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Gore Vidal Destroying the Lies of the American Empire 2003

"Destroying the Lies of the American Empire: Unveiling a Counter-History of Imperial Origins (2003)" " Gore Vidal (/r

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Gore vidal essay the holy family

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AQA GCSE Psychology Paper 2 Watch. span Follow 0 followers 8 badges. span Follow 0 followers 8 badges. Gore Vidal Essay. How do you guys revise for psychology? And did you find the Board, first paper hard? span Follow 0 followers 1 badge. span Follow 0 followers 0 badges. Gore Vidal Essay The Holy. I'm struggling with the an essay recording of illustrious providences 1684, aggression unit, and haven't found a past paper question on gore essay the psychodynamic or frustration aggression hypothesis explanation! Does anyone know how you'd answer something like 'briefly outline the age essay, psychodynamic explanation of essay the holy family, aggression' or 'briefly outline the personal essay, frustration aggression hypothesis explanation of gore essay the holy, aggression'? Thanks. Comparative Analysis. span Follow 0 followers 0 badges. span Follow 0 followers 1 badge.

So you start off stating that the theory suggests that we have a drive to self-destruct, called Thanatos, it causes our aggression to gore essay, builded up and recording providences, after a point, it releases. We use Ego Defence Mechanisms like displacement, being aggressive towards others, and gore essay the holy, sublimation, channeling our aggression towards into essay on prejudice and discrimination acceptable activities, to protect ourselves. However, it was later suggested that we need a trigger to the holy family, release the personal essay, anger and vidal essay family, that trigger is frustration. Frustration can be caused by political science uq essay simple things like losing arguments and being late, these things will cause us to essay, act aggressively. Political Science Uq Essay. span Follow 0 followers 8 badges. Gore Essay. span Follow 2 followers 3 badges. Illness. span Follow 3 followers 3 badges. Gore Vidal Essay Family. span Follow 2 followers 3 badges. span Follow 2 followers 0 badges.

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philately essay Scott catalog senior editor Tim Hodge looks at essay family, the use of skis to deliver mail, in for the providences, part two of his series on mail delivery and transport. 2018 Scott Standard Postage Stamp Catalog Vol. 6AB. The Scott Catalogue has been the foremost name in the stamp-hobby marketplace since its first edition almost 150 years ago. Find information about every stamp issued by the USPS and other postal services since 1997, and learn where in the world stamps about your favorite topics are being issued. LARGE SCOTT SPECIALITY 3-RING BINDER. GOOD TRADE. Your 200 different foreign plus SAES for essay family my 200 different. Winter:1933 E. Orchid Ln.

Green Valley, AZ 85614. Browse our wide-ranging collection of auction catalogues previewing the not lowering age essay, rare stamps and lots being offered at upcoming sales. January 20, 2016 03:42 PM. This glossary defines nearly 300 terms frequently encountered by stamp collectors and cover collectors. The Holy? Precise definitions for many philatelic terms do not exist. One collector, dealer or society may define a term in one way, while others will use the term in a slightly different way. For special uses of some of the terms listed and defined here, contact the appropriate specialist collector group. Accessories : Various products and personal tools commonly used by the stamp collector, including hinges, mounts, stamp tongs, perforation gauges, stock books and magnifiers. Stamp albums, catalogs and vidal essay the holy philatelic literature can also be regarded as accessories.

Adhesive : 1) The gum on the back of a stamp or label. Not Lowering Age Essay? Some stamps have been issued with no adhesive. Stamp adhesive may be water-activated or pressure-sensitive (self-adhesive). 2) A word generally referring to a stamp that may be affixed to an article to gore the holy, prepay postal fees, in contrast to a design printed directly on an article, as with postal stationery. An adhesive can also refer to a registration label or other label added to a cover.

Admirals : A nickname for for the recording of illustrious 1684 three British Commonwealth definitive series, those of Canada, 1912-25 (Scott 104-34); New Zealand, 1926 (182-84); and gore Rhodesia, 1913-19 (119-38). Board? These stamps depict King George V of Great Britain in naval uniform. Aerogram : A postage-paid airletter sheet with gummed flaps that is written on vidal essay the holy family, and then folded to form an envelope. Aerograms are normally carried at less than the airmail letter rate. No enclosures are permitted. Aerophilately : A specialized area of collecting concentrating on stamps or covers transported by essay illness air. Agency : 1) An extraterritorial post office maintained at essay the holy, various times by the drinking age essay a government within the territory of another government. Examples are the post offices maintained by many European powers in the Turkish Empire until 1923. Gore Family? 2) An organization authorized to publicize or sell new issues of stamps on behalf of a stamp-issuing entity. Air labels : Air labels, or etiquettes, are used by Universal Postal Union member nations to denote airmail carriage.

They are inscribed Par Avion'' (French for essay on prejudice and discrimination By Airmail''). The text usually includes the same message in the language of the country of origin. Vidal Essay The Holy? Air labels also are adhesives issued by private organizations for specific, unofficial flights. Airmail : The carriage of the drinking age essay, mail by air. The first regular airmail service began in vidal family, 1870, when mail was carried from Paris-then besieged by essay on prejudice German forces-over enemy lines by balloon. Gore Vidal The Holy Family? Many countries have issued postage stamps, stamped envelopes, postal cards and aerograms specially designated for airmail use. Essay? The first airmail stamp was issued by Italy in 1917 (Italy Scott C1).

Albino : An uninked impression made by a printing plate. Such errors are scarce on stamps. They are found more frequently on vidal essay, postal stationery. Album : A binder and pages designed for the mounting and display of illness, stamps or covers. Many early albums were permanently bound books. Albums come in many sizes, styles and themes. See the Album section in this almanac.

Album weed : In general, a forged stamp. It also refers to unusual items that resemble postage stamps but were not intended to pay postage, like publicity labels and bogus issues. Album Weeds is the title of a reference book series on gore vidal the holy family, forged stamps, written by the Rev. R. Brisco Ear‚e. Aniline : Ink with a coal-tar base. Aniline inks are very sensitive and may dissolve in water or other liquids or chemicals. To prevent the erasure of cancellations and reuse of Islam, stamps, aniline inks were used to print some stamps. Approvals : Priced selections of stamps or covers sent to collectors by mail. The collector purchases the vidal essay the holy, items he chooses, returning the rest to the approval dealer with payment for the purchased items. Army Post Office : An official United States post office established for use by U.S. military units abroad. Not Lowering Age Essay? An army post office (APO) or military post office is set up to distribute mail to and from gore essay the holy family military personnel.

The APO is school political uq essay guide indicated by vidal essay family numbers during wartime to prevent revealing personnel locations. The locations become generally known after the school political guide, conflict ends. Arrow : On many sheets of stamps, V-shaped arrowlike markings appear in the selvage, generally serving as guides for cutting the sheets into vidal essay the holy family, predetermined units. Some collectors save stamps or blocks displaying these marks. As is recording 1684 : A term written in gore vidal essay the holy, auction descriptions, or spoken or written during a retail transaction. It indicates that an item or lot is not lowering the drinking sold without guarantee or return privilege. Stamps are usually sold as is'' when they are damaged or are possibly not genuine.

ATM : 1) In the vidal essay the holy family, United States, panes of self-adhesive stamps on a liner the approximate size and Discussion shape of gore vidal essay the holy, U.S. currency, designed for on prejudice and discrimination dispensing from automatic teller machines. 2) Automatenmarken, automatic stamps produced individually by a machine; see also Frama. Auction : A sale of stamps, covers and vidal essay the holy other philatelic items where prospective purchasers place bids in personal reflective essay illness, an attempt to obtain the gore the holy family, desired items. The highest bidder for each lot (described item or items) makes the not lowering the drinking age essay, purchase. Auctions are generally divided into mail sales, where bids are accepted by mail, and public sales, where mail bids are combined with live bidding from individuals present at the auction or participating by essay telephone. Authentication mark : A marking, such as initials, placed on the reverse of a stamp examined and and discrimination certified to gore, be genuine by not lowering an expert. Vidal Essay Family? Such markings do not detract from the value of the stamps when they represent the not lowering age essay, endorsement of essay the holy family, recognized authorities.

APO : Army Post Office. An official United States post office established for political science uq essay guide use by gore U.S. military units abroad. An army post office or military post office is set up to distribute mail to and from military personnel. The APO is indicated by numbers during wartime to prevent revealing personnel locations. The locations become generally known after the conflict ends. Backprint : Printing on the reverse of Board, a stamp. Some stamps have numbers, symbols, advertising or information about the stamp subject printed on the reverse of the stamp. Backstamp : A postmark applied to mail by the receiving post office or by a post office handling the piece while it is in vidal essay the holy family, transit.

Backstamps are usually on the back of a cover, but they can be on the front. Bank mixture : A high-quality mixture of stamps. It generally represents clippings from the mail of banks or other businesses with extensive overseas correspondence, and thus includes a relatively high proportion of foreign stamps of high face value. See also Mission mixture. Bantams : The nickname of the South African definitive series of reflective, 1942-43 (Scott 90-97). Wartime economy measures prompted the manufacture of stamps of gore essay family, small size to study analysis, conserve paper.

Batonne : A wove or laid paper with watermarklike lines deliberately added in essay the holy family, the papermaking process and intended as a guide for handwriting. Bicolor : Printed in two colors. Bilingual : Inscribed in two languages. Most Canadian stamps include both English and and discrimination French text. South African stamps from 1926-49 were printed alternately with English and essay family Afrikaans inscriptions in the same sheet. Bisect : A stamp cut or perforated into two parts, each half representing half the face value of the original stamp. Board? Officially authorized bisects have often been used during temporary shortages of commonly used denominations. Unauthorized bisects appear on mail from some countries in some periods. Bisects are usually collected on vidal essay the holy family, full cover with the stamp tied by a cancel.

At times, some countries have permitted trisects or quadrisects. Bishop mark : The earliest postmark, introduced by Henry Bishop in England circa 1661. Essay And Discrimination? A Bishop mark was used to indicate the month and day that a letter was received by a post office. Vidal? It encouraged prompt delivery by letter carriers. Black Jack : The nickname of the an essay for the of illustrious 1684, United States 2› black Andrew Jackson stamp issued between 1863 and the holy 1875. Blind perforation : Intended perforations that are only lightly impressed by reflective illness the perforating pins, leaving the paper intact, but cut or with a faint impression. Some stamps that appear to be imperforate really are not if they have blind perfs. Stamps with blind perfs are minor varieties carrying little, if any, price premium over normally perforated copies. Block : A unit of four or more unsevered stamps, including at gore vidal essay the holy, least two stamps both vertically and horizontally. Most commonly a block refers to comparative case study, a block of four, or a block of stamps two high and two wide, though blocks often contain more stamps and may be irregularly configured (such as, a block of seven consisting of gore the holy family, one row of three stamps and comparative case study one row of vidal essay the holy family, four stamps).

Bluenose : The nickname for Canada Scott 158, the 50› issue of 1929, picturing the on prejudice, schooner Bluenose. Bogus : A fictitious stamplike label created for sale to vidal essay family, collectors. Bogus issues include labels for nonexistent countries, nonexistent values appended to regularly issued sets and issues for nations or similar entities without postal systems. Booklet : A unit of one or more small panes or blocks (known as booklet panes) glued, stitched or stapled together between thin card covers to for the recording 1684, form a convenient unit for mailers to vidal essay, purchase and carry. The first officially issued booklet was produced by Luxembourg in 1895. For some modern booklets of self-adhesive stamps the liner (backing paper) serves as the booklet cover. Bourse : A meeting of stamp collectors and/or dealers, where stamps and covers are sold or exchanged. A bourse usually has no competitive exhibits of an essay of illustrious, stamps or covers.

Almost all public stamp exhibitions include a dealer bourse, though many bourses are held without a corresponding exhibition. Bull's-eyes : 1) The nickname for the 1843 first issue of essay the holy, Brazil, Scott 1-3. The similar but smaller issues are called goat's eyes. 2) A bull's-eye cancel refers to a socked-on-the-nose'' postmark with the the drinking age essay, impression centered directly on the stamp so that the location and date of essay family, mailing are shown on the stamp. Burelage : A design of fine, intricate lines printed on the face of security paper, either to essay and discrimination, discourage counterfeiting or to prevent the cleaning and reuse of a stamp.

The burelage on some stamps is part of the stamp design. Burele : Adjective form for burelage, meaning having a fine network of lines. Some stamps of Queensland have a burele band on the back. Also called moir. Cachet : In French, cachet means a stamp or a seal. On a cover, the gore, cachet is an added design or text, often corresponding to the design of the postage stamp, the mailed journey of the cover, or some type of on prejudice and discrimination, special event. Cachets appear on modern first-day covers, first-flight covers and special-event covers. Canceled-to-order : Stamps are canceled to order,'' usually in full sheets, by family many governments. The cancels may be printed on the stamps at personal essay, the same time that the stamp design is printed.

A stamp with a cancel and with full gum is likely a CTO stamp, as CTOs do not see actual postal use. CTO stamps are sold to stamp dealers at large discounts from face value. Most catalogs say whether they price CTO stamps or genuinely used stamps. Cancel : A marking intended to show a stamp has been used and is no longer valid as postage. Modern cancels usually include the gore the holy family, name of the personal illness, original mailing location or a nearby sorting facility and the date of mailing. Most cancellations also include a section of lines, bars, text or a design that prints upon the postage stamp to invalidate it. This part of a cancel is called the gore vidal family, killer. Cantonal stamps : Issues of Switzerland's cantons (states) used before the release of national stamps. The cantonal issues of Basel (1845), Geneva (1843-50) and Zurich (1843-50) are among the essay on prejudice and discrimination, classics of philately. Cape Triangles : Common name for the triangular Cape of Good Hope stamps of 1853-64, the gore vidal essay, first stamps printed in triangular format. The distinctive shape helped illiterate postal clerks distinguish letters originating in the colony from those from other colonies.

Catalog : A comprehensive book or similar compilation with descriptive information to help identify stamps. Many catalogs include values for the listed items. An auction catalog is the drinking age essay published by vidal essay the holy the auction firm in advance of a planned sale to notify potential customers of the specific items that will be offered. Catalog value : The value of a stamp as listed in a given catalog for the most common condition in which the stamp is collected. Some catalogs list stamps at a retail value, though actual dealer prices may vary substantially for reasons of condition, demand or other market factors. Most catalogs have a set minimum value for the most common stamps. Censored mail : A cover bearing a handstamp or label indicating that the envelope has been opened and the contents inspected by a censor. Centering : The relative position of the design of a stamp in relation to its margins. Assuming that a stamp is undamaged, centering is generally a very important factor in reflective illness, determining grade and value. Certified mail : A service of most postal administrations that provides proof of mailing and delivery without indemnity for loss or damage. Chalky paper : A chalk-surfaced paper for printing stamps.

Any attempt to gore vidal essay the holy family, remove the cancel on a used chalky-paper stamp will also remove the design. Immersion of such stamps in water will cause the design to lift off. Touching chalky paper with silver will leave a discernible, pencil-like mark and is a means of distinguishing chalky paper. Changeling : A stamp whose color has been changed-intentionally or unintentionally-by contact with a chemical or exposure to light. Charity seals : Stamplike labels that are distributed by a charity. They have no postal validity, although they are often affixed to envelopes. Reflective Illness? United States Christmas seals are one example. Charity stamp : see Semipostal. Cinderella : A stamplike label that is not a postage stamp. Cinderellas include seals and bogus issues, as well as revenue stamps, local post issues and vidal other similar items. Classic : An early issue, often with a connotation of rarity, although classic stamps are not necessarily rare.

A particularly scarce recent item may be referred to Discussion, as a modern classic. Cleaning (stamps) : Soiled or stained stamps are sometimes cleaned with chemicals or by erasing. The cleaning is gore essay usually done to improve the guide, appearance of a stamp. A cleaned stamp can also mean one from which a cancellation has been removed, making a used stamp appear unused. Cliche : The individual unit consisting of the the holy, design of a single stamp, combined with others to make up the complete printing plate. Individual designs on modern one-piece printing plates are referred to on prejudice and discrimination, as subjects. Coil : Stamps processed in a long single row and prepared for sale in rolls, often for dispensing from stamp-vending and affixing machines.

Some coils, including most U.S. coils, have a straight edge on gore essay, two parallel sides and perforations on the remaining two parallel sides. Some coils are backprinted with sequence or counting numbers. Collateral material : Any supportive or explanatory material relating to a given stamp or philatelic topic. The material may be either directly postal in nature (post office news releases, rate schedules, souvenir cards, promotional items) or nonpostal (maps, photos of scenes appearing on stamps). Combination cover : Cover bearing the stamps of more than one country when separate postal charges are paid for the transport of a cover by each country. Also stamps of the same country canceled at two different times on the same cover as a souvenir. Commatology : Specialized collecting of postmarks. This term was invented before World War II to describe postmark collecting.

It is rarely used. Usually, collectors refer to postmark collecting or marcophily. Commemorative : A stamp printed in a limited quantity and available for the drinking age essay purchase for a limited time. The design may note an anniversary associated with an individual, an historic event, or a national landmark. Gore Family? See also Definitive.

Compound perforations : Different gauge perforations on different sides of a single stamp. The sides with the different gauge measurements are usually perpendicular. Condition : The overall appearance and soundness of a stamp or cover. Essay And Discrimination? Positive condition factors include fresh full color, full original gum on unused stamps, and so on. Damage such as creases, tears, thinned paper, short perforation teeth, toning and so on negatively affect condition. Controlled mail : A system in which the mailer selects philatelically desirable issues for vidal family outgoing mail, arranges for a specific manner of essay and discrimination, cancellation and secures the stamps' return by gore vidal the addressee. In some cases such controlled mail operations may provide rare examples of specific rate fulfillment, or other similar postal use. Copyright block : Block of four or more United States stamps with the copyright notice marginal marking of the essay, United States Postal Service. The copyright marking was introduced in 1978 and replaced the gore essay family, Mail Early marking. Corner card : An imprinted return address, generally in the upper-left corner of an envelope, from a commercial, institutional or private source, similar to business card or letterhead imprints. Counterfeit : Any stamp, cancellation or cover created for science uq essay guide deception or imitation, intended to be accepted by others as genuine.

A counterfeit stamp is designed to deceive postal authorities. Cover : An envelope or piece of postal stationery, usually one that has been mailed. Folded letters that were addressed and mailed without an envelope and gore essay family the wrappers from mailed parcels are also covers. Crash cover : A cover that has been salvaged from the crash of an airplane, train, ship or other vehicle. Such covers often carry a postal marking explaining damage or delay in delivery. Crease : A noticeable weakening of the paper of a stamp or cover, caused by its being folded or bent at some point. Creases substantially lower a stamp's value. Creases particularly affect cover values when they extend through the attached stamp or a postal marking. Stamp creases are visible in watermark fluid. Cut cancellation : A cancellation that intentionally slices into the stamp paper.

Often a wedge-shaped section is cut away. On many issues, such cancellations indicate use of postage stamps as fiscals (revenues) or telegraph stamps rather than as postage. Study? Cut cancellations were used experimentally on early United States postage stamps to prevent reuse. Cut square : A neatly trimmed rectangular or square section from a stamped envelope that includes the imprinted postage stamp with ample margin. Family? Collectors generally prefer to collect stationery as entire pieces rather than as cut squares.

Some older stationery is available only in cut squares. Cut-to-shape : A nonrectangular stamp or postal stationery imprint cut to not lowering age essay, the shape of the design, rather than cut square. Cut-to-shape stamps and stationery generally have lower value than those cut square. One of the gore vidal the holy family, world's most valuable stamps, the unique 1856 British Guiana Penny Magenta (Scott 13), is a cut-to-shape stamp. Cylinder : A curved printing plate used on a modern rotary press. The plate has no seams. For United States stamps, cylinders are used to print gravure stamps. See also Sleeve.

Cancellation : A marking intended to show a stamp has been used and is no longer valid as postage. Modern cancels usually include the name of the original mailing location or a nearby sorting facility and the date of mailing. Most cancellations also include a section of lines, bars, text or a design that prints upon the postage stamp to invalidate it. This part of a cancel is Islam called the gore vidal family, killer. CTO : Canceled-to-order. Stamps are canceled to personal reflective essay illness, order,'' usually in full sheets, by many governments. The cancels may be printed on the stamps at the same time that the stamp design is printed. A stamp with a cancel and gore family with full gum is likely a CTO stamp, as CTOs do not see actual postal use. CTO stamps are sold to stamp dealers at large discounts from face value.

Most catalogs say whether they price CTO stamps or genuinely used stamps. Charity stamp : A stamp sold at not lowering, a price greater than postal value, with the additional charge dedicated for a special purpose. Vidal Family? Usually recognized by the presence of two (often different) values, separated by a +'' sign, on a single stamp. Dead country : A former stamp-issuing entity that has ceased issuing its own stamps. Illness? Also, the old name of an active stamp-issuing entity that has changed its name, so that the gore vidal essay the holy family, old name will no longer be used on personal reflective essay illness, stamps.

definitive : Stamp issued in a large indefinite quantity and for an indefinite period, usually several years or more. The United States Presidential issue of 1938 and the 1995 32› Flag Over Porch stamps are examples. Definitive stamp designs usually do not honor a specific time-dated event. Deltiology : Picture postcard collecting. Denomination : The face value of a stamp, usually indicated by essay the holy numerals printed as part of the design. Not Lowering The Drinking? Some modern U.S. stamps produced for rate changes are denominated with a letter. Gore Vidal Essay? A numerical value is assigned when the letter stamps are issued. An example of this is the case, H-rate Hat stamp of 1998, which represented the essay the holy, first-class rate of Discussion Board, 33›. Die : The original engraving of a stamp design, usually recess-engraved in essay the holy, reverse on a small flat piece of school science, soft steel.

In traditional intaglio printing, a transfer roll is gore essay family made from a die and printing plates are made from an essay for the recording of illustrious impressions of the transfer roll. Essay Family? When more than one die is personal essay illness used in essay the holy, the production of an issue, distinctive varieties are often identifiable. Die cut : A form of separation usually employed on self-adhesive stamps. During processing, an edged tool (die) completely penetrates the comparative study, stamp paper on vidal, all sides of the printed stamp, making the removal of the essay on prejudice and discrimination, individual stamps from the liner possible. Die cuts may be straight, shaped in wavy lines to essay, simulate perforation teeth, or take other forms. Directory markings : Postal indication of failed delivery attempt, stating the reason for failure. Examples are No Such Number,'' Address Unknown'' and Moved.'' Duck stamp : Popular name for the United States Migratory Bird Hunting and Islam Discussion Conservation stamp, issued for use on gore vidal family, hunting licenses. Each annual stamp depicts waterfowl.

Also used to describe similar issues from the various states for use by hunters or for sale to collectors. Dummy stamp : Officially produced imitation stamp used to Islam Board, train employees or to vidal the holy, test automatic stamp-dispensing machines. Dummy stamps are usually blank or carry special inscriptions, blocks or other distinguishing ornamentation. They are not valid for postage, nor are they intended to Board, reach the hands of stamp collectors. Some do by favor of postal employees. Duplex cancel : A two-part postal marking consisting of a canceler and a postmark. The canceler voids the stamp so it cannot be reused. The postmark notes the date and place of mailing. Duplicate : An additional copy of a stamp that one already has in a collection. Beginners often consider stamps to be duplicates that really are not, because they overlook perforation, watermark or color varieties. Earliest known use : The cover or piece that documents the earliest date on which a stamp or postal stationery item is gore essay family known to be used.

New discoveries can change an and discrimination, established EKU. Essay Family? The EKU for essay a classic issue may be after the official issue date. Because of accidental early sales, the EKU for modern stamps is often several days before the official first day. Embossing : The process of giving relief to paper by pressing it with a die. Embossed designs are often found on family, the printed stamps of postal stationery (usually envelopes and wrappers). Selected stamps of certain countries have been embossed. Encased postage stamp : A stamp inserted into a small coin-size case with a transparent front or back. Such stamps were circulated as legal coins during periods when coins were scarce. Entire : An intact piece of political science guide, postal stationery, in contrast to a cutout of the imprinted stamp.

This term is sometimes used in reference to an intact cover or folded letter. Error : A major mistake in the production of a stamp or postal stationery item. Production errors include imperforate or imperforate-between varieties, missing or incorrect colors, and inversion or doubling of gore vidal essay the holy, part of the design or overprint. Major errors are usually far scarcer than normal varieties of the same stamp and are highly valued by collectors. Essay : The artwork of study, a proposed design for a stamp.

Some essays are rendered photographically. Others are drawn in pencil or ink or are painted. Most essays are rejected. One becomes the essay for the accepted design. Etiquette : A gummed label manufactured for application to an envelope to designate a specific mail service. Vidal Essay The Holy Family? Airmail etiquettes are most common. Europa : The United Europe'' theme celebrated annually on stamps of western European nations since 1956.

The original Europa stamps were issued by the nations in the European coal and steel association. School Guide? Today, European nations that are members of the postal and telecommunications association (CEPT) issue Europa stamps. Expertization : The examination of a stamp or cover by an acknowledged expert to determine if it is essay the holy family genuine. Essay On Prejudice? As standard procedure, an expert or expertizing body issues a signed certificate, often with an attached photograph, attesting to the item's status. Exploded : A stamp booklet that has been separated into its various components, usually for purposes of display. Panes are removed intact: individual stamps are not separated from the pane. Express mail : Next-day mail delivery service in the United States, inaugurated in 1977. EKU : The cover or piece that documents the earliest date on the holy, which a stamp or postal stationery item is known to be used.

New discoveries can change an an essay for the providences 1684, established EKU. The EKU for a classic issue may be after the official issue date. Because of accidental early sales, the EKU for modern stamps is often several days before the official first day. Face : The front of gore the holy, a stamp; the not lowering the drinking, side bearing the design. Face value : The value of a stamp as inscribed on its face. Gore Vidal Essay The Holy Family? For letter-denominated or nondenominated stamps, the understood postal value of the the drinking age essay, stamp. Facsimile : A reproduction of a genuine stamp or cover. Such items are usually made with no intent to gore essay the holy family, deceive collectors or postal officials.

Catalog illustrations may also be considered facsimiles. Fake : A stamp, cover or cancel that has been altered or concocted to appeal to a collector. An Essay Recording Providences 1684? In a broad sense, fakes include repairs, reperforations and regummed stamps, as well as painted-in cancels, bogus cancels or counterfeit markings. Sometimes entire covers are faked. Fancy cancel : A general term to describe any pictorial or otherwise unusual obliterating postmark. More specifically, the term is used to describe elaborate handmade pictorial cancels of the 19th century, such as the Waterbury Running Chicken of vidal essay the holy family, 1869 or the many intricate geometric shapes used during that period in post offices around the country. Farley's Follies : During 1933-34, U.S.

Postmaster General James A. Farley supplied a few imperforate sheets of an essay of illustrious, current commemorative issues to Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt and vidal essay family other government officials. On Prejudice And Discrimination? The resulting uproar from U.S. collectors forced the government to release for public sale 20 issues in generally imperforate and ungummed sheets. Gore The Holy Family? They are United States Scott 752-71. Numbers 752-53 are perforated. Fast colors : Inks resistant to fading. Field Post Office : A military postal service operating in the field, either on land or at sea. Frequently abbreviated FPO. Find : A new discovery, usually of for the recording 1684, something that was not known to exist. It can be a single item or a hoard of stamps or covers. First-day cover : A cover bearing a stamp tied by a cancellation showing the date of the official first day of issue of that stamp.

Fiscal : A revenue stamp or similar label denoting the payment of tax. Fiscals are ordinarily affixed to documents and canceled by pen, canceler or mutilation. Because of their similarity to postage stamps, fiscals have occasionally been used either legally or illegally to prepay postage. See also Postal fiscal, Revenues. Flat plate : A flat metal plate used in gore vidal essay the holy family, a printing press, as opposed to a curved or cylindrical plate. Flaw : A defect in a plate that reproduces as an political, identifiable variety in the stamp design. Fleet Post Office (FPO) : An official United States post office for use by U.S. military naval units abroad. Gore Vidal Essay? Frequently abbreviated FPO. Forerunner : A stamp or postal stationery item used in a given location prior to science, the issuing of regular stamps for that location.

Turkish stamps before 1918 canceled in Palestine are forerunners of gore family, Israeli issues. So are the school science uq essay, various European nations' issues for use in Palestine, and the subsequent issues of the vidal the holy family, Palestine Mandate. The term forerunner is age essay also used to essay the holy family, describe a stamp issued before another stamp or set, if the earlier issue may have influenced the design or purpose of the later issue. Forgery : A completely fraudulent reproduction of a postage stamp. There are two general types of forgeries: those intended to defraud the postal authorities (see also Counterfeit), and those intended to not lowering the drinking age essay, defraud the collectors (see also Bogus). Frama : A general name used for an automatic stamp, derived from the name of the gore vidal essay the holy family, Swiss firm, Frama AG, an early producer of such issues. Automatic stamps are produced individually by a machine on demand in a denomination selected by the customer. There normally is no date on the stamp, as there is on a meter stamp.

Also called ATM, from the age essay, German word Automatenmarken. Frame : The outer portion of a stamp design, often consisting of a line or a group of panels. Frank : An indication on vidal family, a cover that postage is prepaid, partially prepaid or that the letter is to be carried free of postage. Franks may be written, hand-stamped, imprinted or affixed. Personal Essay Illness? Free franking is usually limited to soldiers' mail or selected government correspondence. Postage stamp and postage meter stamps are modern methods of franking a letter. Freak : An abnormal, usually nonre-petitive occurrence in gore vidal the holy, the production of stamps that results in an essay providences 1684, a variation from the normal stamp, but falls short of producing an error. Most paper folds, overinking and gore family perforation shifts are freaks. Those abnormalities occurring repetitively are called varieties and may result in major errors. Front : The front of Discussion Board, a cover with most or all of the back and the holy family side panels torn away or removed.

Fronts, while desirable if they bear unusual or uncommon postal markings, are less desirable than an intact cover. Fugitive inks : Printing inks used in guide, stamp production that easily fade or break up in water or chemicals. Family? To counter attempts at forgery or the removal of cancellations, many governments have used fugitive inks to print stamps. FPO : Field Post Office. A military postal service operating in the field, either on land or at comparative case study analysis, sea.

Also Fleet Post Office. An official United States post office for use by U.S. military naval units abroad. FDC : First-day cover. A cover bearing a stamp tied by a cancellation showing the date of the official first day of issue of that stamp. Franking : An indication on a cover that postage is prepaid, partially prepaid or that the letter is to be carried free of postage. Franks may be written, hand-stamped, imprinted or affixed. Free franking is gore vidal essay the holy family usually limited to soldiers' mail or selected government correspondence.

Postage stamp and postage meter stamps are modern methods of franking a letter. Ghost tagging : The appearance of a faint image impression in addition to the normal inked impression. This is reflective essay caused by misregistration of the phosphor tagging in relation to the ink. Sometimes, a plate number impression will have an entirely different number from the ink plate, giving the impression of an error: one dark (normal) number and one light (ghost) number. Glassine : A thin, semitransparent paper that is moderately resistant to the passage of air and vidal family moisture. Envelopes made of essay and discrimination, glassine are commonly used for temporary stamp storage. Glassine is also used in the manufacture of stamp hinges. Goldbeater's skin : A thin, tough, translucent paper.

The 1886 issue of Prussia was printed in reverse on goldbeater's skin, with the gum applied over the printing. These stamps are brittle and virtually impossible to remove from the the holy family, paper to which they are affixed. Granite paper : A paper with small colored fibers added when the paper is made. This paper is used as a deterrent against Islam Board forgery. Gravure : A printing process utilizing an intaglio printing plate created by vidal family photographic and chemical means, rather than by personal essay hand engraving. See also Intaglio. Grill : A pattern of parallel lines (or dots at the points where lines would cross) forming a grid. A grill is usually: 1) the impressed breaks added to stamps as a security measure (United States issues of essay the holy family, 1867-71 and Peru issues of reflective, 1874-79); or 2) a grill-like canceling device used on various 19th-century issues. Gum : The mucilage applied to gore vidal essay the holy family, the backs of adhesive postage stamps, revenue stamps or envelope flaps. Gum is an area of personal reflective essay, concern for stamp collectors.

It may crack and harm the paper of the stamp itself. Gore Vidal? It may stain or adhere to other stamps or album pages under certain climatic conditions. Many collectors are willing to pay extra for 19th- and some 20th-century stamps with intact, undisturbed original gum. Gutter : The selvage separating panes on a sheet of stamps. The gutter is science uq essay guide usually discarded during processing. Gore? The gutter may be unprinted, or bear plate numbers, accounting or control numbers, advertising or other words or markings. Gutter snipe : One or more stamps to which is essay on prejudice attached the full gutter from between panes, plus any amount of an adjoining stamp or stamps.

This term is typically used in reference to U.S. stamps. Gutter snipes are freaks caused by misregistration of the vidal, cutting device or paper foldover. Handstamp : Cancellation or overprint applied by hand to a cover or to essay, a stamp. Highway Post Office (HPO) : Portable mail-handling equipment for sorting mail in gore the holy family, transit on highways (normally by truck). The last official U.S. HPO ran June 30, 1974. Hinge : Stamp hinges are small, rectangular-shaped pieces of glassine paper, usually gummed on one side. Folded with the gummed side out, the hinge is used to mount stamps.

Most modern hinges are peelable. Once dry, they may be easily removed from the an essay for the recording providences, stamp, leaving little trace of having been applied. HPO : Highway Post Office. Portable mail-handling equipment for sorting mail in transit on highways (normally by truck). The last official U.S. HPO ran June 30, 1974. Imperforate : Refers to gore the holy family, stamps without perforations or rouletting between the an essay recording of illustrious providences, individual stamps in a pane. The earliest stamps were imperforate by design, but after about 1860 most stamps were perforated.

Modern imperforates are usually errors or are produced specifically for sale to gore, stamp collectors. Impression : Any stamped or embossed printing. Imprimatur : Latin for let it be printed.'' The first sheets of stamps from an approved plate, normally checked and retained in a file prior to a final directive to begin stamp production from a plate. India paper : A thin, tough opaque printing paper of the drinking age essay, high quality used primarily for striking die proofs. Indicium : The stamp impression of a postage meter or the gore vidal essay the holy family, imprint on postal stationery (as opposed to an adhesive stamp), indicating prepayment and postal validity. Plural: indicia. Inscription : The letters, words and school science numbers that are part of a postage stamp design. Intaglio : Italian for in recess.'' A form of printing in which the vidal essay the holy, inked image is produced by that portion of the plate sunk below the surface. Line engraving and gravure are forms of intaglio printing.

International Reply Coupon : A redeemable certificate issued by member nations of the Universal Postal Union to provide for return postage from recipients in other countries. Personal Reflective Essay? IRCs are exchangeable for vidal postage at a post office. Invert : The term generally used to reflective illness, describe any error where one portion of the design is inverted in gore family, relation to the other portion(s). An overprint applied upside down is also an comparative case, invert. Inverts : The term generally used to describe any error where one portion of the gore essay the holy family, design is inverted in relation to the other portion(s). An overprint applied upside down is also an case, invert. IRC : International Reply Coupon. A redeemable certificate issued by member nations of the Universal Postal Union to provide for return postage from recipients in other countries. The Holy Family? IRCs are exchangeable for postage at a post office. Keytype : A basic stamp design utilized for the issues of two or more postal entities, usually differing in the country name and inscription of value.

Many of the earlier colonial issues of Britain, France, Spain, Germany and Portugal are keytypes. Kiloware : A stamp mixture consisting of miscellaneous postally used stamps on Islam Board, envelope corner paper from various sources. Kiloware is sometimes sold by the kilogram (about 2.2 pounds). Label : Any stamplike adhesive that is not a postage stamp or revenue stamp. Laid paper : One of the two basic types of paper used in stamp printing. Laid paper is distinguished from wove paper by the presence of gore essay the holy family, thin, parallel lines visible when the paper is held to light. Essay? The lines are usually a few millimeters apart. See also Batonne. Letterpress : Printing done directly from the vidal essay, inked, raised surface of the printing plate. Line engraving : Printing done from an intaglio plate produced from a hand-engraved die and transfer roll rather than by photographic or chemical means. See also Gravure.

Line pair : A pair of coil stamps with a printed line between them. School Political Science Guide? Stamps produced on a flatbed press have a line from the guideline between panes. Vidal The Holy Family? Stamps produced on a rotary press have a joint line from the space where ink collects between the sections of curved rotary plates. Liner : Coated paper used as a backing for mint self-adhesive stamps. The liner allows the release of the stamp, which may then be applied with pressure to envelope paper. Linerless : An experimental form of self-adhesive coil stamp that requires no liner. Political Guide? The mint stamps are rolled upon each other in a manner similar to adhesive tape. Gore The Holy Family? See United States Scott 3132, 3133.

Lithography : Printing from Islam a flat surface with a design area that is ink-receptive. Vidal The Holy Family? The area that is not to print is ink-repellant. The process is based on on prejudice, the principle that an essay, oil-based design surface will attract oily ink. Locals : Stamps valid within a limited area or within a limited postal system. Local post mail requires the school political uq essay, addition of nationally or internationally valid stamps for further service. Locals have been produced both privately and officially. Machin : The name given to a well-known series of British definitive stamps first issued in 1967. The design of the stamp depicts a plaster portrait of Queen Elizabeth II created by artist Arnold Machin. Mail Early block : U.S. marginal marking block with the selvage bearing the inscription Mail Early (in the Day).'' This first appeared on vidal essay family, U.S. marginal selvage in science uq essay guide, 1968.

It was subsequently replaced by gore the holy family the copyright notice. ME blocks typically consist of four or six stamps. Makeshift booklets : U.S. Board? stamp booklets manufactured using stamps normally issued in individual panes, packaged in generic blue cardboard covers and gore vidal the holy family dispensed by vending machines. Marcophily : Postmark collecting. Margin : 1) The selvage surrounding the stamps in a sheet, often carrying inscriptions of various kinds. An Essay Providences 1684? 2) The unprinted border area around the stamp design. The collectible grades of gore essay family, stamps are determined by the position of the design in relation to the edge of the stamp as perforated or, in the case of imperforate stamps, as cut from the sheet. Mat : A hard rubber plate used to apply overprints on postage stamps. Maximaphily : Maximum card collecting.

maximum card : A picture postcard, a cancel, and a stamp presenting maximum concordance. The stamp is usually affixed to the picture side of the card and is tied by the cancel. Collectors of the drinking age essay, maximum cards seek to find or create cards with stamp, cancel and picture in maximum agreement, or concordance. Vidal Essay The Holy Family? The statutes of the Islam Discussion Board, International Federation of Philately (FIP) give specific explanatory notes for the postage stamp, the picture postcard, the cancel, concordance of subject, concordance of gore essay the holy, place and concordance of essay on prejudice and discrimination, time. Gore Essay The Holy? (See Exhibiting chapter.) Meter : The mechanical or digital device that creates a valid denominated postage imprint known as a meter stamp. Postage is prepaid to school science uq essay guide, the regulating postal authority. Meters were authorized by gore vidal essay the holy family the UPU in 1920.

They are used today by volume mailers to cut the cost of franking mail. Microprinting : Extremely small letters or numbers added to the designs of selected United States stamps as a security feature. Comparative Case? In most cases, 8-power magnification or greater is needed to read microprinting. Miniature sheet : A smaller-than-normal pane of stamps issued only in that form or in gore essay, addition to full panes. A miniature sheet is usually without marginal markings or text saying that the sheet was issued in conjunction with or to age essay, commemorate some event.

See also Souvenir sheet. Mint : A stamp in the same state as issued by a post office: unused, undamaged and with full original gum (if issued with gum). Vidal The Holy Family? Over time, handling, light and atmospheric conditions may affect the mint state of stamps. Mirror image : An offset negative or reverse impression. Mission mixture : The lowest grade of stamp mixture, containing unsorted but primarily common stamps on paper, as purchased from missions or other institutions. See also Bank mixture. Missionaries : The first stamps of Hawaii, issued 1851-52, considered among the great classics of philately. Mixed perforation : See Compound perforation.

Mixed postage : The franking on case, a cover bearing the stamps of essay, two or more stamp-issuing entities, properly used. Mixture : A large group of an essay recording providences, stamps, understood to vidal essay family, contain duplication. A mixture is said to be unpicked or picked. A picked mixture may have had stamps removed by a collector or dealer. Mobile Post Office : Portable mail-handling equipment and not lowering personnel, generally in railroad cars, streetcars, trucks or buses. Mount : Acetate holders, clear on the front and essay the holy family with some sort of adhesive on the back. Collectors use mounts to affix stamps or covers to album or exhibit pages. Multicolor : More than two colors. Multiple : An unseparated unit of the drinking, stamps including at vidal essay the holy family, least two stamps, but fewer than the for the providences 1684, number included in a full pane. ME block : U.S. marginal marking block with the selvage bearing the inscription Mail Early (in the Day).'' This first appeared on U.S. marginal selvage in 1968.

It was subsequently replaced by the copyright notice. ME blocks typically consist of four or six stamps. MPO : Mobile Post Office. Portable mail-handling equipment and personnel, generally in railroad cars, streetcars, trucks or buses. Native paper : Crude, handmade paper produced locally, as opposed to finer, machine-made paper. Never hinged : A stamp without hinge marks. A never-hinged (NH) stamp usually has original gum, but this is not always the case.

New issue service : A dealer service that automatically supplies subscribers with new issues of a given country, area or topic. The issues provided are determined by gore essay the holy family a prearranged standing order that defines the not lowering, quantity and types of essay family, issues. Newspaper stamps : Stamps issued specifically for the prepayment of mailing rates for newspapers, periodicals and comparative study analysis printed matter. Nondenominated : A stamp with no numerical inscription designating the face value. The value of some nondenominated stamps are marked by a designated letter. Others may have a service inscription that indicates the gore essay family, rate the on prejudice, stamp fulfills. NH : Never Hinged. Gore Vidal The Holy? A stamp without hinge marks. Case? A never-hinged (NH) stamp usually has original gum, but this is not always the case. Obliteration : 1) A cancellation intended solely to deface a stamp-also called a killer.

2) An overprint intended to deface a portion of the design of a stamp, such as the face of a deposed ruler. Obsolete : A stamp no longer available from post offices, although possibly still postally valid. Occupation issue : An issue released for use in territory occupied by a foreign power. Off-center : A stamp design that is not centered in relation to the edges of the stamp. Generally, off-center stamps are less desirable than stamps more nearly centered in relation to the edges. Stamps that are extremely off-center may be added to gore essay the holy, collections as production freaks. Offices abroad : At various times, many nations have maintained post offices in other countries, usually because of the unreliability of the local postal system.

In China and the Turkish Empire, especially, many foreign nations maintained their own postal systems as part of their extraterritorial powers. Usually, special stationery and comparative study analysis stamps were used by these offices. Most consisted of overprints on the regular issues of the nations maintaining the offices. Official : Stamp or stationery issued solely for the use of gore essay the holy family, government departments and officials. In many countries such items may be available to collectors in unused condition from the case analysis, postal authority. Offset : 1) A printing process that transfers an inked image from a plate to a roller. The roller then applies the ink to paper. 2) The transfer of part of a stamp design or an overprint from one sheet to the back of vidal essay the holy, another, before the ink has dried (also called set off).

Such impressions are in reverse (see Mirror image). They are different from reflective stamps printed on both sides. OHMS : Abbreviation for On His (or Her) Majesty's Service. Used in perfins, overprints or franks to indicate Official use in gore vidal, the British Commonwealth. Omnibus issue : An issue released by several postal entities to celebrate a common theme. Omnibus issues may or may not share a keytype design. On paper : Stamps (usually postally used) that are affixed to personal reflective essay, portions of original envelope or wrapper. Vidal Essay Family? Often used to describe stamps prior to soaking.

On piece : A stamp on a portion of the original envelope or wrapper showing all or most of the cancel. Stamps on not lowering, piece are usually saved that way. Original gum : The adhesive coating on gore vidal essay the holy family, a mint or unused stamp or envelope flap applied by a postal authority or security printer, usually before the item was issued. Upon request of stamp collectors, postal authorities have at times offered to add gum to items first issued ungummed. See also Regummed. Overprint : Any printing over the original completed design of a stamp. An overprint that changes the value of and discrimination, a stamp is also called a surcharge. Oxidation : Darkening of the ink on certain stamps caused by contact with air or light. Some inks used to print stamps, especially oranges, may in time turn brown or black.

OG : The adhesive coating on a mint or unused stamp or envelope flap applied by a postal authority or security printer, usually before the item was issued. The Holy Family? Upon request of on prejudice, stamp collectors, postal authorities have at times offered to add gum to items first issued ungummed. Essay The Holy? See also Regummed. Packet : 1) A presorted selection of all-different stamps, a common and Discussion Board economical way to begin a general collection; 2) a ship operating on a regular schedule and contracted by a government or post office to essay, carry mail. Packet letter : A letter carried by a ship operating on providences, a regular schedule and gore vidal family carrying mail by contract with a government or a post office. Pair : Two unseparated stamps. Pane : The unit into comparative study analysis, which a full press sheet is divided before sale at gore essay family, post offices. What a post office customer may refer to as a sheet of stamps is more properly called a pane. For The Recording Providences? Most United States full sheets are divided into four or more regular panes or many more booklet panes before they are shipped to post offices. Paquebot : Cancellation indicating an item was mailed aboard a ship. Par Avion : A French phrase meaning By Air,'' it appears on airmail etiquettes of most countries, along with a similar phrase in the predominant language of the gore the holy, country of origin.

Parcel post stamps : Special stamps created for payment of parcel post fees. Part-perforate : A stamp with all perforations missing on one or more sides, but with at comparative case study, least one side perforated. Paste-up : The ends of rolls of coiled stamps joined together with glue or tape. Pelure paper : A strong, thin paper occasionally used in stamp printing. Pelure paper is translucent and resembles a slightly dark, thin onion-skin paper.

Pen canceled : Stamps canceled with an ink pen or marker pen rather than a handstamp or machine cancel. Many early stamps were routinely canceled by pen. A pen cancel may also indicate that a stamp was used as a fiscal. Essay Family? Modern stamps may be pen canceled if a sorting clerk or delivery carrier notices a stamp has been missed by a canceling machine. Penny Black : The black 1-penny British stamp issued May 6, 1840, bearing the portrait of Queen Victoria.

It is the world's first adhesive stamp issued for the prepayment of school uq essay guide, postage. Perfins : Stamps perforated through the face with identifying initials, designs or holes in coded positions. Gore Vidal The Holy? Perfins are normally used by and discrimination a business or government office to discourage pilferage or misuse of stamps by gore the holy family employees. Perfins may be either privately or officially produced. Perforation : The punching out of personal reflective, holes between stamps to make separation easy. The Holy? 1) Comb perforation-three sides of a stamp are perforated at once, with the process repeated in rows. 2) Harrow perforation-the entire sheet or unit of stamps is perforated in one operation. 3) Line perforation-holes are punched one row at reflective essay, a time. Line perforations are distinguished by the uneven crossing of perforation lines and irregular corners. Comb and harrow perforations usually show alignment of holes at the holy, the corners. Some forms of perforation may be difficult to distinguish.

Perforation gauge : A scale printed or designed on school science uq essay, metal, transparent or opaque plastic, cardboard or other material to measure the number of perforation holes or teeth within the space of 2 centimeters. Permit : Franking by the imprint of a number and additional information that identifies a mailer's prepaid postage account, thereby eliminating the need to gore the holy family, affix and cancel stamps on large mailings. The mailer must obtain a document (permit) that authorizes his use of this procedure. Phantom philately : The collection of bogus stamps. The name is derived from essay Frederick Melville's book Phantom Philately, one of the pioneer works on bogus issues. Philatelic cover : An envelope, postal card or other item franked and mailed by a stamp collector to create a collectible object.

It may or may not have carried a personal or business message. A nonphilatelic cover is usually one that has carried business or personal correspondence and gore vidal essay has had its stamps applied by a noncollector. Illness? Some stamps are known only on collector-created covers. It is impossible to say whether some covers are philatelically inspired or not. See also Used and Postally used. Philately : The collection and study of gore, postage stamps, postal stationery and postal history. Phosphor : A chemical substance used in the production of Islam, selected stamps to gore vidal family, activate machines that automatically cancel mail.

The machines react to the phosphor under ultraviolet light. In 1959, Great Britain began to print phosphor lines on some of its stamps. Essay? See also Tagging. Photogravure : A modern stamp-printing process that is a form of intaglio printing. Plates are made photographically and chemically, rather than by hand engraving a die and transferring it to a plate.

The ink in this process rests in the design depressions. Vidal Essay? The surface of the printing plate is wiped clean. The paper is comparative analysis forced into the depressions and picks up the gore vidal family, ink, in a manner much like the line-engraved printing process. Pictorial : Stamp bearing a picture of Islam Discussion Board, some sort, other than a portrait or coat of arms. Plate : The basic printing unit on a press used to produce stamps. Early stamps were printed from the holy family flat plates. Curved or cylindrical plates are used for on prejudice most modern stamps. Vidal? See also Cylinder and Sleeve. Plate block : A block of stamps from the corner or side of a pane including the selvage bearing the number(s) of the plate(s) used to not lowering, print the sheet from which the pane was separated.

Some stamp production methods, like booklet production, normally cut off plate numbers. In the United States, plate number blocks are collected normally as blocks of four to gore family, 20 stamps, depending on Islam Board, the press used to print the vidal the holy, stamps. When each stamp in a pane is a different design, the entire pane is collected as the plate block. Plate number : Numerals or an alphanumeric combination that identifies the printing plate used to print postage stamp images. The Drinking? In the vidal the holy, United States, plate numbers on sheet stamps often appear in essay on prejudice, corner margin paper or side margin paper.

Plate numbers on coil stamps were commonly trimmed off until about 1980; since then the number appears on stamps at specific intervals. Essay? Booklet plate numbers are often found on not lowering the drinking, selvage attached to the pane. Plating : The reconstruction of a stamp pane by gore essay the holy family collecting blocks and for the recording providences individual stamps representing various positions. This is possible for many older issues, but most modern issues are too uniform to gore essay, make the essay and discrimination, identification of individual positions possible. Plebiscite issue : A stamp issue promoting a popular vote. After World War I, a number of disputed areas were placed under temporary League of Nations administration, pending plebiscites to determine which nation the populace wished to join. Special issues note the upcoming vote in several of these areas; among them, Allenstein, Carinthia, Eastern Silesia, Marienwerder, Schleswig and Upper Silesia. PNC : 1) A plate number coil stamp; that is, a stamp from a coil that is inscribed with a plate number. The abbreviations PNC3 and gore vidal family PNC5 identify strips of three or five coil stamps with the PNC located in the center position of the strip. Not Lowering Age Essay? 2) A philatelic-numismatic combination: a cover bearing a stamp and gore vidal essay containing a coin, medal or token.

The coin and stamp are usually related in such cases; often the cover is Islam Discussion Board canceled on the first day of use of the essay, coin. Pneumatic post : Letter distribution through pressurized air tubes. Pneumatic posts existed in many large cities in Europe, and special stamps and stationery were often produced for the service. Postage dues : Stamps or markings indicating that insufficient postage has been affixed to Islam Board, the mailing piece. Postage dues are usually affixed at the office of delivery. The additional postage is the holy collected from the not lowering the drinking age essay, addressee. Postal card : A government-produced postcard bearing a stamp imprint in gore vidal family, the upper-right corner representing prepayment of postage. Postal fiscal : Revenue or fiscal stamps used postally.

Postal history : The study of postal markings, rates and routes, or anything to Islam Discussion Board, do with the history of the gore vidal, posts. Postal stationery : Stationery bearing imprinted stamps, as opposed to adhesive stamps. Postal stationery includes postal cards, lettercards, stamped envelopes, wrappers, aerograms, telegraph cards, postal savings forms and similar government-produced items. And Discrimination? The cost to the mailer is often the price of postage plus an additional charge for the stationery item. Postally used : A stamp or cover that has seen legitimate postal use, as opposed to one that has been canceled-to-order or favor-canceled. The term postally used suggests that an the holy family, item exists because it was used to carry a personal or business communication, without the reflective essay, sender thinking of creating an item to be collected. Postcard : A small card, usually with a picture on one side and a space for a written message on the other. Postcards have no imprinted stamp, so the gore the holy family, mailer must also purchase postage to mail the postcard. See also Postal card. Postmark : Any official postal marking. The term is usually used specifically in reference to cancellations bearing the name of a post office of origin and a mailing date.

Precancel : Stamp with a special overprint cancellation allowing it to bypass normal canceling. In some cases the precancel also designates a specific mail-handling service, such as Presorted First-Class. Other precancels may include the city and state of the issuing post office. An Essay For The Recording? Precanceled stamps are used by volume mailers who hold a permit to gore family, use them. On Prejudice? U.S. Gore Vidal Essay Family? precancels fall into two categories: 1) Locals have the an essay for the recording 1684, mark or text applied by a town or city post office; 2) Bureaus have the vidal essay, mark or text applied by the U.S. Bureau of Engraving and Printing. Case? See also Service inscribed. Prestamp covers : Folded letters or their outer enclosures used before the introduction of adhesive postage stamps or postal stationery. Prestige booklet : A stamp booklet with oversized panes, descriptive information and stamp issues commemorating a special topic. Gore Vidal Essay? Prestige booklets often include panes with no stamps that instead bear labels or additional information, along with panes bearing stamps. Prexies : The nickname for the U.S.

1938-54 Presidential definitive series, Scott 803-34, 839-51. Printer's waste : Misprinted, misperforated or misgummed stamps often created during the normal process of stamp production. Islam Board? Printer's waste is supposed to be destroyed, but such material enters the philatelic market through carelessness and theft. Printing : The process of imprinting designs on gore family, paper from an inked surface. Processing : Steps that finish a printed stamp sheet.

Processing includes perforation, trimming, dividing the sheet into individual panes, and packaging for essay on prejudice distribution. Pro Juventute : Latin, meaning for the benefit of youth. Gore Vidal Essay The Holy? Switzerland has issued Pro Juventute semipostals nearly every year since 1913. Proofs : Trial impressions from a die or printing plate before actual stamp production. Proofs are made to examine a die or plate for defects or to essay, compare the results of using different inks. Provisional : A postage stamp issued for temporary use to meet postal demands until new or regular stocks of stamps can be obtained. Plate number block : A block of stamps from the vidal essay family, corner or side of Discussion, a pane including the selvage bearing the number(s) of the plate(s) used to print the sheet from which the pane was separated. Some stamp production methods, like booklet production, normally cut off plate numbers.

In the United States, plate number blocks are collected normally as blocks of essay, four to 20 stamps, depending on the press used to print the stamps. When each stamp in a pane is a different design, the and discrimination, entire pane is collected as the plate block. Press sheet : A complete unit of stamps as printed. Vidal Essay The Holy? Stamps are usually printed in large sheets and are separated into two or more panes before shipment to post offices. Quadripartition : A block or strip of guide, four stamps that together complete a single entire design. See United States Scott 1448-51, the 1972 Cape Hatteras National Seashore issue. Railway Post Office : Portable mail-handling equipment for vidal essay family sorting mail in transit on trains. The last official U.S. RPO ran June 30, 1977. RPOs were used in many countries. See also Mobile Post Office.

Receiving mark : A postmark or other postal marking applied by the receiving, rather than the originating, post office. See also Backstamp. Redrawn : A stamp design that has been slightly altered yet maintains the basic design as originally issued. Re-engraved : A stamp with an altered design as the result of a change made to personal essay, a transfer roll or printing plate prior to gore vidal essay family, a later printing, thereby distinguishing it from the original die. Regional : Stamp sold or valid in a specific area of a stamp-issuing entity. Great Britain has issued stamps for the regions of Guernsey, Jersey, Isle of Islam Discussion Board, Man, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. Regionals are usually sold only in a given region but are often valid for postage throughout a country. Registered mail : First-class mail with a numbered receipt, including a valuation of the vidal essay, registered item, for full or limited compensation if the mail is the drinking lost.

Some countries have issued registered mail stamps. Registered mail is signed for by each postal employee who handles it. Registration labels : Adhesive labels indicating the registry number and, often, the city of origin for registered articles sent through the gore vidal the holy family, mail. Regummed : A stamp bearing adhesive from an unauthorized source. Reissue : An official reprinting of a stamp from an obsolete or discontinued issue. Reissues are valid for postage.

See also Reprint. Remainders : Stocks of not lowering, stamps remaining unsold at the time that an issue is declared obsolete by a post office. Some countries have sold remainders to the stamp trade at substantial discounts from face value. Essay The Holy Family? The countries normally mark the stamps with a distinctive cancel. Uncanceled remainders usually cannot be distinguished from stamps sold over the counter before the issue was invalidated.

Repaired stamp : A damaged stamp that has been repaired in some way to reinforce it or to make it resemble an undamaged stamp. Replica : A reproduction of a stamp or cover. In the 19th century, replica stamps were sold as stamp album space fillers. Not Lowering Age Essay? Replica stamps are often printed in one color in a sheet containing a number of different designs. Replicas can sometimes deceive either a postal clerk or collectors. Reprint : A stamp printed from the original plate, after the issue has ceased to be postally valid.

Official reprints are sometimes made for presentation purposes or official collections. They are often distinguishable in gore vidal essay the holy family, some way from the originals: different colors, perforations, paper or gum. Private reprints, on the other hand, are usually produced strictly for sale to collectors and often closely resemble the original stamps. Private reprints normally sell for less than original copies. Reprints are not valid for case study postage. See also Reissue. Retouch : The repairing of a damaged plate or die, often producing a minor, but detectable, difference in the design of the printed stamps. Revenues : Stamps representing the prepayment or payment of gore essay, various taxes. An Essay For The Recording Of Illustrious? Revenues are affixed to official documents and to merchandise.

Some stamps, including many issues of the British Commonwealth, are inscribed Postage and Revenue'' and gore vidal the holy were available for either use. Such issues are usually worth less fiscally canceled than postally used. In some cases, revenues have been used provisionally as postage stamps. See also Fiscal. Rocket mail : Mail flown in a rocket, even if only a short distance.

Many rocket mail experiments have been conducted since 1931. Special labels, cachets or cancels usually note that mail was carried on a rocket. Rotary plate : A curved or cylindrical printing plate used on a press that rotates the plate to make continuous impressions. Flat plates make single impressions. Rouletting : The piercing of the Islam Discussion Board, paper between stamps to make their separation more convenient. No paper is actually removed from the sheet, as it is in perforating. Vidal The Holy? Rouletting has been made by dash, sawtooth or wavy line. Rural Free Delivery : System for for the recording of illustrious providences 1684 free home delivery of mail in rural areas of the United States, begun just prior to the turn of the 20th century.

Rust : A brown mold resembling the essay family, rust in essay, iron. Rust affects stamp paper and gum in tropical regions. RPO : Railway Post Office. Portable mail-handling equipment for sorting mail in gore vidal family, transit on trains. The last official U.S. RPO ran June 30, 1977. RPOs were used in many countries. See also Mobile Post Office.

RFD : Rural Free Delivery. Discussion Board? System for free home delivery of mail in rural areas of the United States, begun just prior to gore essay, the turn of the 20th century. SASE : A self-addressed, stamped envelope. An unused envelope bearing the address of the sender and reflective sufficient return postage. Enclosed with correspondence to make answering easy. Secret mark : A minute alteration to a stamp design added to distinguish later printings from earlier printings by a different firm. Secret marks may positively distinguish genuine stamps from counterfeits. Seebeck : The nickname for vidal family various Latin American issues produced 1890-99 in study analysis, contract with Nicholas Frederick Seebeck, the agent for the Hamilton Bank Note Co. of New York. Seebeck agreed to provide new issues of stamps and stationery each year at no charge, in return for the right to gore vidal the holy family, sell remainders and reprints to Islam Discussion, collectors. The resulting furor destroyed Seebeck and blackened the philatelic reputations of the countries involved. Self-adhesive : Stamp gum that adheres to envelope paper by vidal the application of pressure alone.

Most self-adhesive stamps are sold on a coated paper release liner. Discussion Board? See also Liner, Linerless, Water-activated. Selvage : The marginal paper on a sheet or pane of stamps. Selvage may be unprinted or may contain printer's markings or other information. Semipostal : A stamp sold at a price greater than postal value, with the additional charge dedicated for a special purpose.

Usually recognized by the presence of vidal essay the holy, two (often different) values, separated by a +'' sign, on a single stamp. Series : A group of stamps with a similar design or theme, issued over not lowering a period of time. A series may be planned or may evolve. Service inscribed : A stamp with wording as part of the gore essay the holy family, initial printed design that identifies the mail-handling service for which the stamp is an essay recording 1684 intended, such as Presorted First-Class. See also Precancel.

Set : Stamps sharing common design elements, often issued at one time and usually collected as a group. Se-tenant : French for joined together.'' Two or more unseparated stamps of different designs, colors, denominations or types. Shade : The minor variation commonly found in any basic color. Shades may be accorded catalog status when they are very distinctive. Sheet : A complete unit of stamps as printed. Stamps are usually printed in large sheets and are separated into two or more panes before shipment to essay family, post offices.

Ship letter : Mail carried by private ship. Short set : An incomplete set of study, stamps, usually lacking either the high value or one or more key values. Sleeper : Stamp or other collectible item that seems to be underpriced and may have good investment potential. Sleeve : 1) A seamless cylindrical printing plate used in rotary intaglio printing. 2) A flat transparent holder, often specifically for vidal the holy family protecting and not lowering storing a cover. Soaking : Removal of stamps from essay the holy envelope paper. Most stamps may be safely soaked in water. Fugitive inks, however, will run in water, and chalky-surfaced papers will lose their designs entirely, so some knowledge of stamps is a necessity. Colored envelope paper should be soaked separately. Souvenir card : A philatelic card, not valid for an essay for the of illustrious 1684 postage, issued in conjunction with some special event. The souvenir card often illustrates the vidal essay the holy, design of not lowering age essay, a postage stamp.

Souvenir page : An announcement of a new United States stamp issue created by the U.S. Gore Essay Family? Postal Service, bearing a copy of the new stamp tied by a first day of issue cancellation. Souvenir sheet : A small sheet of an essay of illustrious 1684, stamps, including one value or a set of stamps. A souvenir sheet usually has a wide margin and an inscription describing an event being commemorated. Stamps on a souvenir sheet may be perforated or imperforate. Space filler : A stamp in poor condition used to fill the designated space in vidal essay the holy family, a stamp album until a better copy can be found. Special delivery : A service providing expedited delivery of mail.

Called Express by some nations. Special handling : A U.S. service providing expeditious handling for fourth-class material. Special printing : Reissue of a stamp of current or recent design, often with distinctive color, paper or perforations. Specialist : A stamp collector who intensively studies and collects the Discussion, stamps and postal history of a given country, area, or time period, or who has otherwise limited his collecting field. Special stamps : Regular postage stamp issues that fall outside the traditional definitions of essay family, commemorative and definitive stamps. In the United States, holiday issues such as Contemporary Christmas, Traditional Christmas, Hanukkah and the like are considered special stamps. They are printed in substantially greater quantities than commemorative stamps, and sometimes return to and discrimination, press for additional printings. Love stamps are also considered special stamps. Specimen : Stamp or stationery item distributed to Universal Postal Union members for essay the holy identification purposes and to the philatelic press and trade for publicity purposes.

Specimens are overprinted or punched with the word SPECIMEN'' or its equivalent, or are overprinted or punched in Islam Discussion Board, a way to vidal essay the holy, make them different from the issued stamps. Specimens of scarce stamps tend to be less valuable than the actual stamps. Specimens of relatively common stamps are more valuable. Speculative issue : A stamp or issue released primarily for and discrimination sale to collectors, rather than to meet any legitimate postal need. Splice : The repair of a break in a roll of gore essay the holy family, stamp paper, or the political guide, joining of the holy family, two rolls of paper for continuous printing. Stamps printed over personal reflective illness a splice are usually removed and destroyed before the normal stamps are issued. Stamp : An officially issued postage label, often adhesive, attesting that payment has been rendered for mail delivery. Initially used as a verb, meaning to imprint or impress; as in, to stamp a design. Stampless cover : A folded sheet or envelope carried as mail without a postage stamp. This term usually refers to gore vidal essay the holy, covers predating the on prejudice and discrimination, requirement that stamps be affixed to all letters (in the United States, 1856).

Stock book : A specially manufactured blank book containing rows of pockets on each page to hold stamps. Straight edge : Flat-plate or rotary-plate stamps from the margins of panes where the sheets were cut apart. Gore? Straight-edge stamps have no perforations on one or two adjacent sides. Sometimes straight-edge stamps show a guideline. Strip : Three or more unseparated stamps in a row, vertically or horizontally. Surcharge : An overprint that changes or restates the denomination of personal, a stamp or postal stationery item. Surface-colored paper : Paper colored on the surface only, with a white or uncolored back.

Surtax : The portion of a semipostal stamp purchase price exceeding the postage value. The surtax is designated for donation to a charity or some other purpose. Sweatbox : A closed box containing dampened spongelike material, over which stuck-together unused stamps are placed on a grill. Humidity softens the gum, allowing separation of stamps. In some cases, the sweatbox may be used to help remove a postally used stamp from envelope paper.

T : Abbreviation for the French Taxe.'' Handstamped on a stamp, the T indicates the stamp's use as a postage due. Handstamped on a cover, it indicates that postage due has been charged. Vidal Essay? Several countries have used regular stamps with a perforated initial T as postage dues. Tagging : Phosphor material on stamps used to activate automatic mail-handling equipment. This may be lines, bars, letters, part of the design area or the entire stamp surface. The tagging may also permeate the stamp paper. Some stamps are issued both with and political science without tagging. Catalogs describe them as tagged or untagged.

Teeth : The protruding points along the outer edge of a perforated postage stamp when it has been removed from the pane. Telegraph stamp : Label used for the prepayment of telegraph fees. Telegraph stamps resemble postage stamps. Tete-beche : French for head to tail.'' Two or more unsevered stamps, one of which is vidal essay the holy inverted in relation to the other. Thematic : A collection of the drinking age essay, stamps or covers relating to a specific topic. Essay? The topic is expanded by careful inquiry and is presented as a logical story. School Uq Essay? See also Topical. Tied : A stamp is said to be tied to a cover when the cancel extends over both the stamp and the envelope paper. Stamps can also be tied by the aging of the mucilage or glue that holds them to the paper. Tong : Tweezerlike tool with rounded, polished tips, used to handle stamps.

Tongs prevent stamps from being soiled by dirt, oil or perspiration. Topical : 1) Stamp or cover showing a given subject. Examples are flowers, art, birds, elephants or the Statue of gore essay the holy, Liberty. 2) The collection of essay on prejudice and discrimination, stamps by the topic depicted on them, rather than by country of origin. Vidal? See also Thematic. Transit mark : A postal marking applied by an essay for the recording 1684 a post office between the originating and receiving post offices. It can be on gore essay the holy family, the front or back of a cover, card or wrapper. Triptych : A se-tenant strip of three related stamps forming one overall design. Reflective Essay Illness? See United States Scott 1629-31, the 1976 Spirit of 76 issue. Type : A basic design of a stamp or a set. Gore Family? Catalogs use type numbers or letters to save space.

Catalogs show a typical design of not lowering the drinking, one type rather than every stamp with that design or a similar design. Underprint : A fine printing underlying the design of a stamp, most often used to vidal essay the holy, deter counterfeiting. Ungummed : A stamp without gum. Ungummed stamps are either stamps issued without gum or an uncanceled gummed stamp that has had its gum soaked off. Many countries in tropical climates have issued stamps without gum. Unhinged : A stamp without hinge marks, but not necessarily with original gum. Universal Postal Union : An international organization formed in an essay recording of illustrious providences, Bern, Switzerland, in 1874, to regulate and standardize postal usage and to facilitate the gore vidal, movement of essay and discrimination, mail between member nations. Today, most nations belong to gore family, the UPU. (See UPU section of science uq essay guide, this almanac.) Unused : An uncanceled stamp that has not been used but has a hinge mark or some other characteristic or defect that keeps it from being considered a mint stamp. Uncanceled stamps without gum may have been used and missed being canceled, or they may have lost their gum by accident.

used : A stamp or stationery item that has been canceled by a postal authority to prevent its reuse on mail. In general, a used stamp is any stamp with a cancel or a precanceled stamp without gum. See also Postally Used and Philatelic Cover. UPU : Universal Postal Union. An international organization formed in the holy family, Bern, Switzerland, in 1874, to an essay recording of illustrious, regulate and standardize postal usage and to facilitate the movement of mail between member nations. Today, most nations belong to the UPU. Variety : A variation from the standard form of gore vidal essay the holy, a stamp. Varieties include different watermarks, inverts, imperforates, missing colors, wrong colors and major color shifts.

See also Freak, Error. Vignette : The central part of not lowering, a stamp design, usually surrounded by a border. Gore The Holy Family? In some cases the vignette shades off gradually into essay illness, the surrounding area. Want list : A list of essay the holy, needed stamps or covers, identified by catalog number or some other description, submitted by a collector to a dealer, usually including requirements on condition and price. Water-activated adhesive : Stamp gum designed to adhere to envelope paper only if the essay and discrimination, gum is moistened. All gummed stamps before 1963 used water-activated adhesive. Watermark : A deliberate thinning of the holy family, paper during its manufacture to produce a semitranslucent pattern. Watermarks appear frequently in not lowering the drinking, paper used in stamp printing or envelope manufacture. See also Batonne. Web : A continuous roll of gore vidal family, paper used in political science uq essay guide, stamp printing. Wing margin : Early British stamps from the side of gore the holy family, a pane with selvage attached.

British sheets printed before 1880 were perforated down the center of the gutter, producing oversized margins on one side of stamps adjacent to an essay for the recording providences, the gutter. Such copies are distinctive and scarcer than normal copies. Wove paper : A paper showing few differences in texture and thickness when held to light. In the essay family, production of comparative case study analysis, wove paper, the gore vidal essay, pulp is Board pressed against a very fine netting, producing a virtually uniform texture. Wove paper is the most commonly used paper in gore family, stamp production. Wrapper : A flat sheet or strip open at personal essay, both ends that can be folded and sealed around a newspaper or periodical.

Wrappers can have an imprinted stamp or have a stamp attached. Zemstvo : A local stamp issued by Russian municipal governments or zemstvos, in accordance with an imperial edict of 1870. Zeppelins : The stamps issued for, or in honor of, zeppelin flights. Cacheted covers carried on such flights are Zeppelin covers.

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acdemic essay The Academic Essay. The academic essay is merely a specific writing genre#150;as is the love letter, newspaper editorial, or pop-fiction. As a genre, it functions within a set of norms, rules, and conventions. The purpose of this discussion is to make clear to gore you what those rules and norms are, and how to comparative analysis use them to express your argument clearly. The purpose of the academic essay is to gore family persuade by reasoned discourse. Scholars use the essay amongst themselves to advance ideas. Its value as an instructional tool is to assist students in developing their critical thinking skills. As you recall, critical thinking is defined as: the school political science uq essay ability to vidal the holy family read theory accurately, appropriate it meaningfully, apply it independently, generate results based on that application, analyze the results, and form a clear argument based on those results that can be defended with a specific line of reasoning. A good academic essay engenders this process and Islam Discussion Board, clearly demonstrates that the process has been performed successfully.

With this in mind let's examine how to write an academic essay. Do you frequently find yourself struggling with the introduction to your essays? Do you not know how to begin the essay? Do you find yourself searching for a generalizing statement that will get things going, and family, trying to find a delicate balance between BS'ing and saying something meaningful? If so, that's because you are not following the norms for the introduction to the academic essay. Following this norm actually makes introductions a piece of cake and gets you right into the body of the essay. Here is the science uq essay norm: The purpose of the introduction is two-fold: 1. To introduce the vidal essay the holy theoretical framework that will guide your analysis. 2. Personal Reflective Essay Illness? To introduce the thesis statement that will organize your paper. Following this norm allows you to cut to the chase. No more generalizing statements of philosophical speculation that you venture forth hoping that it won't get shot down. You know, crap like Hemingway was perhaps one of the most visionary authors of his time. or The Western is perhaps the most uniquely American of all the genres.

Rather, if the purpose of the essay is to gore vidal essay demonstrate that you have appropriated a theory and applied it independently to comparative study analysis produce results, then the function of the introduction becomes more focused: to introduce the theory#150;or theoretical framework#150;that you have decided to use. Family? Hence you will find that many essays begin with such statements as In his book. Or, In her essay. IMPORTANT NOTE: One of the main reasons that the norm of the Introduction developed this way is because of an important rule of the Academic Essay: Avoid making statements that you cannot prove. The problem with the generalizing/philosophical/BS'ing statements like Hemingway. and The Western. is that they cannot be proven through reasoned discourse. Moreover, to even try and do so would require voluminous amounts of for the recording of illustrious providences 1684, discourse for vidal essay the holy something that is not even your thesis: what you actually ARE setting out to prove.

As a result, the genre of the Academic Essay has evolved into the above norm. It still meets an introduction's purpose of orienting the Islam Discussion reader, it just does so in vidal essay the holy a very specific manner. Having accomplished that, the expectation for an essay is that you will introduce a thesis statement that is directly related to that theoretical framework (or its application). As a result, a major convention of the academic essay is that: The introduction ends with the thesis statement. The Drinking Age Essay? Having stated a thesis, you are expected to then go and prove it through the vidal essay the holy family body of the essay. That said, it is important to discuss what's at stake in making a thesis statement. There are four basic logical forms for a thesis statement: #149; A banal thesis statement. #149; A simple thesis statement. #149; A complex thesis statement. #149; An impossible thesis statement. Let's discuss each of these quickly before moving on. Not Lowering The Drinking Age Essay? A banal thesis statement is a statement that does not really say anything#150;it is in fact meaningless because it is either so overly general or so evident as to not be of significance.

Here's an gore essay the holy family example from literature. A frequent argument students will make is This author used symbolism to make his point. Recording? The statement, however, is meaningless precisely because it is not of significance: every author writing literature uses symbolism of one kind or another, either using language metaphorically or metonymically. Thus, to attempt to single out or make a distinction of a piece for using symbolism is to not say anything that even needs proving to begin with. A simple thesis statement is not quite what it may sound like. A simple thesis statement means that only one main point or argument is essay the holy, going to be proved. The term simple argument can thus be misleading because the argument itself can and frequently is very theoretically sophisticated. What makes them simple is that in terms of their logical structure, they only take on comparative, one line of proof, and hence, their organization of proof will be simple. One has to be careful, however, because sometimes one main argument may require SEVERAL supporting arguments. The example here would be the argument that Star Wars belongs within the gore essay the holy family Western Genre. Here the writer has only one thing to prove, but in comparative analysis order to do so will have to establish the essay family elements that comprise the Western Genre and demonstrate how the film embodies them--not a small task.

Simple thesis statements are eminently preferable in terms of writing an analysis essay for a course. It allows you to focus on your points and your proofs rather than getting lost in the organization of your arguments. Essay The Holy Family? A complex thesis statement means that the thesis has more than one point to prove. In this respect, the essay will have to organize more than one line of reasoning in so far that more than one thing has to be proven. Complex theses are not necessarily more theoretically sophisticated than simple thesis statements, they are only more difficult to organize clearly. Islam? In this respect, they are not worth what they entail and should be avoided.

An example of a complex thesis statement would be something like: Faulkner's novels critique the ideologies of patriarchy and racism. Gore Vidal Essay? This would be an appropriate analysis for the work of Faulkner, but I'm not sure it would be worth it. To begin with, it is not clear what the writer has to gain in terms of proving BOTH of these aspects of the work rather than just the one. Instead, with this complex thesis, there are going to reflective essay illness be long sections of the essay where half of what needs to be proved will be left suspended while the other half gets discussed. In addition, the essay the holy thesis picks the work of Faulkner which necessitates discussing every book, rather than just one. Thus it is that an important convention of the academic essay is that: A complex thesis statement can usually be restructured into a more theoretically sophisticated (if not interesting) simple thesis statement. Making an comparative study analysis Argument. As stated earlier, the academic essay is an exercise in reasoned persuasion. In this respect, the gore the holy family thesis statement is an important organizational structure insofar as it establishes how the rest of the essay will be organized.

Classical logic maintains that there are 3 basic kinds of persuasive statements: statements of fact, statements of value (or evaluation), and statements of policy (or action, which argue what we should do). Unless otherwise specified, the first of these, the statement of fact, is the form that the thesis statement for an academic essay should take#150;the obvious exception being when you write evaluative criticism (which you will NEVER do in my course). Statements of providences 1684, fact can themselves be grouped into two basic forms: arguments of classification, and arguments of operation or function. It is possible to gore essay the holy family make other distinctions, like for example, arguments of relationship (how to things relate to personal essay illness each other) but these distinctions can be readily subsumed into these two basic groups. Arguments of classification are when you establish some sort of criteria, and then argue that something meets or fails to meet that criteria. The earlier example that Star Wars belongs within the Western Genre is an essay the holy family example of an argument of classification. Having established what comprises the Western Genre, the writer will then go on to prove how Star Wars embodies, contains, or possesses those elements. The writer will, in other words, prove that Star Wars meets that criteria. Arguments of personal essay illness, operation or function argues in terms of what something does, or how it functions. The earlier argument that Faulkner's work critiques the ideology of patriarchy is an example of function. This statement argues that Faulkner's work DOES something: it criticizes the ideology of patriarchy.

Note that unlike the argument of classification, the writer of this essay SEEMS to the holy family have to do more to prove their thesis. They will not only have to define what the ideology of political science uq essay guide, patriarchy is#150;and thus establish criteria#150;they will also have to demonstrate that Faulkner's work DOES something with that criteria. The question of HOW leads to a discussion of the essay family body of the case study analysis essay. The Body of the Essay. From a conceptual standpoint, the gore vidal the holy function of the body of the essay is to prove the thesis statement laid out in the introduction. Easy enough. This section discusses how the writer accomplishes that proof.

In the discussion of types of age essay, argument, I made the point that the writer will have to establish criteria that can be used to prove their argument. The body of the essay is the location where the writer accomplishes that. An introduction is precisely that: It INTRODUCES the theoretical framework and the thesis statement. Gore Vidal? It does not DESCRIBE or DISCUSS these two things. This is essay on prejudice, a fairly common mistake that beginning essay writers make. Gore Vidal Essay? They fear that they have not said enough in the intro and as a result, go on to discuss aspects of their theory or elaborate on for the recording providences 1684, a thesis. The problem with doing so is that it screws up your organization. What comes next is no longer clear to the reader. If you keep it clear to yourself that the purpose of the gore family introduction to Islam Discussion Board your essay is to only INTRODUCE your theoretical framework, and vidal family, your thesis statement, then the function of the body of your essay will also become evident to the reader.

They will expect you to Islam Discussion Board establish criteria so that you can prove your thesis. As a result, another important norm of the academic essay is: A primary function of the body of the gore vidal essay is to establish the Discussion Board criteria by which the thesis statement will be proven. Gore Vidal Essay? Thus it is that having argued that Star Wars is a Western, the body of the paper is going to have to first establish the elements that comprise the Western#150;it will have to establish the criteria by school political, which the thesis can be proven. To argue that Faulkner's work criticizes thee ideology of patriarchy is going to require that the writer establish what the vidal essay family ideology of patriarchy is. Establishing the criteria by which the thesis statement will be proven leads to political guide the next logical step: demonstrating how the object under investigation meets those criteria. Clearly it is not enough for the Faulkner essayist to just define what the ideology of patriarchy is. Their thesis is vidal the holy family, that Faulkner's work criticizes that ideology. As a result, they will have to point to specific things within the text and argue that they relate to those criteria IN A SPECIFIC WAY#150;in this case through a process of criticism.

This process of relating the object of investigation back to the established criteria is another fundamental component of the body of the on prejudice essay. Without it, the proof is not complete. As silly as that sounds, I kid you not that the most frequent mistake of gore, beginning essay writers is a failure to relate their analysis back to the criteria they have established. Thus it is that another important norm for the academic essay is: Relate the analysis back to case the terms and concepts of the established criteria. The Star Wars example brings up another fundamental logical task to this process.

From the beginning you have probably thought the gore the holy family Star Wars thesis to not be very feasible. The film is not set in the West, and an essay recording 1684, it occurs in the future. The question becomes, however, whether these are ESSENTIAL criteria to vidal family the Western, and if not, what is? In terms of proving that thesis statement, the writer is going to have to clearly establish what the elements of the Western Genre are, and recording providences, then relate aspects of the film back to ALL of those criteria. Herein lies the essential importance of completeness to that process.

If the Star Wars writer establishes the criteria but can only point to the gun-fighting that occurs in the film, then their essay will fail to persuade. Their essay will fail to persuade precisely because it inadequately addresses the scope of the criteria. Thus it is that another important norm for this process is: Fully address the established criteria. It is very important to note that fully addressing the essay the holy family scope of the criteria does NOT mean that the object under discussion has to fully meet ALL the criteria. To stick with the Star Wars example, the writer can not IGNORE the issue of setting and even remotely hope to persuade the audience. In some way, the writer is school science uq essay guide, going to have to address the gore vidal essay family fact that both time and place are out of the bounds of the Western. This is the point precisely. The author will have to ADDRESS that point#150;those criteria#150;not necessarily MEET those criteria. In this respect, the writer is essay on prejudice, going to have make a supporting argument about how these criteria relate to each other in terms of comprising the genre (or in gore essay the holy a logical sense the whole).

The important point is that all criteria are addressed adequately. Failure to address any of the established criteria creates a gap in school political science logic. Subsequently, the reasoning process (and its ability to persuade) fails. Fully relating the object of the thesis to vidal the established criteria fulfills the logical requirements necessary to persuade reasonably and allows the writer to draw conclusions. Comparative? Before that process is discussed, however, it is necessary to examine an gore essay the holy family important component of this relating back process. The Role of Description. Relating the object of investigation or the object of the thesis back to the established criteria is necessarily going to involve description. Description is frequently an unclear and thorny issue for writers of the academic essay#150;especially in terms of scope (how much is enough?).

The purpose of description, however, clarifies the issue of scope. Discussion? The purpose of description to is to make clear, or establish WHAT in vidal the holy the object of science uq essay, investigation (the film, the scene, the shot) relates to gore vidal essay family the criteria being used. It therefore becomes important for the writer to use description in such a manner as to establish the comparative basis of the essay relationship between the personal essay object and the criteria. Furthermore, the writer should LIMIT description to accomplishing only this task. Added description is not only superfluous, but distracts from trying to prove your argument.

As a result, another important norm for the body of the academic essay is: Subordinate description to the purpose of analysis. As stated above the process of fully relating the object of the thesis to the established criteria has the effect of fulfilling the logical requirements. Gore Essay Family? It is THAT task which ultimately persuades, not the conclusion itself. It is for this reason that, in some respects, the conclusion does not seem to have a FUNDAMENTAL role in the process of reasoned persuasion. That in itself probably accounts for school political how many dopey tips exist for what to gore vidal essay do with a conclusion, like: repeat the thesis statement (like people have forgotten it despite the comparative case analysis fact that you've been working to prove it the entire time) or some other such thing. What to do with a conclusion if the work of proof is essay the holy, already done? The most effective thing to personal essay illness do with a conclusion is to first signal that the work is coming to gore essay the holy close, and then close off the discussion itself by stating something definitive about the work.

Like the introduction, then, the conclusion has a dual role: to signal the transition to closure, and to close the discussion with a definitive statement. Islam Discussion? The work of the conclusion should reference the thesis, without necessarily repeating the thesis (or the steps by which it was proven) It should then say something definitive that signals closure by pointing to the implications of gore vidal family, what you've discussed, by amplifying what you've discussed, or by contextualizing what you've discussed. In each case, you are striving to close discussion by being definitive, and you are taking caution not to violate rule #1 of the academic essay: avoid statements that you cannot prove. To stay with the running examples, the conclusion to uq essay guide the Faulkner paper could look something like this: . it therefore serves as an example of gore vidal essay, how literary texts structure their criticisms of dominant ideologies. (pointing to the implications of proving your argument). Comparative Case Study? Thus, far from being a portrait of its time Faulkner's work demonstrates that literary works actively engage ideologies. (amplifying your argument) Rather than a story centered exclusively on war, Hemingway's novel instead participates in the reinforcement of dominant ideologies with American culture. (Contextualizing the argument) Note that the similarity here is how definitive these statements are. They draw upon the work that has been done, but say something different and vidal essay family, final that is logically based upon what has been discussed.

There are, of course, variations on the genre of the academic essay--some rather large difference exist, for example, between the political science guide social sciences and the humanites. This discussion is based on the humanties approach. The Holy? Other variations can result from the idiosyncracies of specific instructors. To the degree that what is written here sounds heavy handed and inflexible, I caution instead that such tone is trying to reflect the manner in which your own analysis and writing will need to sound precise and rigorous#150;the standards by which the not lowering the drinking age essay academic essay is gore vidal essay the holy, evaluated. Science Uq Essay Guide? The precision and rigor with which these norms and conventions are applied should function only to demand that your own analysis and reason engender these standards. They are thus meant to elevate your thinking, not control it.

The principles by which the academic essay structures itself is designed to be a discipline that frees your thinking, not subjugate it. Within its conventions is unlimited creative potential whose only demand, ultimately, is that you say something meaningful that others can be persuaded of via your logic. What I have attempted to do here is make the norms and conventions of the genre explicit so that you can refine your skills working within it. Mastering this genre has the family benefit of developing your skill to analyze situations using explicit criteria, and be able to make decisions based on that analysis. More than a few people have found that possession of for the providences, such a skill is invaluable in life and professional endeavors.

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To make internal business decisions about current and future Service offerings; To provide You customized user experiences, including personalized Services offerings; To protect our rights, interests, safety and property and that of our customers, service providers and other third parties; and. To comply with law or as required for legal purposes. We may use Personal Information for investigations or prevention of fraud or network abuse. We may use information we collect to contact You about our and/or third-party products, services, and offers that We believe You may find of interest.

We may contact You by telephone, postal mail, e-mail, or other methods. You may see advertisements when You visit our Website. We may help advertisers better reach our customers by providing certain customer information, including geographic information, language preferences or demographic information obtained from other companies. This information is used by advertisers to determine which ads may be more relevant to You. However, we do not share Personal Information outside of our corporate family for advertising purposes without Your consent. WHEN WE SHARE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. We do not sell, license, rent, or otherwise provide Your Personal Information to providences 1684 unaffiliated third-parties (parties outside our corporate family) without Your consent. We may, however, disclose Your information to unaffiliated third-parties as follows: With Your Consent. We may disclose Personal Information about essay family You to third-parties with Your consent. Personal Reflective Essay Illness. We may obtain Your consent in writing; online, through “click-through” agreements; when You accept the terms of disclosures for essay the holy family, certain Services; orally, when You interact with our customer service representatives.

We encourage You not to share Your password. If You provide Your user account password and/or security question responses to third parties they will have access to essay on prejudice and discrimination Your Personal Information when they access Your user account with Your account password. To Our Service Providers. We may disclose information to gore third-party vendors and comparative study analysis, partners who complete transactions or perform services on our behalf (for example, credit/debit card processing, billing, customer service, auditing, and marketing). In a Business Transfer. We may sell, disclose, or transfer information about You as part of a corporate business transaction, such as a merger or acquisition, joint venture, corporate reorganization, financing, or sale of company assets, or in the unlikely event of insolvency, bankruptcy, or receivership, in which such information could be transferred to third-parties as a business asset in the transaction.

For Legal Process Protection. We may disclose Personal Information, and other information about You, or Your communications, where we have a good faith belief that access, use, preservation or disclosure of such information is reasonably necessary: to satisfy any applicable law, regulation, legal process or enforceable governmental request; to enforce or apply agreements, or initiate, render, bill, and collect for services and gore vidal, products (including to collection agencies in order to obtain payment for our products and services); to protect our rights or interests, or property or safety or that of others; in connection with claims, disputes, or litigation – in court or elsewhere; to facilitate or verify the appropriate calculation of taxes, fees, or other obligations; or. in an emergency situation. We may provide information that does not identify You personally to third-parties for essay and discrimination, marketing, advertising or other purposes. HOW WE STORE AND PROTECT THE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. Protecting Your Information. We use a variety of physical, electronic, and procedural safeguards to protect Personal Information from unauthorized access, use, or disclosure while it is gore, under our control. Unfortunately, no data transmission over the internet can be guaranteed to be completely secure. As a result, although we will utilize such measures, we do not guarantee You against the loss, misuse, or alteration of Personal Information under our control, and school guide, You provide Personal Information to us at Your own risk. Vidal Family. You should always take care with how You handle and disclose your Personal Information and should avoid sending Personal Information through insecure e-mail, social networks or other internet channels.

Retention and Disposal. We retain information only for as long as we have a business or tax need or as applicable laws, regulations and/or government orders allow. When we dispose of Personal Information, we use reasonable procedures designed to an essay for the recording erase or render it unreadable (for example, shredding documents and wiping electronic media). PRIVACY POLICY UPDATES. How We Communicate Changes to This Policy. We may update this Policy at vidal essay the holy any time to provide updates to or clarification of our practices. If we make changes we may provide You with additional notice (such as adding a statement to the homepage of our Website or sending You a notification). You should refer to this Policy often for the latest information and the effective date of any changes. This web site is owned and operated by essay, Viatta Business Ltd . A Partner is an individual who refers customers.

A Referral is an individual who requests a service via the referral link given by gore vidal the holy family, a Partner. With the the drinking, first order, a Referral acquires a 15% discount on the order, while a Partner receives $50 to the Referral Balance. With further purchases, a Partner earns 5% of the Referral’s total order price. All money earned with the Referral Program is stored on gore vidal family, your Referral Balance. A Partner can transfer the money to the Bonus Balance and use it to not lowering purchase a service.

It is possible to transfer the gore vidal essay, sum to the Partner’s PayPal account (no less than $20).