. Keeping your hips raised, extend one leg straight up and point the foot. Kick the leg down and out, flexing the foot. Repeat, exhaling as you extend the leg up and inhaling as you kick it down. Keep your torso strong and your other foot firmly on essay motivation, the mat. Do five reps with each leg. Custom Essays Services? Toning the upper back is the fast track to better posture. This move uses the reformer with an accessory called a long box.
Lie on your stomach with your chest just past the motivation, edge of the long box. Grab the straps in front of you with straight arms. Lift the head and chest as you pull the straps down toward your hips. The long box will slide forward, with you on services, top. Release the arms back to the starting position. Do five reps. Want to target the upper back without a reformer?
Lie face down on a mat with your feet together. Raise your head and chest slightly, and essay college extend your arms perpendicular to your body, palms down. Exhale and sweep the arms back as you lift your chin and chest higher. Keep your waist on the mat and use your upper back muscles to bring your arms closer to your body. Return to starting position. Do five reps. Custom? This powerful upper-body toner can be done on a mat, reformer, or Wunda chair. Application Motivation? If using a mat, sit with your legs straight in front of you, feet together and flexed. Press your hands flat on the mat, look down, and services use your upper body strength to lift your backside and upper legs. Essay Application Motivation? Swing yourself forward and backward before lowering slowly to the mat. Do five reps.
A pair of small hand-weights adds punch to a Pilates workout at cheap dissertation, home. For this move, imagine you are twirling the weights like sparklers on the Fourth of July. Stand with the motivation, weights held at characterization prompts, your thighs. Turn them slightly in to face each other and make eight small circles. Each circle should be a little higher until the hands are overhead.
Make eight circles in the opposite direction as you lower the arms. Repeat 2-3 times. Lower Body: Kneeling Knee Stretches. This reformer exercise is an efficient way to work the entire lower body. Kneel on the reformer and round the essay motivation, back, keeping the arms straight. Use the butt muscles and thighs to push and pull your lower body back and forth.
The platform will slide a few inches with each movement. Do five reps. Essay Trusting? As you get more advanced, do another five reps with the back arched. Here's a way to tone the college, thighs and thesis butt without a reformer. Begin by kneeling. Lean to the left, placing your left hand on the mat under the shoulder and your right hand behind the college application, head with the elbow pointing up. Raise your right leg until it is parallel to essay, the floor. Holding the torso steady, kick the leg to the front and application motivation then to the back, knee straight.
Do five reps on each side. This move sculpts the legs while getting your heart rate up. Stand with your arms crossed in front of you at shoulder height. Thesis? Keeping your abs tight, exhale and lift your right knee up toward the right elbow. Lower the leg quickly and essay application repeat on the other side. Keep switching sides for abolition thesis, a total of 10 swings with each leg. Besides toning the muscles, Pilates is application known for boosting endurance.
A wall and small hand-weights are the only necessities for this highly effective exercise. Stand with your back against the wall and feet hip-width apart. Dissertation? Walk the essay application motivation, feet out a little, bend the knees, and slide down as if sitting in a chair. The upper legs should be parallel to the floor. Raise the arms to shoulder height and custom services hold for application motivation, 30 seconds.
Do two reps. While the focus of Pilates is characterization strength training, you'll get some cardio in with moves like this. Stand with your belly pulled in and your arms overhead. Exhale and lower your head, bending the knees and swinging the arms back. Inhale and jump up with straight legs, reaching the arms overhead.
Land with the knees slightly bent and return quickly to starting position. Do 8-10 reps at a rapid pace. You should be out of breath when you finish. IMAGES PROVIDED BY: 1) Steve Pomberg/WebMD. 2) Steve Pomberg/WebMD.
3) Steve Pomberg/WebMD. 4) Steve Pomberg/WebMD. 5) Steve Pomberg/WebMD. 6) Steve Pomberg/WebMD. College Motivation? 7) Steve Pomberg/WebMD. 8) Steve Pomberg/WebMD. 9) Steve Pomberg/WebMD. 10) Steve Pomberg/WebMD. 11) Steve Pomberg/WebMD. 12) Steve Pomberg/WebMD.
13) Steve Pomberg/WebMD. 14) Steve Pomberg/WebMD. 15) Steve Pomberg/WebMD. 16) Steve Pomberg/WebMD. 17) Steve Pomberg/WebMD. Alycea Ungaro, physical therapist; owner, Real Pilates, New York; author, 15 Minute Everyday Pilates and Pilates Practice Companion ; Pilates Practice Companion , DK Publishing, 2010. American Council on Exercise: Pilates Primer, Can Pilates Do It All?
Dina Blair, Pilates instructor; athletic director, Concourse Athletic Club, Atlanta. Dori Ricci, NASM, CPT. Idea Health and Fitness Association: Pilates Moves Recruit Deep Abs Better Than Crunches. Pilates Method Alliance: An Exercise in Balance: The Pilates Phenomenon. Reviewed by Ross Brakeville, DPT on February 24, 2016. Essay About Yourself? This tool does not provide medical advice. See additional information.
THIS TOOL DOES NOT PROVIDE MEDICAL ADVICE. It is intended for general informational purposes only and does not address individual circumstances. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the WebMD Site. If you think you may have a medical emergency, immediately call your doctor or dial 911. View our slideshows to learn more about your health. 2005 - 2017 WebMD, LLC. All rights reserved.
WebMD does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.
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Motivation and College Application Essays: Why the Process Matters
essay on college application motivation, steelpan The Creation of a People’s Music. William R. Aho, Ph.D. Re - published with the expressed permission from characterization essay, author William R. Aho. Published in college application, Latin American Music Review, Vol. 8, No.1, 1987, 26-58.
Contents or portions of strong this video cannot be rebroadcast, changed or manipulated in any way without the expressed permission of the author. The focus of this paper is the class, color, and application motivation, race components in the struggle to create a people’s music — a music originally and essentially of the economically disadvantaged and less formally educated citizens of Trinidad and Tobago, primarily those of African descent. It is based on interviews with former and present panmen and services, pan women in essay college application motivation, Trinidad and Tobago and also draws on government documents, newspapers, and personal observations during some sixteen months of writing service fieldwork in Trinidad between 1972 and essay college application motivation, 1985. Music as a social phenomenon has been of about trusting yourself interest to scholars for some time and college motivation, has given rise to numerous books and scholarly articles and to several scholarly journals (for example, The Sociology of Music, Ethnomusicology and The Black Perspective in Music). Max Weber has noted that some of the forces shaping music have social origins and writers, that musical instruments themselves are socially ranked (Martindale etal., 1958:111). Da Silva has referred to music as subjective, shared mental conduct by a collectivity that sometimes defines a community’s boundaries. Essay College Application Motivation. He has also called attention to the conflict inherent in the social organization of strong thesis music (1984:34). Application Motivation. Shepherd has observed that an elite musical establishment of intellectuals persuades society that popular music is an inferior and less desirable art form and that music’s value is uk not a socially shaped reality but an essay college motivation ultimate one with objective criteria for judging its quality. In music, as in writers uk, much else, writes Shepherd, the ruler’s ideas dominate (1977:1-2). Essay. Such social ranking, community boundary definition, conflict, and elitism in the musical realm have all found expression in Trinidad’s steelband movement. Trinidad and about trusting, Tobago is a two-island independent republic in the southeastern Caribbean, seven miles off the coast of Venezuela.
A British Colony for 165 years and a Spanish one for 300 years before that, it has been independent since 1962. English is the official language (both a dialect and “Standard” English are spoken), and the literacy rate is about 95 percent. Some Hindi and some French patois are spoken. Historically, there has been considerable social and cultural influence from French, Portuguese, Indian (from India, called East Indians in Trinidad), Chinese, Lebanese, Venezuelan, other Caribbean, and North American people, institutions, and ideas. Over one-half of Trinidad and Tobago’s citizens are Christian, about one-third of the total population Catholic, and one-fourth are Hindu. About the college application same percentages of Trinidadians (41) are East Indian and Negro (the official term used there), about sixteen percent are of mixed ethnic/racial heritage, and dependency, about one percent is white. Mixed and white people are generally believed to college motivation, have a disproportionate share of the wealth, power, and social status, although there are many high-ranking civil servants, professionals, elected and appointed government officials who are East Indian or Afro-Trinidadian. The late Dr. Eric Williams, Trinidad’s popular prime minister for 25 years and characterization, a historian of considerable reputation, was Afro- Trinidadian, as are most of the members and supporters of the political party he led (the People’s National Movement). Steeldrums are called steel pans or just “pans” in Trinidad and Tobago. Beginning in the 1930s, they were created and refined in the poorer sections of Trinidad’s capital, Port of Spain, by young men of application motivation African heritage with little formal education or musical training.
At first the drums were simple biscuit tins, pitch-oil tins, dustbins or their covers, without tuned pitches. Gradually, through experimentation and refinement, pitches were added by writers uk, pounding in and out on the top surface of the drums, and essay, drums of varying depths were created to produce different ranges. Today steeldrums are quite amazing and versatile musical instruments. The small tenor pans may have up to 32 different pitches. Pans are played with rubber-tipped sticks and are tuned either by ear, with a tuning fork, or with an electronic tuning device. The small number of skilled tuners and panmakers command considerable respect and earn high incomes. Making and tuning steeldrums requires considerable knowledge, experience, patience, and a good ear. Abolition. The proper raw material must be carefully chosen, the top hammered down to a precise depth, notes carefully marked in, sometimes with calipers, the drum cut down to motivation, the correct size and tuned, and the metal tempered by throwing water or oil over the drum while it is in a fire. According to a 1952 government report on the steelband movement, “The magician behind this wizardry of sound is the essay prompts ‘tuner’ who, with his uncanny sense of ear, tempers and pounds the metal until its notes respond to the tonal pattern deep in college application, the recesses of his soul.” (Farquhar, 1952:1) The tuning of dissertation uk steeldrums is not standardized, so it is usually not possible for two or more steelbands to play well together unless their drums have been tuned by the same person.
The number and position of the essay college motivation notes on essay trusting yourself, the drums vary from tuner to essay application motivation, tuner, and the pitches on some of the drums are not arranged in chromatic order, which facilitates striking the notes with the custom rubber-tipped sticks. Unlike the piano or guitar, steeldrums are tuned from high to low pitches. There is motivation wide variation in the types and combinations of abolition thesis steeldrums used in a given ensemble, depending on the occasion and the personal preferences of the band leaders and arrangers. Following are the basic types of drums and their voice parts: (a) The tenor pan, also known as the melody pan or the ping-pong, approximates the soprano voice and plays the melody. It has from 28 to essay college application, 32 pitches and is about six inches in depth. (b) The double tenor is a set of two tenor drums, which play harmony and counterpoint and are about one-half inch longer than the single tenor. (c) The second pan is in best college writing service, the alto voice range and about eight inches in depth. (d) Double seconds play harmony, in a set of two drums, providing the upper register of chords. (e) The guitar pan plays rhythm and has about sixteen pitches. It is about fourteen to sixteen inches in depth and is played in pairs.
(f) The cello pan is in the tenor voice range, about twenty-one inches in depth, and played in sets of three, with eight, eight, and five pitches, respectively. (g) The tenor bass plays rhythm, in sets of four, with two or three pitches on each drum. It is about five inches shorter than the full bass pan. (h) The bass pan is the full size of the oil drum and plays rhythm in college, sets of six or nine. Characterization Essay. Arranged on essay application motivation, stands either horizontally or vertically, the bass pans have two, three, or four notes. A steelband might also include a set of trap drums, some congas, bongos, maracas, and a piece of steel or heavy iron (sometimes an automobile brake drum), played as a percussion instrument with a piece of steel or an iron bar. (Keer, 1981:1-2; Mahabir, 1986:33; Seeger, 1961:22) Because pan music is almost always played by ear, band members, who today include more women, East Indians, mixed and white people than at the start of the movement, must attend long and frequent rehearsals to memorize their parts for the repertoire. The repertoire includes classical music, popular, Latin, rock, jazz, and the Jamaican-born reggae, along with the traditional Trinidadian calypso and the more recent Soca (soul calypso) music. Color, Race, and Class in Colonial Trinidad.
Class, color, and race conflict over musical styles, preferences, instruments, and life-styles emerged as early as the 1800s in colonial Trinidad and continues in a milder form today. Although some see the conflict as a socioeconomic rather than a color or race issue, color and race have also played an important role. In British colonial Trinidad in the 1800s there was considerable prejudice and discrimination against people of African heritage, whether slave or free, colored or black. Brereton observed that under Governor Picton in 1802: “The coloured militia officers…were stripped of their rank, the about troops were racially segregated with…exofficers put under a white sergeant. They had to get police permission to hold a ball and (had to) pay a discriminatory tax… A curfew at 9:30 P.M. was imposed on them, and when on college, the streets after dark they were obliged to carry a lighted torch.
They could be arrested if found carrying a stick on the streets. Free coloureds, even respectable land owners, were forced to serve as constables, performing the humiliating duty of guard service at officials’ houses. Characterization Essay. The free coloureds were subjected to a whole battery of essay college application motivation discriminatory’ laws designed to humiliate them and cow them into submission.” (1981:49) Errol Hill has observed that for strong centuries in Trinidad, Europeans have been afraid of motivation any sort of dissertation uk diversions that might “incite the passions” of black people. Dancing and drumming were seen as agan or immoral and as potentially dangerous as a rallying point for slave revolts. Drumming was outlawed in Jamaica in 1792 and in Tobago in essay college, 1798. A 1797 law in custom, Trinidad required police permission for essay college motivation the “ coloured classes” to have dances or entertainment after 8 P.M., and slaves could not even apply for such permission (1972:33). Even after Emancipation in 1834, white and coloured leaders held African cultural practices, particularly drum music, in contempt. They felt it their duty to rid the country of custom services what they considered “barbaric customs” (Brereton, 1979:152-153). Drumming, important in social and religious ceremonies, especially at wakes, was noisy, and the elites considered noise of college motivation that kind to be primitive. Drumming was important also to dependency thesis, Trinidad’s East Indians, so this was an college application motivation instance of cultural as well as class and racial repression.
The government-introduced Music Bill of 1883, although it was later withdrawn, reflected the characterization attitude of many government officials. It would have banned drumming after 10 P.M., but allowed the essay motivation playing of European instruments by license. Between 6 and dependency, 10 P.M. drumming would have required a police license, but European instruments would not (Brereton, 1979:161). College Application Motivation. An 1883 ordinance outlawed “singing, dancing, drumming and other music-making by essay yourself, …rogues and vagabonds or incorrigible rogues” and called for the punishment of the owners of dwellings or yards that allowed it (10 July 1883 Amendment to Ordinance No. College Application. 6 of 1868). So vital is the drumming tradition that measures to restrict it have always been fiercely resisted in Trinidad. Between 1881 and 1891, there were several violent clashes between the police and the people, both East Indians and best college writing service, those of essay African heritage, over the use of drums in religious and social observances. Strong Dependency Thesis. In one of these, twelve persons were killed and over 100 injured (ibid., l84). Because skin drums could not be used freely, other instruments were improvised. In the early 1900s, the “tamboo bamboo (bamboo drum) band was developed.
Hollowed- out bamboo sticks of various lengths and diameters were struck against each other, with sticks, or against the ground to produce sounds of varying pitch. Bottles and spoons were used for essay higher-pitched sounds. The discovery and refinement of the steel drum followed the tamboo-bamboo bands. The Development of the Steeldrum. Trinidadian artist Patrick Chu-Foon recalls the early tamboo-bamboo sounds and the beginnings of the steeldrums: “Long before even steelband came out, I remember seeing the essay thesis bandsmen thumping bamboos on the raw pitch, the asphalt on the street. I used to stand at the top of my father’s shop front and application motivation, look down into services, the street and see all the college application goings on dependency, of early carnival… I remember the sounds. Maybe this is where the African influence comes in, because it was a thumping, a thumping of the drums… They also had some skin drums. This was also the early beginnings of steelbands.” (1983:1) The Roaring Lion - 1979. Rafael DeLeon, known professionally as The Roaring Lion, is a calypso singer of motivation international reputation and a historian of Trinidad’s folk music. When I interviewed him in 1983 when he was age 76, he recalled that people in dissertation writers uk, Trinidad had been beating on metal and tin for some years before the essay motivation steel drum itself was created: “Long ago and to some extent up to now, children used to services, get together on Good Friday and college motivation, make an effigy of Judas.
The children would collect all the old cooking utensils—empty milk tins, pieces of essays iron, pitch-oil tins, and essay college, garbage pans or dust bins would be “ borrowed “ for the occasion. They would march back and forth through the district beating their pans while they sang …and the rhythm of that pan was identical with what is now known as the steelband, even up to the middle 1940s, before they started to discover notes and produce bits and pieces of melody.” (1983:1-2) He further reports that around 1930 the members of a tamboo bamboo band led by David Leach, from trusting, George Street in essay application, Port of Spain, “would pick up garbage pan covers, pieces of steel from the essay ‘smith shop in George Street, and college application motivation, any cooking utensil they could find and proceed to dependency thesis, beat it in time with the rhythm of the tamboo-bamboo” (ibid. :3). There are several versions about essay college application motivation, when, who, or even what event or refinement constitutes the invention of the steeldrum. Oscar Pile, pioneer steelbandsman and essay trusting, the organizer and leader for many years of the Casablanca steelband, claims that: “ …way back in 1935 they had the tamboo-bamboo and playing on the road, by an accident, one of the leading men, which was Forde, was playing one of the college application motivation bamboos. That bamboo happened to break, and in the excitement and characterization prompts, the heat of it he wanted something to beat. He then run across the road and take up a dustbin cover, and by beating the dustbin cover they found out really the dustbin cover had a more stinging and more rhythm sound than the bamboo just knocking on the ground and from then on that particular band from Newtown, Alexander’s Ragtime Band, they then went back and they start looking for pans …old paint pans and so on and getting a more genuine sound than the bamboo.
Whilst they was at that, Gonzalez (a district in Port of Spain) went and start making pans and getting pans, old disregarded bins, biscuit drums, gasoline tanks, and so on, and this was the birth of the steelbands.” (1983:6) The crucial point in the transition from bamboo to steel is probably when different pitches were added to essay college, the metal drums and melodies could be played on them. There is essay a consensus that the first pan with notes was created in the mid-1930s, evidently by accident, and that one of the first, if not the first, to add notes and play recognizable songs was the late Winston “Spree Simon, who is accepted by many Trinidadians as the “father” of application motivation steelband music. Here is his version of how notes were added to the crude pans: “I had lent this drum and on coming back to retrieve my drum, the face of the drum was beaten in custom, so badly that it had taken on a concave appearance. Essay College Application Motivation. Now I just took the drum and went on the side of the road and tried to get back the face of the drum to its normal surface. By pounding on characterization prompts, the inside with a stone and essay college application, a stick, in and out, I discovered that I was able to get four distinct notes, which enabled me to play something of a bugle call—and therefore I played at that moment (a short bugle call).” (Martin, 1981)
Steelband music—the discovery and best service, evolution of the instrument itself, the bands that played it, and the entire social organization of the band, its followers and supporters, and, in many cases, virtually the entire community where the application motivation band was based—was a product of the underprivileged areas, primarily in Port of Spain, inhabited almost entirely by essays, people of African heritage. Young people in these areas did not have much opportunity for recognition, success, or self-fulfillment in essay application, the customary areas of cheap uk achievement— education, job, or career—so they channeled their energies and talents into whatever areas were available to them, in spite of, in some cases, precisely because of, resistance by the ruling colonial government and elites. In the essay college motivation case of steelband music, they were using their own distinctive culture, instruments and music of about trusting their own creation, to college motivation, express themselves and to define an acceptable and comfortable social location for themselves in their own eyes, in abolition essay thesis, the eyes of their peers, and in the eyes of the communities in essay college motivation, which their bands were based. George Yeates, leader of the strong Desperadoes steelband during the 1940s and 1950s, elaborated in an interview on the economic and college application motivation, social conditions of the early band members: “Those were the colonial days and …the boys didn’t have much education …they just reached of age for primary school and they left and were all unemployed, without a skill… The steelband was the only pursuit at abolition essay, the time a young man could have involved himself in and sort of gave a status to a village youth so that when you come from Desperadoes or the Laventille Hill and you go to another district if your band is application a powerful band, you will be respected.” (1983:3) At the time that the steel drum was being refined, in college writing, the mid-1930s, there was considerable political and labor unrest in Trinidad. There was high inflation, much unemployment, underemployment, and essay college motivation, low wages, particularly for the black and East Indian sugar estate and oil field workers. There were strikes, hunger marches, and, in 1937, a labor riot. Trusting. The workers and unemployed complained of prejudice and discrimination in hiring, pay, and application, promotions.
There was an awakened race consciousness and heightened feelings of exploitation by British and other foreign investors in Trinidad’s oil companies, sugar estates, and other enterprises. The Italian invasion of Ethiopia in 1935, unopposed by the Western nations, served as a stimulus throughout the West Indies to black nationalism and strong dependency thesis, support for essay Ethiopia (Brereton, 1981:174). During the mid-1930s in Trinidad, a group of writers and intellectuals started a literary and artistic movement that encouraged and supported Afro-Trinidadian culture and the poor and repressed in general. This entire political, social, artistic, and intellectual milieu very likely stimulated or, at the least, was very consistent with the development of the newly-emerging steel drum as an innovative musical creation of college service poor Afro- Trinidadians. The Social Importance of the Steelband. The importance pan players attached to their activity, and the role it played in their self-image, is reflected in essay motivation, an anecdote told by Trinidadian writer, patron of the arts, and politician, the late Albert Gomes. As a high-ranking government official in the early 1950s, he was asked by the girl friend of essay thesis a young pan player condemned to hang for essay college application motivation murder to intervene on his behalf. Gomes saw the youth and learned that he had killed another young man in a rage because the college writing man had told him that he didn’t know anything about steelband or how to beat pan (among other insults). The prisoner was hanged (1974:96). Panmen have been celebrated in poetry as well as prose in Trinidad, as these excerpts from Sugar George, by Paul Keens-Douglas, show:
Ah was dey when dey bury Sugar George. When he get de fus’ piece ah property he ever own, Six foot of college application motivation hard, dry Trinidad soil . . . De pans was playin’ When George dead dat nite, Beatin’ de dark wit’ notes so sweet. Ah fittin’ death for abolition Sugar George, For he was ah man, ah real man, An’ more dan dat ah steelban’ man. An’ now Sugar dead an’ gone. An’ ah see him lyin’ dey on de bed, De greatest Tenorman in Trinidad,
As poor as de day he born, Yet richer than any millionaire in de land, More respected than any politician, For Sugar was ah something, ah somebody, He was part of ah plan. Dat we eh even begin to understand … Before he dead he say ‘beat pan.’ So dey beat when he sick, An’ dey beat when he dyin’
An’ dey beat when he dead, And when dey finally put Sugar away, Every band in Trinidad play. An’ ah swear to Jesus ah could hear Sugar tenor playin’ softly, softly, An’ Sugar laughin’ …’’ (Keens-Douglas, 1979:34-35, 37) Celebration of the lives of steelbandsmen at their deaths is not confined to poetic representations but is essay application a fact of real life in Trinidad. When Rudolph Charles, the leader of the Desperadoes steelband, died in 1985, his funeral was rivaled only by that of the late prime minister, Dr. Eric Williams. The media mourned him as a national hero, and his body was drawn through the streets of Port of abolition thesis Spain in a casket fashioned from two large steeldrums.
Thousands jammed the downtown square and motivation, the cathedral where his funeral was held. It was attended by custom essays services, the country’s leaders and by the people he had loved and served as bandleader, friend, community leader, and role model for young people. His ashes were scattered by helicopter over Laventille Hill, home base of the Desperadoes. Chu-Foon Pan Sculpture. Steelband has also been honored in the other arts. Patrick Chu-Foon’s sculpture Tribute to essay college motivation, the Steelband in Port of Spain, Errol Hill’s drama The Ping-Pong, and custom essays services, the well-known oil painting Steelband Boys in White by Boscoe Holder are just three of the application motivation better-known examples. About Trusting Yourself. An example of the essay college application motivation enduring pride former steelbandsmen often have in their bands was revealed to strong thesis, me at a professional meeting by a Trinidadian university professor employed in Canada. He showed me his band’s symbolic tattoo on his arm and seemed as proud of that as of his Ph.D. Essay. degree. The Interim Report of the Committee to Consider the Role of the Steelband in writing service, the National Life reported that the steelband movement brought not only a knowledge of music to its adherents: “It contributed the discipline of band organization and of steady practice to essay college application, persons who might never have had such opportunities to acquire skills and disciplines fundamental to proper adjustment to a progressive role in society. Many villages have a steelband (some more than one) and in many cases the leader of the steelband is a member of the Village Council.
There appears also to be great willingness on the part of the Village Council to cooperate in such things as the putting on services, of concerts involving the steelband and essay college application motivation, the loan of the Community Centre for practice sessions by the steelbands… Most rural bands also make it quite clear that they were established for musical enjoyment. The urban bands have become quite commercialized and writing, specialized and as a result do not form as integral a part of college motivation community life as do the Village bands (with the exception of Desperadoes and Casablanca).”(1965:9,11) These findings point out an important factor—that at least some of the urban bands, and many, perhaps most, of the rural ones, play an important role in the community. It is important to realize that the two or three large bands are from poor communities with little else to enhance their images. The community band is a source of pride to the community, which supports it with tremendous enthusiasm and services, devotes time and energy to making it successful. Followers and supporters identify with the band much as some Americans identify with hometown athletic teams. Essay College. It is an important social organization in strong thesis, the community, which may have a practice yard (panyard) or an enclosed practice area or hall that furthermore serves as an important focus of motivation social activity. Furthermore, the leader of a community band may well be an important community leader, as well as act as an intermediary with government officials and the police and civil servants. Bandleaders often provide vital assistance in obtaining jobs for community residents, get them out of cheap trouble with the police, or cut through government red tape. One such leader was the late Rudolph Charles of Desperadoes.
Journalist Peter Blood has observed that: “The panyard of motivation Desperadoes stands precariously nestled atop the lofty heights of Laventille Hill, overlooking the city of essay Port of Spain. Like chromed sentinels, its pans, some of traditional design and others of futuristic form, loom defiantly, fringing the contours of the hill’s peak. Essay College Application Motivation. Pan is dissertation writers a way of life on the Laventille Hill and Desperadoes provide the lifeblood for this vibrant and creative community… Beside being the band’s captain, [Rudolph] Charles also tunes the band’s low pans, and is regarded, amongst other things, the godfather and the sole lawmaker of the hill.” (Blood, 1983:62) Schoolteacher Rudy Piggott, at Rudolph Charles’s funeral, claimed that, “Rudy was the Moses of the people of Laventille. College. We do not even need the police there. Cheap Dissertation Writers Uk. Rudolph was a leader and he controlled us all.” (Piggott, 1985:3). Another mourner, Dalton Narine, referred to Charles as “the beacon on Laventille Hill …a lighthouse signal to the forces of essay application motivation innovation that contributed to an uncommon respect from his peers.” (Narine, 1985:3) Journalist Meryl James Bryan referred to thesis, Charles as “a fallen leader—appointed African style by a council of elders” and as “the General of one of urban Trinidad’s most African populations.
His life symbolized unity and continuity to the people of Laventille, and his death a new life, expanded vision, and renewed commitment to the steelband movement.” (Bryan, 1985:38-39) And a Trinidad Express editorial of April 5, 1985, referred to Rudolph Charles as a welfare officer and community leader. Motivation. In a 1985 interview with a prominent business executive very closely connected to Rudolph Charles’ Desperadoes band, it was observed that: “Charles was an exceptional leader. Dynamic, with personal magnetism and good managerial talents. It was hard to refuse him what he asked for about yourself his band. He was a genius in steelband, an innovator. He built discipline in the band, although some of this was achieved through brute force. Motivation. The Laventille area, home base of the band, is a state within a state, and he was its undisputed leader.
He dispensed money and aid on the Hill like a politician.” (Anonymous 1, 1985:1) Another very close Rudolph Charles confidant, who also asked to remain anonymous, said that he was a very determined person, had an inventive brain, and that though he used physical strength at times to enforce discipline, he was accepted and respected. “He would intervene in court and at police stations to help his followers. Cheap Uk. The doors of government ministries were open to him. He was a skillful manager and a born leader. He even ruled Laventille while he was away, living for most of the last several years in Los Angeles. He worked with the essay application village elders, outside the legitimate county council.” (Anonymous 2, 1985:1).
Not all of the people in essay prompts, the poor sections approved of steelband activity. Some had adopted the attitudes and values of the ruling elite toward noise, drumming, and the entertainments of the poor African masses. Others, often parents of young people, didn’t want their children hanging out with the rough crowd that frequented the panyards in the early years. College Application. Many of the trusting men there engaged in gambling, drinking, carousing, and physical fighting and were generally thought to be a bad element—”badjohns” in application motivation, Trinidad parlance— who were often in trouble with the abolition essay law. Essay. Bertie Marshall, pan player, tuner, and steel drum innovator, recalled that, “I didn’t have to ask my mother’s permission to best writing service, play pan. I knew her well enough to know that I would be able to essay college motivation, hang around pan and panmen only over abolition thesis her dead body” (Marshall, 1972, Vol. 2, No. 1:8). He recalled also that teachers would warn students about hanging around the panmen, but the panyard was on the path he took to and from school and he could hear the sounds of the panyard from his schoolroom. Essay. “So, in spite of everything we hung around and I came to know Spree (Simon) …and others.” (ibid., No.
2:3) The opinions and observations cited above seem to represent the dominant middle-class view of steelbands today in cheap writers uk, Trinidad. At present, they are seen as a unique and creative cultural achievement in essay college application, which all Trinidadians can take pride. This view evolved due to several factors to be discussed later. Unlike an earlier period, today strong criticism of, or negative attitudes toward, steelband music and musicians is abolition thesis minimal. Application. Rather, there is a general feeling of respect and pride for those involved in Trinidadian or West Indian cultural forms. Violence in the Steelband Movement. During the characterization heyday of the steelband era, from roughly 1945 to 1965, there was considerable violence in the movement. There was violence between bands and between bands and the police. It is essay generally accepted that the police-steelbands conflict was related to the noise the bands made, parading on the streets without a permit, stealing dustbins and other items to use as instruments, and the steeldrum’s lack of acceptance by the government, ruling classes, and thesis, police as a legitimate musical instrument. Some also believe the police simply harassed people living in the poorer districts. Inter-band rivalry was related to territoriality, arguments over girl friends, accusations of theft of each others’ tunes, over-enthusiastic followers and essay college application, supporters, or even accident, when, for instance, a bottle was thrown by someone unrelated to either band.
The 1952 report of the government steelbands committee, known as the Canon Farquhar Committee, is instructive in this regard: “The steelband is essay essentially a creation of the masses with their poor housing, overcrowding, unemployment, large families and general lack of opportunity for recreation and cultural expression. It was as if in motivation, unconscious protest of these delimiting circumstances that underprivileged youth evolved a medium of self-expression which seems destined to make a distinctive contribution to about, the cultural life of the West Indies. The typical steelband population is predominantly negroid with a fair sprinkling of East Indians. To them the steelband is not merely another local institution: it is a way of life. Its devotees have their peculiar mode of essay application dress, manner of speech, style of walking and dancing and, though yet in rudimentary form, group codes and norms of their own. Unfortunately, however, this unique form of music-making was characterized by feuds between rival bands. Custom Services. These clashes were invariably instigated by and centered around the young women of essay college application ill repute who followed the bands. There was, too, that element of what might be described as professional jealousy. These clashes became more frequent; public apprehension was aroused, and in the interest of society police intervention became necessary. A state of tension existed, often rendered more acute by sensational headlines in the local press, and the steelband community, despite its internecine conflicts, developed the strong dependency characteristics of an essay outlawed minority group. Characterization Prompts. The movement became a menace; clashes developed into college motivation, pitched battles in which weapons ranging from sticks, stones and bottles to scribers, knives and cutlasses were brought to bear with an about trusting yourself alarming disregard for motivation human life and property.
There were two fatal woundings. Public apprehension gave way to fear. Police action became more decisive, though at times positively unimaginative, and whole bands and even individual members were restricted to 11 rigidly proscribed areas.” (Farquhar, 1952:2-3) According to essay trusting yourself, Albert Gomes, instruments were seized, players roughed up, slums invaded, and players frog-marched to college application, prison cells (1974:99). Similar repressive treatment had been accorded to other African-based cultural forms in the past—the Shouters religion, the calypso singers, and the annual Carnival celebration after it was taken over by the poor and the blacks. Earl Lovelace nicely captured the spirit of this era when he wrote that: “…those were the days when every district around Port of Spain was its own island, and essay yourself, the steelband within its boundaries was its army, providing warriors to college application motivation, uphold it sovereignty. Those were the war days, when every street corner was a garrison; and to be safe, if you came from Belmont, you didn’t let night catch you in St.
James; if your home was Gonzalez Place, you didn’t go up Laventille; and if you lived in Morvant, you passed San Juan straight.” (1979:54) The Trinidadian calypso singer The Mighty Sparrow sang a calypso entitled Outcast about how the strong steelbandsmen were treated: For a long time to associate yourself wid dem. Was a big crime. If you’ sister talk to a steelband man.
De family want to application motivation, break she hand. Lick every teet’ out she mout’ Pass, you a outcast. Other sections of Paul Keens-Douglas’ previously-quoted Sugar George illustrate the defensive side of steelband clashes and the concern of yourself panmen for their instruments: An’ in those years when pan meant fight, Sugar learn to fight. There was no one to pull ah blade. As fast as Sugar George; He cut an’ he get cut too. But people respect Sugar,
For he only fight when he had to. An’ only because he had to. But Sugar never forget he pan, Dey say when fight start an’ band clash, Sugar take care of he pan first. Like ah baby he used to wrap it up an’ hide it, Sometimes in ah canal, sometimes in de bush; An’ woe to de man who touch. De pan of Sugar George. Errol Hill recalls the incessant noisy practicing, often at essay application, times when people wanted peace and quiet.
The noise carried a considerable distance, so people did not want pan beating in towns, but up in the hills somewhere. Thus, the police restricted the beating to best writing, specific hours (1983:3). College Application. Further, recalls Hill: “We always jumped up behind these bands on Carnival Day …and I have been in several …where a rival band is coming and they’re actually in a no-man’s land and you can feel the tension in custom essays, the band as they came closer and closer and closer but no one would leave. College Motivation. On one occasion the characterization essay bands actually crossed each other on the same street, and you could just feel them going and everybody’s looking and the eyes come out all over essay college application your head, looking around to see what’s gonna happen. Occasionally at essay about trusting yourself, that time someone would throw a bottle and that was the essay last thing you’d want to thesis, happen because it would immediately be felt that it’s coming from one of the enemy and all hell would break loose.” (ibid.) The roots of some of the steelband territorial rivalry may well go back to earlier times. Motivation. According to Ralph Araujo: “In those days, the days of the Great Depression, youth in Belmont was generally touched with poverty but not unhappy, full of rivalry but not of factional bitterness. Belmont was the center of our lives. Woodbrook was a place where we had to change tramcars. it lay in a direction in which our elder brothers sometimes sallied forth on their bicycles in pursuit of new girlfriends—and it is interesting how many marriages resulted in cross-breeding of the Woodbrook and strong thesis, Belmont strains.
It was a standing joke…that Belmont boys never married Belmont girls—as we told the girls, they were too “own way.” This Montague/Capulet arrangement seems to have created a certain amount of friendly rivalry between Woodbrook and Newtown boys on the one hand and college application motivation, Belmont boys on the other, a rivalry which sometimes surfaces now amonsgt those who grew up in that era.”(1984:5) George Goddard, old-time panman and early president of the Trinidad Steelband Association, also claims that “turf clashes preceded the development of steelbands and underprivileged youths would have fought among themselves or with the police in any event.” (1983:7). In the abolition eulogy delivered for Wilfred “Speaker” Harrison, early leader of the Desperadoes steelband, he was remembered as having: “insisted that the early Despers all have tatoos on application motivation, their backs, chests or forearms, which was to indicate Life Membership, and be given code names. Essay About Trusting Yourself. He was referred to as The Dresden, and on college application motivation, the battlefield as Sergeant Rollock and sometimes Inspector Fugot, becoming General in charge of Central Intelligence, Despers. He organized battle practice sessions…for all the men he would select to operate with him in launching attacks on the enemy.” At the height of the violent steelband era, it was not only the government, police, and elites in Trinidad who feared or were against the steelband clashes. Best College Writing Service. A calypso of the college motivation time advised the government to “ …give the hooligans the old time cat-o-nine and they bound to change their mind. With licks like fire send them Carrera (a prison island) and they bound to surrender.” (DeLeon,1983:5).ld-time panman Carleton Constantine, popularly known as Zigili, recalls that: “So much different things used to cause them.
A woman from one band, she have a man from one bnd and probably see a next guy from a next band. Characterization Essay Prompts. That is one of the factors. Then…sometimes …like tunes bands playing—this band playing this tune say the next one take their tune. In a dance where drinks is concerned— anything, anything at all, because that was a era that violence was very high. So anything could start a fight.” (1983:4)
Concerning the weapons used in clashes, Tony Slater states that, “bottles (were used), one or two people may have a gun …a lot of essay college people get damaged, a lot of instruments get damaged; ‘67 was the worst, it was a total wreck. All amplification, everything mash up. It was a form of jealousy.” (1983:8) Curtis Pierre offers a chilling account of his personal experience in a 1953 steelband clash: “There was a certain amount of turf rivalry, which there is in any type of group activity. For no other reason than, you know, you just want to be King of the Rock and college, guys said, ‘You’re from essay application, Belmont and you should not be walking in best writing service, Woodbrook.’ It had nothing to do with the essay application motivation quality of your music, it had nothing to do with whether you had their girl, people have advanced all kinds of reasons, that, you know, this girl was seen walking with a guy from Invaders so that the boy from Desperadoes got annoyed. My experience in strong thesis, 1953 when steelbands were asked to come on the road for the coronation of Elizabeth when she was crowned; we had a clash with a band called Ebonites. It was not anything that they knew who we were or we knew who they were. Some little incident sparked it off and college application, it got real messy.
You know, guys were swinging baseball bats. I got hit with a baseball bat. Lucky nobody was holding it at the time, somebody just flung it across. One guy next to essay, me got his cheek cut open with a razor. College Motivation. That was the scariest part, you just saw the flesh part and you saw the teeth and a couple minutes after, the blood. One guy came charging at me with what looked like a piece of a kitchen fork, a large kitchen fork, and all I could do was raise the tenor pan I had and hit him across the bridge of his nose and essays, that I remember also seeing the bone just go white and the guy’s eyes closed and essay college application motivation, he flaked out and I disappeared. But it was not a pitched, prolonged battle. Within minutes there were sirens and everybody scattered.
Nor were there any sort of vindictive feelings in that particular battle.” (1983:5) World War II saw several U.S military bases in Trinidad, and many movies with violent war, gangster, and Western themes. The steelbands took on some of the films’ names, individual steelbandsmen took actors’ names for their nicknames and characterization, emulated actors’ behavior. There are still steelbands bearing some of these movie-inspired names. Pat Chu-Foon recalls that: “ …those were the days when we used to see a lot of motivation these films with Back to Bataan and custom services, Robert Taylor and Audie Murphy. It inspire the moviegoer and these poor fellas, some of them just lived in the cinema in those days. Most of essay motivation them didn’t work, other than playing pan, tuning pan, lazing around playing a game of essay trusting wappie (a card game), they just scrunt for some money to go to the next matinee and after seeing a good war picture they want to essay college motivation, do the same thing, and this is characterization essay what caused a lot of thing, with the steelband clashing those periods.
It was like a game. You would see fellas go up and say, ‘Look, we going up to college motivation, beat Casablanca tonight. Invaders, we going and beat the Invaders.’ You hear how the names are, all war names. Dependency Thesis. Invaders from Woodbrook coming up to clash with so and so and they meet on this corner. Men used to walk with razors in their waist.” (1983:4-5) The steelband badjohn role was an important one, a source of identity for many young Trinidadian males that had to be maintained, even if only as a front. Bertie Marshall reports, “I cultivated my badjohn image.
But my badjohnism was a pose really. Still, it was necessary to cultivate the image. Essay Motivation. And I managed to do this yet at the same time keeping my hands clean—except for a couple of trusting yourself gambling cases which were no big thing, really. College Application. But the dependency thesis image was an important thing in essay college application motivation, those days.” (Marshall, 1972: Vol. 2, No. 5:9) Positive Influences of the Steelband Movement. Not all of the experiences of the steelband movement were negative. There are success stories on all levels. As Carleton Constantine (Zigili) said in essay prompts, 1983: “I have to essay application motivation, be very grateful to cheap writers uk, steelband.
Because I left this country in 1956 . and essay college, lived in the UK and up to this day I am making a living from characterization prompts, steelband. It was good to me because I have seen the world, I have traveled through the whole of Europe, the Middle East, Far East, and still playing.” (1983:5) Steelband music provided many young Trinidadian males with opportunities for personal growth and the development of leadership skills that they found useful in other areas of their lives. College Motivation. Curtis Pierre, in cheap dissertation writers uk, response to an open-ended query about steelband, said that: “A lot of the distance I’ve covered in my life both in terms of a businessman, as a father, as an essay organizer, I can safely say that the experience I’ve gained, I owe it completely to my exposure in the steelband world. I’ve learned how to essay, deal with people, I’ve learned how to handle people, I’ve learned how to take insults, I’ve learned how to give. You know, it is really a forge for straightening out your whole approach to life.” (1983:10) George Yeates reports on a perhaps unforeseen outcome of the essay motivation police-band violence of the early steelband era: “I had been able to command a great respect among steelbandsmen, and prompts, I had that disturbance (a steelband clash) quelled. I did as much work or perhaps even more work than the police, because most of the time the police would come and call me and essay college application, ask me to go with them whenever they had any steelband clashes.
Superintendent Barnes would always come and strong dependency thesis, call me to go speak to both sides because when it came to essay college application motivation, Despers, and I held the prompts reins of Despers, I would try to keep them out of any further clashes and let them know that those who want to fight cannot be in the band that I run because I am thinking in preparing the band for the music festival and improving the arts, improving the instrument, and these steelband clashes is interfering with my works.”(1983:5-6) Social Change and Acceptance of college application motivation Steelbands. A precise ordering of the factors that influenced the gradual acceptance of abolition thesis steelband music is not possible, since they overlapped and since there is no consensus even among persons on the scene, concerning the essay college application chronology of events and their importance. Growing acceptance due to one factor brought about acceptance in another area. The factors contributing to steelbands’ greater acceptance include the following: 1. Acceptance by several influential citizens, including writers, intellectuals, lawyers, musicians, and politicians. 2. Government concern, expressed in committee reports and the formation of a steelband association. 3. Commercial sponsorship. 4. Successful exportation to essay yourself, and enthusiastic reception of steel bands in foreign countries.
5. Open support from the People’s National Movement political party. 6. Involvement in the bands of white, light-skinned, and better-educated middle-class persons, including more middle-class women. 7. Refinements in the instruments. 8. The playing of essay application motivation semi-classical and classical music. 9. Involvement of steelbands in music festivals, in churches, at funerals, and at middle-and upper-class social gatherings.
10. A resurgence of custom services Black Power and pride in the early 1970s. Support of essay application Influential Citizens. Starting in about 1946, the Trinidad Youth Council and its members, including attorney and musician Lenox Pierre, Canon Farquhar, Kelvin Scoon, and essays, Errol Hill, made consistent efforts to gain social acceptance of steelband music, instruments, players, and supporters. Essay College Motivation. Albert Gomes was another outspoken supporter who fought the tide of popular and official opinion of steelbands long before the government committees were appointed. Custom Essays. He was “frequently at the office of the Commissioner of Police, more often than not accompanied by the steelband boys themselves, lodging complaints against provocative acts by college motivation, the police.
But the police were no more than instruments of the prevailing prejudice… The root cause of it all was intense class feeling.” (Gomes, 1974:99). At a 1945 meeting of the Legislative Council, to which he had just been elected, Gomes said, “Some people feel that some others should never enjoy themselves …and that the music should belong to one particular class… Personally, while I sit and prompts, enjoy Beethoven, it does not blind me to the fact that we have got to live among a people …of divers races and creeds, and that we cannot fit these in a particular design.” (ibid.) Other respected members of society became outspoken advocates of the steelband movement. Beryl McBurnie, dancer, choreographer, and founder of the Little Carib Theatre, brought the Invaders steelband into her theater for a performance in 1948 and also got a number of middle-class young men and women involved in steelband. Government Concern, Recommendations, and Action. The 1952 Farquhar Committee report noted that: “ …the government appointed a committee in November of 1949 to investigate the implications of the (steelband) problem and in essay motivation, April of 1950 the steelbands themselves organized a representative body known as the Trinidad and Tobago Steel Bands Association… With the setting up of machinery for negotiating with the Steel Bands public reaction became more sympathetic, and a new psychological approach to the problem gradually became evident. The steel percussion orchestra, as the steelband is now known, is no longer regarded as an outlawed nuisance. These orchestras perform at social clubs, hotels, concerts and dances and, in many instances, have almost replaced the traditional orchestra.
It is hopefully significant too, to observe the formation of steel orchestras among middle-class youth of both sexes.” (Farquhar, 1952:5). A major concern of the committee was expressed in its findings: “The cohesion and unity inherent in the steelband movement constitute a great social force which should be exploited and directed into constructive channels. The steelband movement is abolition essay thesis a people’s movement. It has captured the imagination and energies of the youth of our masses, and provides a ready-made entity around which a whole system of educational activities and recreational interests can be advantageously organized. The steelband movement and college, the problems which stem from it must he viewed as an integral part of the general pattern of social and economic life peculiar to the masses of the colony. In this context one underlying conclusion emerges: there is imperative need for an awakening of a national sense of community responsibility.” (ibid.: n.p.)
Although the 1965 interim report of another government-appointed steelband committee found some fault with the Steelband Association’s leadership and cooperation, it could observe that: “ …the Steelbandsmen feel that they have improved the social situation in respect of gang warfare and best writing, that the Association (which was formed partly for that purpose) and the National Steelband have improved the situation in respect of inter-band relationships. The Police are also satisfied that the steelbands as such pose no problem to the peace and order of society” (Interim Report, 1965:9) The same report recommended “continuing most vigorously the struggle for social acceptance of the Steelband Movement at home and acceptance and recognition of the movement abroad.” Commercial sponsorship of the bands was another, to some a dubious, advantage, carrying with it some control over the bands and less independence than they had previously enjoyed. Nevertheless, the bands needed the legitimacy, status, funding, and perhaps organization that sponsorship could provide. Oil companies, banks, airlines, and similar large enterprises sponsored steel bands starting in motivation, the 1950s. They supplied uniforms emblazoned with their names, as were the drums themselves, and the sponsors enjoyed good publicity and public relations benefits. They sometimes sent the bands to other islands or to Europe, Canada, or the United States. Recalling his early association with the West Indian Tobacco Company as the sponsor of his Desperadoes steelband, George Yeates said that, “From then onwards, this is where I can say that Despers has been the trendsetters…for good behavior in the steelband movement, because they no longer had cause to fight…they were thinking that they would lose their sponsorship, so that sort of held them.” (1983:7)
Other panmen expressed their views on uk, the role of sponsorship in the steelband movement. Curtis Pierre thought: “It was a good thing because even though we all know it came from the underprivileged, when this thing started to evolve and the costs started to go up, the bands who had a sponsor …you found that those bands were better. And then the sponsorship thing got very, very big and motivation, the government got onto it and decided, ‘Okay, well this would be a nice vote-catching gimmick if we can tell the steelbandsmen that we are giving instructions to the business community to sponsor their bands.’ So from a devious motive came a very good end result. Thesis. It went out of control in the last couple years where sponsors were being called upon to pay some thing like twenty or thirty thousand dollars a year for college a band.” (I983:4) “Sponsorships play a good part (in easing the tension). To me it give and it takes. Because some people say you lost your name, but you get money. And a lot of custom services bands need money because preparing a band for Panorama (a Carnival steelband competition) is expensive.
Sponsors have done a lot. They needed money to college application, progress and sponsorship assisted a lot of cheap dissertation writers uk bands to progress. Some bands don’t need sponsors, they get along somehow. But the bands with sponsors, those are the progressive bands today.” (1963:8). Pat Chu-Foon’s opinion of sponsorship throws a new light on the issue: “Well, long after when they settle down properly and they were like gentlemen of pan, and essay college motivation, pan started to make history in Europe, then and only then certain top companies started to assist to choose sponsorships here and there.” (1983:12). Sponsorship did not blossom, in fact, until after the successful 1951 European tour of the Trinidad All Steel Percussion Orchestra, discussed in more detail below. The Steelband Abroad. Another important factor in the increasing acceptance of steelband music was its exportation to other countries.
In 1951, under the sponsorship of the cheap uk Trinidad Youth Council, an all-star steelband, called the Trinidad All-Steel Percussion Orchestra (TASPO) was sent to England to play at the Festival of Britain, and to college, France. The 1952 Farquhar Report stated that the band “convincingly demonstrated the possibilities of the steel orchestras as a distinct and original contribution to the field of music.” (1952:n.p.). Errol Hill has observed that: “They were very successful, and once the pan became recognized as a new kind of musical form in custom essays, England, then the local population had to accept it. Once people outside said, ‘this is great, there’s something here that needs development.’ “(1983:5) Led by police lieutenant Joseph Griffith, the band amazed the European audiences. A London correspondent wrote: “People smiled indulgently as the motivation rusty pans were rolled off the cart and set up. It seemed impossible that music could come out of such unlikely instruments. But jaws dropped and eyes widened as the first sweet notes were struck and the band swung into Mambojambo. Dissertation Writers Uk. Feet were soon tapping to the rhythm of the application motivation music.” (Hill, 1972:51) The music critic of the Manchester Guardian found the essay prompts band’s playing of Toselli’s Serenade “equal to anything that a first-class band could offer. The playing is wonderfully skilled.” (ibid. :51) Today there are steelbands in many countries outside Trinidad. There is a U.S.
Navy steelband organized with the essay college application help of Trinidadian Ellie Mannette and steelbands in Boston, New York, Washington-Baltimore, Montreal, Toronto, and in high schools, colleges, and universities throughout the United States, thanks largely to Mannette, now living in the United States, and other Trinidadian promoters. Dependency Thesis. This spread is at once the result of, and evidence for, acceptance and creates even more legitimacy. Support by the People’s National Movement Party (PNM) Errol Hill reports that: US Navy Steelband. “After 1956, with the coming to power of Williams’ People’s National Movement, we saw a change in the whole psychology of the people. Essay. They had at last got in a government of their own that purported to represent the people. They were moving toward self-government.
It was necessary to establish an indigenous culture, and there was a great surge forward to find those elements of our culture that could be identified as belonging to Trinidad and Tobago. The calypso was one, the steelband was another. And I think as a result of this that the custom steelband began to come into essay college, its own.” (1983:8-9) J. D. Elder supports this view: “The sickening picture has undergone radical transformation. The most obvious change in the carnival calypso- steelband movement is the essay prompts demonstration, at State level, of the admission that Trinidad popular music and musical festivals are elements of a high order in essay application motivation, the national culture and that government has responsibility to abolition, so recognize it and college application, give tangible demonstration of this attitude. This move is vitalizing; it has been effective in raising to services, a high status not only the traditional music…but it has also elevated the total folk cultural complex to college, a status never known in the past. Folklore in all its forms has suddenly attained an attractive status. This new awakening in the whole society to the fact that the folk and their art and craft are important, must be put down squarely to the new attitude of government.”(1968:25-26). Susan Craig has observed that, “the PNM had an abolition appeal for the urban unemployed, especially those who had created the steelbands. Steel bandsmen became the unofficial ‘army’ of the college application motivation PNM in 1956.” (1982:391). Thesis. George Yeates, in a 1983 interview, said that if Despers were to essay college motivation, simply move in characterization, and play in college, an area in support of a political candidate, that could almost assure election.
They could do this even without a police permit to play. The police would be afraid of them because of their reputation and, in any event, would not want to shoot their own people (1983:12). Others have contended that whoever controls the Desperadoes controls the whole Laventille area. And the band has always supported the PNM. Bands in the PNM areas prospered after they came to power, but then so did many others, because of the cultural resurgence. Selwyn Mohamed has stated that the PNM does get Despers and other bands to help it. About Trusting Yourself. The bands, says Mohamed, disrupt meetings of other political parties and they take people to the polls. A political party split in one band caused bloodshed before the election, and for some PNM functions, only Casablanca would play. (1985:2) In 1956 Bertie Marshall formed a small band he named the PNM Band, because they played at everything the PNM had in motivation, Laventille. The PNM office was near their practice yard, and custom services, although the PNM officials always praised the band and essay college application motivation, promised to help them, “I have never gotten any of the things promised me by thesis, members of government over essay college the last fifteen or sixteen years. Still, we played as the PNM Band.” (Marshall, Vol.
2, No. 4:4). Although the evidence is mixed concerning the precise role the government, ruling party, and bands play with respect to essay, each other, Curtis Pierre points out that, clearly, the steelbandsmen constitute a potentially valuable voting bloc: “You would look at the number of bands and they are made up of fifty guys each, and each one of those guys has a spin-off factor of 4.3 or something like that in his family. If you get hold of some of those bands and you multiply by forty and essay college application motivation, then multiply by five, you have a sizable voting population.” (1983:4-5) Personal Involvement of the Middle Class. The acceptance of steelbands grew when middle-class, lighter-skinned, and white young people started getting involved, often over the strenuous objections of their parents, teachers, friends, and relatives. Essay Trusting. Curtis Pierre became involved in 1949: “I took the instrument home and I got enough flak from my parents, ‘What the application motivation hell you doing with this thing here? I don’t care who plays that. Essay About Yourself. This is the underprivileged.’” (1983:1).
The grouping in my band would be considered a little above middle class, which was anathema, that kind of essay thing was just not done by people in essay, that class” (ibid. :2). Pierre attributes to his group the change in the degree to essay college motivation, which steelbandsmen and women are accepted in writers, society: “We have been told it’s because of our group…that …’ You fellas made a breakthrough. You guys don’t realize what you did. You fought society and you said, We’re going to make this thing great’”(1983:3). Concerning the racial makeup of essay application motivation his band, Dixieland, he says that, “it could be considered what the people here would call fair-skinned boys. And there was not a predominance of Negroes in it at all, mainly because that was what middle class meant in those days. Custom Essays. And that’s true, middle class had a certain color. It no longer applies today… These boys from the best schools,…you found they were all fair-skinned.” (ibid. :6).
Teacher, pan player, and motivation, arranger Ray Holman recalls that: The change came about dependency thesis, when people like myself, who might have the essay motivation benefit of a secondary school education, began to come into the bands. So people began to look, the public at large began to look at it a little differently.” (1983:3). The principal of my college, Queen’s Royal College, was an English Army Officer; he was a pretty stern fellow. He couldn’t really understand how I could get involved in that (steelbands). It was like a social outcast at dependency thesis, the time.” (ibid.:6). The band he joined at essay college application motivation, age thirteen, the Oval Invaders, accepted him easily: “They were very glad to have us.
It was like we injected something new so we were very welcome and essay thesis, we had a privileged place in the band. Essay Application. If you are mixing with people, sometimes you would have to abolition essay thesis, follow the crowd. But following the crowd for me didn’t mean getting involved in essay college application motivation, violence. It just meant playing pan…having a good time within the custom essays services limits of certain standards. I saw my role should have been to try to uplift them, rather than my coming down. College. This is how I saw it.” (ibid.:7-8).
George Goddard believes that only when middle-class youth began being brought up on abolition thesis, charges before the essay college police magistrates did public concern over steelband grow and efforts begin to “reform” the thesis movement and work with it. This concern speeded up the changes, even if they might have come eventually without middle-class involvement (1983:2). The 1965 Interim Report of the Committee on college motivation, the Role of Steelband in National Life reported that much of the struggle for essay about trusting social acceptance has been fought by persons outside of the groups from essay, which the original steelbands sprang: “The efforts…of Dixieland (a group of the St. Mary’s pupils which contained many persons of largely European descent) which persisted in the early 1950s despite some disapproval by some persons closely connected to its members, and Girl Pat (an all female steelband of teachers, civil servants, etc.) of the writers uk early 1950s. Now we find that there is an appreciable number of ex-Secondary School pupils in the Steelband Movement and the movement has enjoyed such confidence of the application Community that it has been upwardly socially mobile to the extent that it embraces many persons who would be classified in custom essays services, our society as middle class.
Racial integration has perhaps been the most resounding sociological achievement of the steelband movement. Born in circumstances rather confined to one ethnic group—the Negro—it has spread to college motivation, every ethnic group in society…We have come across no bands whose rules relating to recruitment would restrict admission of any sector of the population…The steelband movement has made a most significant contribution to abolition essay thesis, the integration of the races.” (1965:10) Changes in essay motivation, the Repertoire and Instruments. Steelbands were more accepted when the cheap instruments became more refined and melodious, when bands started playing more difficult classical and semi-classical music, and as they performed at local and foreign music festivals and competitions, in churches, at weddings, and at middle and upper class social gatherings. Curtis Pierre believes that the music sounds better today because money and sponsors have led to improvements in the instruments.
“The instruments can be tuned better and you can afford a better class of arrangers, musically, and they’re not afraid to tackle any type of music. When that kind of music is played, it will naturally attract a more curious and probably a better style of individual to play.” (1983:8-9). Kelvin Scoon, Trinidadian businessman, steelband supporter, calypso judge, and former Secretary of the Youth Council, contends that panmen themselves wanted to essay application motivation, learn to play the cheap writers classics in essay application motivation, order to dissertation writers uk, use more notes, to challenge and stretch the range of essay application motivation their instruments and their own abilities, not to please others or to prompts, be more accepted by them. They first broadened their repertoires to include Latin and popular music. (1985:2) Musician, conductor, and arranger Pat Bishop points out that at first the playing of classical music, religious music, hymns, or Christmas carols was met with revulsion by the upper classes. They were shocked that such “lofty” music would be attempted with the crude instruments and felt the essay application motivation steel drum unworthy of the effort. But the pan players persisted and gradually their music was accepted. Thesis. (1985:2). According to Scoon, compared to the early days of the steeldrum, the sound of today’s instruments is far more refined, mellower in tone, and there is a much wider range of pitches utilized. Forty years ago there were not as many types of drum, and essay college motivation, the repertoire consisted primarily of essay yourself calypsoes and Latin music. Popular and classical pieces were added, and a variety of essay college motivation arrangements used.
Considerable talent and ingenuity in tuning and designing the instruments has evolved, and more is known about working the metal and tempering it. Essay Prompts. The drumsticks are now rubber-tipped, creating a mellower tone. Influences from college, jazz and fusion and constantly evolving experimental arrangements characterize the present repertoire. (1985:1) Although there is no empirical evidence to verify the observation, it seems quite likely that as the steelbands began to engage in sponsored musical competitions with audiences including middle-class people, they sought to maintain and increase the latter’s interest and support by striving for a smoother, more refined sound, a wider range of notes, and dissertation writers uk, a broader repertoire. Essay Application. They were also motivated by their own inner desire to cheap, stretch their talents and essay, the potential of their instruments by taking on more challenging musical scores and showing themselves, their fellow countrymen, and the world what could be achieved with talent, hard work, and dependency thesis, an instrument of humble origins. The attention received from respected musical personages, both local and foreign, at first informally and then more formally at college application, competitions, carnival time and steelband festivals, encouraged those involved in services, steelband music to expand and excel. The middle-class social contexts in application motivation, which they were asked to play also had an impact on the kinds of music they found appropriate. Participation in Music Competitions. In 1952 steelbands were invited to participate in the prestigious biennial music festival in Trinidad and essays, foreign music adjudicators judged their performances. One of these, Dr. Sydney Northcote from England, at first quite skeptical about steel bands, eventually came to hail the college motivation music as “truly astonishing.” In 1956 he commented that “their performance was orchestral in every way.
The melodic line was beautifully smooth, almost like the abolition playing of a string orchestra The technical skill of it all proved that there are possibilities of motivation acquiring with the steelband an orchestral precision.” (Hill, 1972:52). The enthusiastic reception of steelbands by yourself, the U.S. College Application Motivation. armed forces stationed in Trinidad also enhanced their image, as did their inclusion in the carnival celebrations. Today it is not unusual in Trinidad to hear and see live steelband music in church services, at funerals, at wedding ceremonies or receptions, diplomatic affairs, or middle-and upper-class parties. There has been some decline in recent years, however, due to the high costs of steel bands, competition from U.S. music styles, and the bands’ more limited repertoire (they have largely become “one-tune bands” for essay about trusting yourself the annual carnival steelband competition). Today there are all women steelbands, bands sponsored by companies for application their employees, and children’s steel bands. Summary and Analysis of Factors of Social Change. The gradual acceptance of steelband music seems to have started with a few outspoken persons who, motivated by social conscience, egalitarian ideology, nationalistic pride, and favorable attitudes toward Afro-Trinidadian culture, pressured the government for acceptance, tolerance, change, and characterization essay prompts, involvement.
Government concern led to the formation of a steelband association of essay motivation concerned citizens and, along with commercial sponsorship, inroads were made with the college writing service general citizenry. After foreign acceptance of the essay college application music and the instruments, even more local middle-class people supported the development of steel bands. When it was seen in the early 1960s that local middle-class, white, educated youth were taking steeldrum music seriously, and even excelling at cheap dissertation writers uk, it, involvement in it became popular (Pierre, 1983:3). Politically and historically the mid-1950s were suitable for the development of a Trinidadian and West Indian identity and pride. Great Britain was granting independence to essay college application motivation, its colonies. Custom Services. Local political leaders needed and wanted the support of the motivation masses and would not have been wise to oppose a form of musical and cultural expression that was so vital to their identity. As the instruments developed a more refined and best college, mellow tone, and as they were used to play semi-classical and classical pieces, the motivation middle classes slowly began to accept them.
Because their social and dependency thesis, personal identities had been so closely linked to steelband music, some panmen may have suffered from the college application greater involvement of government and the middle class. Generally though, because of greater involvement in formal education and in the labor market, Trinidadians were upwardly mobile during the era of the rise of the steel bands, and about, they developed alternate and supplemental social roles and identities (Scoon, 1985:1). Most bands seem to application motivation, have benefited from the involvement of the middle classes because sponsorship and support allowed them to hire expensive arrangers and characterization essay, tuners, as well as to purchase quality instruments and uniforms, and at times to travel abroad. This is a question on motivation, which opinions differ, however. Steelbands have undergone considerable change. Their role in the annual carnival celebration, at first a progressive step, has diminished considerably. The large carnival masquerade groups, some numbering three thousand, cannot hear the steel bands playing while they are parading.
The steelbands do not want to use amplification, and their method of moving on the streets, with somewhat clumsy racks or stands, seems to hinder their effectiveness at carnival. They are being replaced with brass bands using amplification or by disc jockeys. Cheap Uk. Panorama, the steelband competition at essay application motivation, carnival, has caused bands to focus on one tune they can perform very well, so they reduce their repertoire for ftes and other social events. The Panorama, many observers believe, is now seen by steel bandsmen as the whole carnival and abolition, not just one part of it. Some bandsmen will move from a band unsuccessful in the preliminary rounds of the competition to play for bands making it to the semifinals or finals, evidence that the legendary loyalty to a particular band has decreased. Arrangers are Trinidadians living abroad and essay college motivation, command very high salaries for preparing music for the annual Panorama competition. Sponsors may pay up to $250,000 a year to support a band and $100,000 is not uncommon. The players do not earn much money, the bulk going to the captains and arrangers. In 1985 the Black Power-oriented National Joint Action Committee issued a national appeal to fte promoters to strong dependency thesis, hire steelbands rather than disc jockeys to support their national heritage throughout the year (Obika, 1985:1). It is essay college application motivation hard to keep bands together throughout the year. Some feel that drug use is part of this problem; others point out that there is also competition from jobs (more panplayers are employed than before), education (more are in school), and prompts, television.
More people play alternate roles in society and find the pan player role merely subsidiary. Some bands have established working relationships with schools whereby they recruit a pool of players from the schools and in return provide pan instruction in college application motivation, their panyards. Pan seems to thesis, reflect less cultural and national pride today. More panmen need and application, want pay. Curtis Pierre contends that today’s steelbands are too large to be hired for about social events such as weddings or ftes. He feels they should number about fifteen players and use amplifiers to cut the costs and increase bookings (1983:8).
Socioeconomic class, color, and race have affected the creation and evolution of essay college motivation steelband music in Trinidad and Tobago. African customs, including skin drumming, were suppressed by about trusting yourself, the British colonial government and later by many elite or status-seeking black and colored persons who wished to disassociate themselves from the music, instruments, and life-styles of Trinidad’s poor urban masses of African heritage. Because the instrument and the social organization of the steel bands came to symbolize important, even vital, forms of cultural and racial expression, the poor, urban Afro-Trinidadian steel bandsmen and women persisted in their efforts, refining the instrument and sharpening their own musical talents and skills, expanding their musical repertoire, and eventually winning the support, encouragement, and active assistance of a few key people in essay college motivation, Trinidad and abroad. The organization of the bands provided needed social roles for players and services, opportunities for bandleaders to develop and demonstrate leadership skills and thus fill leadership roles otherwise unavailable to them in the society. Not all of this leadership was channeled into violent conflicts with other bands or the police, and application motivation, many steelbandsmen have credited their experiences with steelband music with developing skills they have used in work or life in general. Their self-image, as well as that of the players, was enhanced by their roles in the steelband. Best Service. As the steelbands gained favor both at home and essay, abroad, they were viewed as symbols of individual, racial, community, and national pride and abolition, as a unique creative accomplishment. As recognition from abroad grew so too did support at home from higher-status persons. The several factors that contributed to the gradually increased acceptance of the bands, the college application players, their instruments, and music indicate that this acceptance was achieved at the expense of the bands’ independence and that it came about only after the musical repertoire had changed, business had exercised some control over the bands’ behavior (lighter-skinned, white, and higher-status people had joined the cheap movement and the government openly supported it.) In short, it was not accepted on its own merits, but was changed by those who could confer legitimacy and essay college application, higher status on it. Paget Henry, writing on decolonization and neocolonialism, has observed that there is abolition essay a locally rooted demand for foreign culture, persisting even after decolonization. As a result of colonial domination, the college application motivation colonized ceased to have an easy, creative, and self-reflexive relationship with their cultural environment.
Elements of it had now been systematically imposed from without. (Henry and Stone, 1983:115) Colonial domination further inhibited the demand for the words, songs, ideas, and other products of the local cultural system. Abolition. There was a greater demand for foreign cultural products. Decolonization only partially uprooted the set of essay motivation social and strong dependency thesis, psychological processes that generated the demand for imported culture. The demand for essay college motivation foreign culture shows no signs of abating, writes Henry (ibid.: 1l6), and the major dynamic in the foreign sector of the cultural system is the institutionalization of a growing American presence (ibid.:117). This helps explain why many Trinidadian intellectuals, artists, and musicians blame the lack of services what they consider sufficient local support for the steelband on the influx of American music and lifestyle in essay college application motivation, general, which they feel many Trinidadians are adopting too readily, trying to strong thesis, “live like Yankees” at the expense of their own culture’s contributions. Although steelband music has become much more accepted in Trinidad and essay college, Tobago and abroad, it still faces competition from essay about, foreign musical tastes and difficulties caused by technology, costs, and a lingering and essay application, deeply-rooted self-denigration on the part of many Trinidadians. I am deeply grateful for the invaluable assistance of Anthony and Avril Bryan, Mackie Burnette, Deborah Cabral, Rhode Island College Dean of Arts and Sciences David Greene, Professor Errol Hill of Dartmouth College, Yvonne James of Providence, RI , and Arima, Trinidad and essay trusting yourself, Tobago, Cynthia Mahabir of Suffolk University, Boston, Ancil McLean, Judith Philip, Everald Philip, Charles Price, Kelvin Scoon, Daniel Segal, the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Rhode Island College Faculty Research Committee and the talented and dedicated steelbandsmen and women of Trinidad and Tobago. 1. Anonymous 1, 1985, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 2. Anonymous 2, 1985, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.
3. Araujo, Ralph, 1984, Memoirs of a Belmont Boy, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago: Imprint Caribbean Ltd. 4. Bishop, Patricia, 1985, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 5. Blood, Peter, 1983, People in Carnival , Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago: Imprint Caribbean Ltd. 6. Brereton, Bridget, 1979, Race Relations in application motivation, Colonial Trinidad, 1870-1900, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 7. Characterization. Brereton, Bridget, 1981, A History of essay motivation Modern Trinidad, 1783-1962, Kingston, Jamaica: Heinemann University Press. 8. Abolition Thesis. Cho-Foon, Patrick, 1983, personal interview, Port of essay college Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 9. Dissertation Uk. Constantine, Carleton, 1983, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and essay college motivation, Tobago. 10.
Craig, Susan, 1982, Contemporary Caribbean: A Sociological Reader. Vol. 2., Maracas, Trinidad and Tobago, College Press 11. Da Silva, Fabio B., 1984, The Sociology of strong dependency Music, Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press. 12. DeLeon, Rafael, 1983, personal interview, Mt.
Lambert, Trinidad and Tobago. 13. Elder, J. D., 1968, Social Development of the Traditional Calypso of Trinidad and college application, Tobago, Mimeographed, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago: University of the West Indies. 14. Farquhar, M. E., 1952, Report of the cheap dissertation writers Government Steel Bands Committee, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 15. Goddard, George, 1983, personal interview, Diego Martin, Trinidad and Tobago.
16. Application. Gomes, Albert, 1974, Through a Maze of Colour, Port of Spain, Trinidad and best college writing, Tobago: Key Caribbean Publications. 17. Henry, Paget, and Carl Stone, editors, 1983, The Newer Caribbean: Decolonization, Democracy, and Development, Philadelphia: Institute for the Study of Human Issues. 18. Essay Application. Hill, Errol, 1972, The Trinidad Carnival, Austin: University of Texas Press. 19. Hill, Errol, 1983 , personal interview, Hanover, N.H. 20. Holman, Raymond, 1983, personal interview, Woodbrook, Trinidad and Tobago. 21.
Interim Report of the Committee Appointed to essay about yourself, Consider the college Role of the Steelband in the National Life, 1965, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 22. Keens-Douglas, Paul, 1979, When Moon Shine, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, College Press. 23. Keer, D. F., 1981, Music of the Pans, Information Bulletin Series F, 91, No. 4., Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago: Trinidad and Tobago Tourist Board. 24. Lovelace, Earl, 1979, The Dragon Can’t Dance, Essex, England: Longman Group. 25.
Mahabir, Cynthia, 1986, “Steeldrums,” Faces: The Magazine about People (Sept.):33-35. 26. Marshall, Bertie, 1972, “The Bertie Marshall Story,” Tapia, Vols. Essay About Trusting. 1, 2, 4, 5. 27. Martin, Von, 1981, Audio tape on the Trinidad steelband movement, Washington, D.C. 28. Mohamed, Selwyn, 1985, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.
29. Obika, Nyahuma, 1985, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 30. Essay College Motivation. Pierre, Curtis, 1983, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 31. Dependency Thesis. Pierre, Curtis, n.d., “History of the Drum” Script for slide/tape program, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 32. Pile, Oscar, 1983, personal interview, Barataria, Trinidad and Tobago. 33. Scoon, Kelvin, 1985, personal interview, Bay Shore, Trinidad and Tobago. 34.
Seeger, Peter, 1961, The Steeldrums of Kim Loy Wong, New York: Oak Publications. 35. Shepherd, John C., 1979, “Music and Social Control: An Essay on the Sociology of Musical Knowledge,” Catalyst, 13:1-54. 36. Slater, Tony, 1983, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and college application, Tobago. 37. Warner, Keith Q., 1982, Kaiso!
The Trinidad Calypso, Washington, D.C.: Three Continents Press. 38. Weber, Max, 1958, The Rational and Social Foundations of Music, edited and translated by Don Martindale, Johannes Reidel, and abolition, Gertrude Neuwirth, Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. 39. Yeates, George, 1983, personal interview, Belmont, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.