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PostgreSQL Server Benchmarks: Part Five Disks. Over the essays past few posts I#8217;ve talked a lot about phd thesis optimizing our new server#8217;s basic systems. The RAM and CPU benchmarking and optimization has been relatively straightforward; the individual subsystems are either fast or they#8217;re not. Essays? Our next stop is the disks, and the landscape isn#8217;t quite so simple this time. While there aren#8217;t as many options for the disks as there were for the CPUs, the changes made here make a more substantial impact on the system#8217;s performance. The main bottleneck for any database is I/O, so the referencing of essays goal here is to make sure we#8217;re not leaving any performance on the table. Essays? In this exercise, I’m trying to answer two specific questions about the disk subsystem: Does the to build a fire speed of the controller make a significant difference in sequential writes?

Is hardware or software RAID faster? There’s a detailed recap of the relevant hardware below, but you might want to go back to Part Two for more details. Either way, here are links to the entire series: Let’s have a little refresher on the disks in the server. First, there are two controllers and one external enclosure in essays, play. They are: The SAS 6/iR is the controller for the drive bays in the server chassis itself.

It’s a bit older and slower, running at 3 Gbps/second. The H800 is Dell’s current external RAID controller. It’s a more modern card running a 6 Gbps/second and sporting a 512MB Battery-Backed Write Cache. Connected to the H800 is hard Dell’s MD1220, an external JBOD with 24 2.5” drive slots. The system drives are a pair of Western Digital WD1460BKFG 146GB 10k RPM SAS drives arranged in on behavior, a RAID-1 and connected to the SAS 6/iR. They will not be tested in referencing of essays, this series as all of the database disk access will happen on essays other drives. We planned on placing the WAL storage on separate drives from the narrative on internet rest of the essays cluster, so we got 2x Fujitsu MBE2073RC 73GB 15k RPM SAS drives to be arranged in a RAID-1. The rest of the cluster data will live on 9x Seagate ST9146852SS 146GB 15k RPM SAS drives to be arranged in coursework, a RAID-10 (with 1 hot spare). To start with, one of the WAL drives and all of the on behavior cluster drives were in the external array.

The other WAL drive was in on internet, the chassis, to facilitate testing the two controllers. Speaking of which Question number one: is the 6gbps H800 sufficiently faster than the 3gbps SAS 6/iR to justify putting the WAL drives in essays, the external array? To test this, I want to i complete my homework measure the sequential write rates of drives in both configurations. Essays? Why just sequential writes? Turns out that’s all the phd thesis in geotechnical WAL storage ever does it just writes in a straight line forever and ever.

This was a simple test; I just formatted the drives with ext4 and ran bonnie++. Essays On Behavior? I started by partitioning the drives with fdisk. I transcribed my input doing it by hand once: This deletes partition #1 and creates a new primary partition #1, accepting the defaults for maths size (the two blank lines in the middle) and then writes out the partition table. fdisk will implicitly set the partition type to 83 (Linux) when you write out the essays tables. Put that in a file and you can pipe it to fdisk: Next was to format and mount the drives: Then, run bonnie++: Let me take a second to describe the options here: -n 0 skips the file creation tests that I don’t care about -f skips the per-character IO that I also don’t care about -b calls fsync() after every write, simulating database disk access patterns -c 4 write using four threads -r 31744 pretend there’s only essays, 31gb of RAM -d . Essays On Behavior? write to the given directory. I Complete? The most interesting one is -r . By default, bonnie++ looks at how much RAM you have, doubles it, and writes that much data to disk. I haven’t seen any documentation directly stating this, but my guess is essays on behavior that this is an effort to bust the operating system’s caches. Normally you’d want this, as read tests when the data is in a memory cache are useless. The problem for me is that my drives are only 64gb once formatted. Fortunately, I don’t really care about busting the hard OS cache because I’m only concerned with sequential write rates. That means that I can tell bonnie++ to use less disk without worrying too much about the cache screwing up my results.

Speaking of essays which, let’s take a look at maths the SAS 6/iR: The main number we’re looking at essays is the Sequential Output Block rate. For the SAS/6iR, it’s 67.1 MB/s. The H800 manages 90.6 MB/s, about a 35% increase. Narrative On Internet? That’s enough for me; the WAL disks are going in essays on behavior, the external array. I moved the disks into the array, created a RAID-1 volume on the H800, and children's referencing of essays, re-ran bonnie++ to on behavior make sure nothing changed: Excellent. A bit slower than the single-drive test, but I’ve noticed as much as 8 MB/s variance across multiple tests so I’m not too worried. Still faster than the SAS 6/iR. That done, time to move on. The next big question is whether software RAID was going to children's of essays be faster than hardware RAID for the cluster data partition. This meant putting the eight data drives into a software RAID-10, running some benchmarks, then putting them into a RAID-10 using the essays on behavior H800 RAID controller and essay on internet, doing the same benchmark.

For both configurations, the resulting virtual disks were formatted with stock ext4 and mounted at /mnt/data . The hardware RAID-10 was built using the essays on behavior RAID controller’s BIOS, which is naturally difficult to show you here. If you’re playing along at home, it’s pretty obvious how to do it. The software RAID, on the other hand, was done on the command line. As best I can tell, the H800 doesn’t have a JBOD mode, so I exported each drive as a single-drive RAID-0 array. This effectively means that the controller would be handling the write caching but everything else would be the children's OS’s responsiblity.

Creating the array was pretty easy, but took a few steps. On Behavior? First, I created the a fire essays device with mknod : This creates a block device ( b parameter) with major number 9 ( md devices) and essays, minor number 0 (indicating the first device, hence /dev/md0 ). Next, I partitioned each of the narrative on internet drives ( sda through sdh ) by piping a script to essays on behavior fdisk as described above. The script was a little different: The main difference from above is problem coursework that this sets the drive type to fd , which is the Linux software RAID type. fdisk was run across the drives with a for essays loop: Next up was to actually create the array. This was done using mdadm : This got the ball rolling, but before testing we have to wait for the array to be assembled. This involves checking /proc/mdstat periodically to see what’s up: 45 minutes later, I returned and thesis hard binding, the array was ready: Finally, format it as before, with basic, default ext4 and mount it: Next up is to run some tests.

Following along with the advice in the PostgreSQL 9.0 High Performance book, I decided to run three sets of tests: seek and on behavior, sync rates using sysbench, and a more general disk benchmark using bonnie++. Back in Part Three I noticed that it was difficult to get consistent results across multiple test runs, and in response I took to running each test multiple times and averaging the results. I’ve continued this strategy here; each test was run five times and the results averaged. On Internet? Before each test, the operating system disk caches were flushed by writing 3 to /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches . To facilitate all of this, I wrote a script: Some notes about essays these tests. First, the sysbench seeks test requires a setup and cleanup phase, where a specified number of files are created for essays the actual benchmark to seek across. In this case, I created 500 files for on behavior a total of 500GB, so each file was 1GB. Phd Thesis? For bonnie++, you’ll see that most of the option flags from the WAL tests are missing; I wanted a more comprehensive set of essays on behavior numbers for these tests. Referencing? Raw results are available in two flavors, software RAID and hardware RAID. Let’s pull out the relevant info: From this table alone it looks like it’s a relatively even match except for fsync/sec and sequential reads. I ran the standard deviations of essays on behavior those two values and got some surprising results. The standard deviation of the software fsync/sec was 90.76, while hardware was at 1871.27, indicating that something went crazy there.

The actual values for referencing hardware were 3170.57, 7606.69, 8379.83, 7627.63, and 7523.14. It seems that the first test was running during some other operation that caused the performance to be quite poor. Removing that value results in essays on behavior, an average of phd thesis 7784.32 (and a standard deviation of 346.03), which seems quite a bit closer to the software number. The most surprising thing was the essays on behavior sequential read test, where the hardware controller appears to be nearly twice as fast as the software RAID. The values back that up: I don’t have a theory as to why the hardware RAID is so much faster at this. The best guess I can make is that being specialized hardware, it’s more heavily optimized than the software RAID system is.

Regardless of the how can reasoning, though, double the sequential read more than outweighs the small variance in the other stats, so it looks like we’ve got a winner! Summary, and on behavior, Next Time on Back up at the top of the children's of essays post, I posed two questions: Does the essays speed of the controller make a significant difference in sequential writes? Is hardware or software RAID faster? The answers are “yes” and “enhhhhh”. It shouldn’t be surprising that a 3gbps controller would be slower than a 6gbps controller, so that one was kind of a gimme.

The hardware vs. software RAID question is a little bit more interesting, though. The conclusion that I’ve drawn is that RAID controllers are not inherently superior to problem maths software RAID. We have one in our server, and on behavior, we’re seeing better numbers, so I’m going to stick with it. If you’re speccing a new server, make sure you have the opportunity to run these kinds of tests, and send the controller back if it’s not worth it. In the of essays next post, I’ll be walking through optimizing the performance of the PostgreSQL database itself, as well as tweaking filesystems a bit.

Should be a good time, keep your eyes peeled!

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The Study Of Human Behavior Psychology Essay - UK Essays

Little Albert Experiment Essays and Research Papers. Assignment One – Mini Lit Review. The Little Albert Study. Not everyone believes that biology is essays on behavior our destiny. Many scientists . whole-heartedly believe it is our experiences in published phd thesis, life that count. They believe that it is our up-bringing, education, and our environment that form our behaviour, beliefs and characteristics. Chief among scientists in this field of thought is essays psychologist John Watson. Watson developed a theory that we are not restricted to a fire essays, our genetic make-up, but instead we arrive into.

Classical conditioning , Fear , History of psychology 1661 Words | 5 Pages. The study I choose to write about is the classic study of “ Little Albert ”. I choose this study because I found it interesting . On Behavior? that experimental work had only i complete my homework, been done on one child and that was Little Albert . They choose little Albert because he was a healthy infant and essays, one of the best developed youngsters at that hospital. It was because of these reasons they felt they would do him no harm with the experiment they were getting ready to inflict on him. They would soon find out that their assumptions. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Fear conditioning 886 Words | 3 Pages.

The Effects of the Little Albert Studies on Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning has been impacted by many studies. The . Little Albert experiment which was done by Watson and problem, Rayner in 1920 showed empirical evidence of classical conditioning in humans. Although this case study is essays widely disputed in in geotechnical, it’s methods, it added a world of essays, knowledge to phd thesis in geotechnical, the field of psychology. This was a huge breakthrough for on behavior behavioral studies. Up until this time it was shown that classical conditioning was possible. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Drug addiction 978 Words | 3 Pages. Activity 2 – Watson’s ‘ Little Albert ’ Experiment Independent Variable - The rat. Dependent Variable - Whether . Little Albert cried or not. Unconditioned response - whether he was capable of showing fear or not.

Neutral stimulus –The Rat Unconditioned Stimulus –the loud noise. Conditioned Stimulus- loud noise paired with any attempt that albert made to referencing of essays, play with the rat Conditioned Response-caused the fearful behaviour Hypothesis – to essays, test the belief that fears can be acquired through classical. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Experiment 336 Words | 2 Pages. making you a pioneer in behaviorism. Problem Coursework? To me, this was all a great accomplishment for such a young man. I did notice that in your early years your study’s . chosen were animal behavior and this intrigued me as I am also interested in Ivan Pavlov’s experiments with the essays, salivating dog, and have read you were too.

Later though you changed to the study human subjects, I wondered how far, working in the interest of science, would you take things to published phd thesis in geotechnical, get an individual to behave differently today than. Behavior , Behavior modification , Behaviorism 1335 Words | 4 Pages. appealing to internal processes of the mind. John B. Watson famous “ Little Alert Experiment ” was best known as a case study . showing and proving evidence of classical conditioning and essays on behavior, also an example of stimulus generalization. Problem? It was carried out by essays on behavior John B. Watson and children's, his graduate student, Rosalie Rayner, at Johns Hopkins University and its’ first findings were published in the Journal of on behavior, Experimental Psychology. Little Albert at the age of eight months was given many emotional tests which included. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Fear conditioning 910 Words | 6 Pages. Essay on the “ Little Albert Experiment ” Clarence Losey South University Online Essay on the . “ Little Albert Experiment ” Classical Conditioning is problem maths coursework a form of behavioral learning in which a previously neutral stimulus acquires the essays, power to elicit the same innate reflex produced by another Stimulus (Jonson, Zimbardo amp; McCann, 2009, p.95). By pairing the banging bar and the white rat, Watson and Rayner were able to use classical conditioning by hitting the bar at the same time Albert touched the. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Fear conditioning 608 Words | 2 Pages.

as a result of reinforcement, usually a stimulus or reward. Maths? The Little Albert Experiment is the essays, . experiment that shows evidence of humans ability to be classically conditioned. Ivan Pavlov suggested that, “We are not born to fear rats but that such fears are learned through conditioning’” (Hock 1992). The controlled stimulus is the maths, sight of the rat and essays on behavior, the controlled response is coursework his reaction which in this case was fear. This experiment also used an unconditioned stimulus of a loud noise with a hammer. Classical conditioning , Ethology , John B. Essays? Watson 2769 Words | 6 Pages. Behaviorism. Problem Maths? Watson was best known for his views and essays on behavior, theories known as behaviorism.

Watson is to build essays also known for comparative and experimental psychology, and . Essays? perhaps his most famous experiment , the Little Albert Experiment . On February 24, 1913, he delivered a famous lecture that is believed to be the hard binding, birth of behaviorism. Essays? Watson’s experiments and binding, publications made major impacts on the world of psychology, changing the essays on behavior, views and ideas of not only psychologist worldwide, but as well as the people of the world. Behavior , Behavior modification , Behaviorism 1836 Words | 5 Pages. a behavioral theraphy used to problem maths coursework, overcome phobias and other anxiety disorders. Essays? This assignment deals with the children's, case of Little . Albert . On Behavior? An enfant called Albert B, that was nine mnths old, had no fear of thesis, living creatures such as rats and rabbits. He became distressed when a steel bar was banged suddenly hit by a claw hammer. On Behavior? Watson and Rayner tryed to coursework, condition fear in Little Albert of an on behavior, object which was previously unfeared (a white rat) by connecting it with a feared stimulus ( the noise of the hammer. Classical conditioning , Desensitization , Fear 976 Words | 3 Pages. discuss is called “The little Albert experiment ”. This experiment was conducted by behaviorist John . B. Watson. The participant in the experiment was a child called “ Albert B”. Published Phd Thesis In Geotechnical? Around the age of 9 months the essays on behavior, child was exposed to a series of stimuli including a white rat, rabbit, monkey, masks, and a burning newspaper.

After exposer to the above stimuli the how can my homework, observers noted the boy’s reactions. Initially the boy showed no fear of any of the above objects. The next time Albert was exposed to the rat. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , History of psychology 985 Words | 5 Pages. ‘Behaviourists Explain Maladaptive Behaviour in essays on behavior, Terms of the Learning Principles That Sustain and Maintain It.

Discuss This Statement and Show How a Behaviourists Approach to on internet, Therapy Is in Stark Contrast to a Psychoanalytic One’ approach to essays on behavior, therapy is in stark contrast to a psychoanalytic one’ Behaviorism was originally founded by John B. Watson who believed that behavior had the . means to hard binding, be measured, trained and changed (1913) The Behavioural theory is firstly based on essays, experiment and secondly by describing how human behaviour is maths coursework learnt through principles and rules. Maladaptive behaviour is when an individual is unable to adjust to situations; psychologists use this term to on behavior, describe patterns of emotional disturbance. Both. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Ivan Pavlov 2672 Words | 7 Pages. that the snake could possibly bite and/or kill then in most cases the to build a fire, person will learn to essays, fear the snake because the fearful thought is thesis binding automatically . associated with the sight or thought of snakes (Dingfelder, 2005). In classical conditioning experiments , a single pairing of the on behavior, conditioned stimulus with the unconditioned stimulus is usually not very sufficient for learning to occur. It is problem maths only with repeated conditioned stimulus to unconditioned stimulus pairings does conditional responding eventually. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Fear 1226 Words | 4 Pages. Perspectives Research Paper: Behaviorism. onto teaching at essays, John Hopkins University.

Here he performed a series of experiments . One of them including a very famous . experiment : “The Little Albert Experiment ” (1920). In this experiment he conditioned an eleven-month-old infant to be afraid of i complete, a white rat, at first he was not scared of essays on behavior, it; but as soon as the infant attempted to caress the animal, a loud noise would be made, making the infant cry. Apparently “ Little Albert ” associated the children's referencing of essays, white rabbit and the loud noise together thus making him. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Ivan Pavlov 862 Words | 4 Pages. Teaching Someone Something using Classical Conditioning. henceforward.

Presentation - Ivan Pavlov, a Russian psychologist discovered classical conditioning. Pavlov was a physician who was studying gastric . functioning in dogs by examining their saliva in various feeding conditions. On Behavior? During some of his experiments , Pavlov observed that the dogs began to salivate before they were even given any food. Upon further investigation, Pavlov discovered that the dogs salivated in response to phd thesis in geotechnical, hearing a sound from the mechanism that delivered the food. Pavlov realized. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Extinction 1748 Words | 5 Pages. With Reference to Research Evidence (Theories and Studies), Explain in Detail the essays, Principles of how can i complete, Classical Conditioning; Describe the Use of Classical Conditioning in a Number of on behavior, Therapeutic Techniques and Evaluate the Effectiveness of Such Therapies.

the sound of the containers used to feed them. Realising the children's, importance of essays, his accidental discovery, Pavlov began to children's, experiment by essays creating an . Narrative Essay? association for the dogs, by ringing a bell each time they were given meat powder; eventually, as he hypothesised, the dogs would salivate on essays on behavior, hearing the bell, without any food being produced. Pavlov used this relatively simple experiment as a model for describing much of the automatic/nonconscious learning that occurs in everyday life, the basic characteristic. A Clockwork Orange , Behaviorism , Classical conditioning 1741 Words | 5 Pages. How Learning Theory Can Be Used in Overcoming, Cynophobia, a Fear of Dogs. learning by a fire essays temporal association in which two events that repeatedly occur close together in time become fused in on behavior, a person’s mind and produce the hard, same . On Behavior? response.” The major influence in learning theory is Pavlov (1902) who while carrying out an experiment into the glandular secretions during digestion noted that the dogs began to a fire, salivate when the food was about to be delivered. This gave rise to research based on this involving conditioning the animals to salivate on command. The unconditioned stimulus. Classical conditioning , Fear , Fear conditioning 1543 Words | 5 Pages.

of phobias in classical conditioning occurred during the Little Albert experiment conducted by John Watson and . Rosalie Rayners (Kowalski Westen, 2011). On Behavior? For example, though Albert did not initially fear white rats, when a loud noise occered with the white rat the conditioned response became fear (Kowalski Westen, 2011). Maths? This created a phobia of white rats and essays, other objects used during the experiment (Kowalski Westen, 2011). For Albert , classical conditioning created these behaviors. Addictions. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Extinction 1036 Words | 4 Pages. Habituation: form of adaptive learning in on internet, which an organism stops paying attention to an unchanging, often repeated stimuli II. Classical Conditioning . Essays? (C.C.) ( Learning through Associations: A. Pavlov - First demonstrated CC with experiments with dogs 1. 3 Phases i. Natural stimulus causes a natural reflex or response (unlearned ii. Neutral stimulus and the natural stimulus are repeatedly paired eliciting a response iii.

Neutral. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Extinction 774 Words | 4 Pages. Assignment Classical Conditioning Paper. this, Watson experiment on referencing, a youngster named Albert . Albert was conditioned using a steel bar, a hammer, and a . Essays? white rat (Olson Hergenhahn, 2009.) At the beginning of the experimentation, Albert was familiarized with a white rat. He had shown no indication of anxiousness or fear when touching it or interacting with it. Following the children's of essays, initial interaction, Albert would reach for the white rat and then right following, a person would pound the hammer alongside a steel bar triggering Albert to violently. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Eyeblink conditioning 1343 Words | 5 Pages.

Forward conditioning CS – US Backward conditioning US – CS ? NOT EFFECTIVE Simultaneous cond. ? not effective Stimulus generalization Performance of . learned response to on behavior, stimuli similar to original training stimulus E.g., Watson Rayner Little albert (1920) CS ? US ? UR CS? CR White rat ? banging noise ? scared White rat ? scared Stimulus discrimination Learning to make a response to on internet, a specific stimulus and not another (prevent stimulus generalization). CS (rabbit) ? US (none) CS (rat). Classical conditioning , Eyeblink conditioning , Fear conditioning 298 Words | 3 Pages. states such as thoughts, feelings, and emotions into consideration is useless in explaining behavior. It's important to note that classical conditioning . involves placing a neutral signal before a naturally occurring reflex. In Pavlov's classic experiment with dogs, the neutral signal was the sound of a tone and the naturally occurring reflex was salivating in response to food.

By associating the on behavior, neutral stimulus with the environmental stimulus (the presentation of food), the sound of the tone alone. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Fear conditioning 1047 Words | 3 Pages. Use classical conditioning principles to explain the development of phobias, and narrative essay, describe how systematic desensitisation can be used to overcome fears and phobias. the case of Little Albert . Through the use of the principles of classical conditioning the young infant was conditioned to on behavior, fear a . white rat. This in turn generalized to a number of other small fluffy animals and objects. Although this experiment by Watson and Rayner was a huge success in terms of i complete, demonstrating that fear could be conditioned in humans it was also highly unethical in on behavior, that Little Albert was never reconditioned and problem maths coursework, so had to deal with the essays on behavior, consequences of this experiment for a fire essays the rest. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Fear 1175 Words | 3 Pages. for the sake of this paper we are going to focus strictly on how classical conditioning plays a role in acquiring a phobia through classical conditioning. . Essays On Behavior? An example of a formed phobia is the experiment conducted by John Watson and his colleague, Rosalie Rayner, known as the Little Albert . Little Albert formed a phobia of white rats as a result of pairing the white rats (as well as other white fury objects) with loud banging sounds simultaneously as the white rat was visually introduced (Northern. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Extinction 1307 Words | 7 Pages.

Assignment 3: Essay— Little Albert and Classical Conditioning There have been several classic experiments to . study and describe classical conditioning; one of the binding, more famous is the Little Albert experiment . Over the years, the experiment has lost some of its validity due to essays on behavior, numerous interpretations by several introductory psychology textbooks. It is, therefore, beneficial to go back to the original (or primary) source and read what the authors of the experiment themselves had to say. Copy and. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , History of psychology 401 Words | 2 Pages. Little Albert-Classical Conditioning. terms of learning through classical conditioning. What is unconditioned stimulus (US), conditioned stimulus (CS), and conditioned response (CR)? “Two months . Thesis Hard Binding? after pretesting, Albert was shown a white rat, and anytime Albert touched the essays on behavior, rat, he was exposed to the sound of the hammer hitting a steel bar.

After seven trials, Albert cried and demonstrated avoidance on phd thesis in geotechnical, presentation of the rat—the conditioned stimulus—in the essays on behavior, absence of the loud noise.”(Watson J. B., Rayner, R. (1920). Conditioned emotional. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Fear conditioning 523 Words | 2 Pages. Little Albert Study: Emotional Responses Could Be Conditioned or Learned. graduate student Rosalie Rayner who he later married to carry out an referencing of essays, experiment to essays on behavior, prove that emotional responses could be conditioned or . learned.

He believed that environmental factors influence behaviour despite the biological make up of human beings. Watson and Rayner used an 11 month old baby Albert in the now famously known “ Little Albert ” study. A Fire? Albert was a healthy and stable baby at the time of the on behavior, experiment . When Albert was 9 months old, he was presented with white rats, rabbits and binding, cotton. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Fear 711 Words | 2 Pages. Research Essay: Elements of essays on behavior, Classic Conditioning. Research Essay: Elements of Classic Conditioning In the how can my homework, Little Albert experiment of Conditioned Emotional . Reactions, baby Albert was exposed to various stimuli which were paired with a loud banging noise on a bar.

A rat was put next to Albert and when he would reach for the rat, they would bang that bar to get baby Albert to display fear by crying. Albert was conditioned to the point that by simply showing him the rat he would cry and essays, want to crawl away. Essay On Internet? He knew that along with the rat. Classical conditioning , Fear conditioning , History of essays on behavior, psychology 630 Words | 2 Pages. it is a reflex. It comes naturally whenever they see food. This is how can called an unconditioned response, this means a stimulus response that needed no . learning. Pavlov did an experiment to show his theory. He presented a dog with a bowl of food and essays on behavior, measured the saliva the dog produced. But after doing this same experiment over and over again the dog began to associate things with the bringing of the food, therefore started to produce saliva before the food was brought to problem, him, e.g. Essays On Behavior? whenever he seen. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , History of psychology 634 Words | 2 Pages.

from Vassar and came to Johns Hopkins as a grad student. Published? She collaborated with Watson on the famous Little Albert study of essays on behavior, . conditioned emotional responses in 1920. She collaborated with him. The Little Albert experiment was a famous psychology experiment conducted by behaviorist John B. Watson and graduate student Rosalie Raynor. Previously, Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov had conducted experiments demonstrating the conditioning process in dogs. Thesis Binding? Watson was interested in taking Pavlov's research. Behavior modification , Behaviorism , Classical conditioning 410 Words | 2 Pages. ? Little Albert : Conditioned Emotional Reactions Victoria Whelchel Intro to Psychology Dec. 9, 2014 Jade Bost . Essays On Behavior? Explain the initial pairing of the banging bar and the rat in problem, terms of on behavior, learning through classical conditioning.

What is unconditioned stimulus (US), conditioned stimulus (CS), and conditioned response (CR)? Albert is a nine month old boy who was subject to emotional testing. He went through a series of pretesting and was eventually introduced to a white rat. Problem Maths Coursework? Albert initially. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Fear conditioning 464 Words | 4 Pages. Classical conditioning and phobias. conditioned stimulus is presented alone, it no longer predicts the coming of the unconditioned stimulus hence the conditioned responding gradually stops. . Essays? One of the most famous experiments of classical conditioning was John B. Watson's experiment in which a fear response was conditioned in a young boy known as Little Albert . The child initially showed no fear of a white rat so it was a neutral stimulus, but however what did startle him and cause him to be afraid was if a hammer was struck against. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Eyeblink conditioning 425 Words | 2 Pages. Principles of narrative on internet, Behavioralism in Human Being. 2.0 Human Behaviour From Classical Conditioning Perspective 4 . 3.1 Pavlov’s Classic Experiment 4 3.2 Watson’s Little Albert Experiment 5 3.3 Other Characteristics of Classical Conditioning . Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , History of psychology 3578 Words | 11 Pages.

articles “Psychology as a Behaviorist Views it”, also published “Behavior: An Introduction to Comparative Psychology”. On Behavior? He was elected president of the . American Psychological Association [1920] John published the most famous conditioning experiment : The Little Albert study. [1921] He became a vice president in the J. Walter Thompson advertising agency [1925] John published Behaviorism [1935] His 2nd wife, Rosalie died. John became devastated and began abusing alcohol. [1946] John retired from his. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Furman University 278 Words | 2 Pages. University where he remained until 1920. How Can I Complete My Homework? While teaching psychology at Johns Hopkins University, he acted as the department chair and the director of the essays on behavior, . psychological laboratory.

Watson set up his own laboratory where he ran a variety of psychological experiments based on the direction of animal behaviour. After that, he shifted his research in binding, animal behaviour to human behaviour and focused his study on children. It was here that John Watson produced some of his greatest accomplishments. In 1913. Behavior , Behaviorism , Classical conditioning 3471 Words | 5 Pages. accurately studied. Watson had very little interest in on behavior, the work of Freud because it could not be observed.

One of Watson’s most famous . Hard? experiments came with a subject “ Little Albert ”. Watson conditioned fear in the young boy by on behavior making loud, scary noises simultaneously to introducing him to a rabbit. The boy originally loved the rabbit but was conditioned to hard, be terrified of it because of the accompanying noise. Little Albert was traumatized for life because of the experiments . Today, Watson would be disbarred. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Extinction 745 Words | 2 Pages. to unconditioned stimuli and of the potential to condition responses from previous no stimuli.

Pavlov performed his experiments at the . Institute of Experimental Medicine in Petrograd. There, he reflected on essays, his previous work. He had noticed during his previous work that dogs naturally produced amounts of saliva depending on what they were given to eat. The dogs salivated little amounts for moist food, larger amounts for dry food, and varying amounts for inedible objects. He then had the theory. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Fear conditioning 401 Words | 2 Pages. Describe and Discuss the Behaviourist Approach in Psychology. results and published phd thesis, reach conclusions. For example Watson and Reynar used an experiment when carrying out essays research on little . Albert . Where they aimed to show that you can condition a phobia into essay, people and successfully condition the essays, fear of rats into Albert by showing him a rat then quickly scaring him by striking a steel bar. By using an of essays, experiment they then had more scientific evidence to support their theory. A limitation of essays on behavior, using experiments is that they often lack eco-logical validity.

This means it is. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Extinction 826 Words | 2 Pages. AP Psychology Chapter Outlines: Study Notes. opened her car door and got attacked by of essays a swarm of bees that got in through an open window. Lucy developed a phobia of cars and now takes the bus to work. Essays On Behavior? . During this situation, US is bees’attack, UR is fear CS is cars, CR is maths fear. 4. In the experiment , Pavlov presented food, and the dog salivated. On Behavior? Then, he began to children's referencing, ring the bell before he presented the food, at first, the dog didn’t have response. Then, after he repeated this action again and essays, again, then once the bell rang, the dog started salivated. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , History of psychology 473 Words | 2 Pages. determine what a person would become, in other words the environment influences the development of the individual.

Behaviourists didn’t concern themselves . with the internal mechanisms which occur inside the organism. In 1913, John Watson (of Little Albert experiment ) founded the behaviourist approach by phd thesis in geotechnical setting out its main assumptions on an article in the journal The Psychological Review. John Watson stated in the review ““Psychology as the Behaviourist views it is a purely objective experimental. Behavior , Behaviorism , Classical conditioning 4925 Words | 14 Pages. Pavlov’s experiment , he associated the ringing of a bell with the sight of food, teaching a hungry dog to salivate when the bell would ring. . The dog naturally responded with salivation to the meat powder. When Pavlov used classical conditioning to teach the dog to associate the ringing of on behavior, a bell with meat powder, the dog responded to my homework, the ringing of the on behavior, bell with salivation, even when there was no meat powder involved. Though these results were originally “mistakenly” found, this experiment alone is. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Eyeblink conditioning 545 Words | 2 Pages. C H A P T E R 5 LEARNING kowa_c05_162-194hr.indd 162 9/13/10 11:03 AM A n experiment by John Garcia and his colleagues adds . a new twist to all the stories ever told about hard binding, wolves and sheep. The researchers fed a wolf a muttonburger (made of the ?nest sheep ?esh) laced with odorless, tasteless capsules of lithium chloride, a chemical that induces nausea.

Displaying a natural preference for mutton, the animal wolfed it down but half an essays on behavior, hour later became sick and vomited (Garcia. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Extinction 21843 Words | 87 Pages. + (association formed/pairing made) Bowl or steps Dog salivating CS . CR Learned S-R Little Albert generalized his fear of rats into fear of anything with white fur, including a Santa Claus mask, a rabbit, etc. Problem Coursework? Typically, the CS occurs slightly before the UCS. There are types of conditioning that change this order and overlapping- it’s in a. Classical conditioning , Extinction , Fear conditioning 375 Words | 2 Pages. Conditioned emotional reactions “The little Albert experiment ” Reference:Watson, John B. amp; Rayner, Rosalie. . Essays? (1920). Conditioned emotional reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 3, 1-14. In this journal article, Jhon B. To Build A Fire? Watson and his assistant Rosalie Rayner performed one of the most influential experiments in psychology to prove that emotional responses could be conditioned or learned vs Sigmund Freud’s theories of sexual and on behavior, life-preservation to be solely the shaping of. Classical conditioning , Emotion , Experiment 624 Words | 2 Pages.

Albert Einstein The Theory Of Special Relativity “Two things are infinite: the universe and human stupidity; and I'm not sure about the . universe.” Albert Einstein * Who was Albert Einstein? For almost everybody Einstein was and still is the most important physicist that has ever lived. I Complete My Homework? He made world-changing discoveries and has the most influence on on behavior, our thinking about physics today. Albert Einstein was born on March 14th 1879 in Ulm, a city far in referencing of essays, the south of essays on behavior, Germany. He went. Albert Einstein , Energy , General relativity 1501 Words | 5 Pages. Experiment 22 Title: Reactions of aldehydes and essays, ketones Aim: The purpose of this experiment is to compare some . reactions of ethanal and essays on behavior, propanone. Introduction: We have chosen ethanal and propanone as relatively safe examples of aldehydes and essays, ketones to illustrate their reactions in simple test-tube experiments . The reactions or properties to be investigated are as follows: A. Essays? Condensation (addition-elimination) B. Oxidation C. Triiodomethane (iodoform) reaction Requirements: . Acetic acid , Aldehyde , Ammonia 499 Words | 3 Pages. Experiments in how can, physics lab report Department of Electrical Engineering Isabela State University Ilagan Campus, Calamagui 2nd, City of . Ilagan, Isabela Submitted to: Engr. Rafael S. Ramos Physics12 Professor Submitted by: Joemel L. On Behavior? Baccal BSEE IIA Experiments in Physics Lab Report Joemel L. Baccal Department of Electrical Engineering Isabela State University - Ilagan Campus, Calamagui 2nd, City of Ilagan, Isabela Abstract In. Atom , Electric charge , Electricity 826 Words | 4 Pages.

?The Philadelphia Experiment The Philadelphia Experiment took place in the fall of 1943 when a group of scientists funded . by to build essays the U.S. government set out to turn a U.S. Cannon Class destroyer escort into an invisible war machine. The initial conspiracies surrounding the on behavior, experiment were formulated by two scientists, William L. Moore and a fire, Charles Berlitz’. Essays On Behavior? After extensive research, Moore and Berlitz’ concluded that The Philadelphia Experiment went awry when a U.S. Naval Destroyer was used to conduct. Annotated bibliography , Charles Berlitz , Conspiracy theories 1592 Words | 5 Pages. ALBERT EINSTEIN: The Miracle Mind The book, Albert Einstein: The Miracle Mind, written by maths coursework Tabatha Teatts is about this . Essays On Behavior? century’s greatest physicist, Albert Einstein. He was born on March 14, 1879 in Ulm, Germany to Hermann Einstein and Pauline Koch. Albert’s original name was Ainstein and his ancestors were of Jewish origin.

Down the thesis binding, generation, for some unknown reason, the essays, name was changed to Einstein. When he was about published, one year old, his family moved to Munich to set up an electrical engineering. Albert Einstein , Einstein family , Hans Albert Einstein 2270 Words | 6 Pages. Albert Bandura He was born in a small town of Mundare in essays on behavior, northern Alberta, Canada on December 4, 1925. He went to elementary and high school . in a school with minimal resources. He received his bachelor degree from the University of British Columbia in Psychology in 1949. In 1952 he received his Ph.D from the University of Iowa. In Iowa, he met Virginia Varns, she was an instructor in the nursing school. The got marry and published in geotechnical, later she had two girls.

After he graduated, he took a postdoctoral. Albert Bandura , Behavior , Educational psychology 737 Words | 3 Pages. ? Experiment #1: Introduction to Experimentation Submitted by: Neann Klara M. De Jesus . BS Psychology II Submitted to: Dr. Geraldine E. Tria ABSTRACT SUMMARY The first experiment done by the class was called “Introduction to Experimentation”. Essays On Behavior? Its main objective is to give basic knowledge about some of the logic of my homework, experimentation. The class was divided into groups of 2. Essays On Behavior? In each group there was an experimenter (E) and a subject (S). The. Empiricism , Experiment , Hypothesis 1222 Words | 8 Pages. What I find most admirable about Albert Einstein is the phd thesis in geotechnical, way he thought up his theories and had the ability to conduct . experiments on essays on behavior, them.

By doing this, he answered many questions of the scientific realm of the world. Some of the traits I admire are: 1. Essays? A trait I admire is his curiosity because he always wanted to find out how things worked. When he was five years old his father gave him a compass. It was a mystery to him. He wanted to know why the arrow always pointed north. His father.

Manhattan Project , Nobel Peace Prize , Nobel Prize 870 Words | 4 Pages. EXPERIMENT 1: REACTIONS OF ENOLATE IONS WITH CARBONYL GROUPS Aims In this experiment we used two techniques for the reactions . of enolate ions with carbonyl groups. Essays? One technique used was Doebner reaction and the other technique used was Claisen-Schmidt reaction. Phd Thesis? Therefore the essays, aim of how can my homework, this experiment is to synthesize trans p-methoxycinnamic acid and to synthesize dibenzalacetone via an essays on behavior, aldol condensation reaction between acetone and benzaldehyde. The products would be recrystallized using ethanol. Acid , Aldehyde , Aldol condensation 1824 Words | 6 Pages. EXPERIMENT 5 REDOX TITRATION: TITRATION USING SODIUM THIOSULPHATE Objectives 1. 2. Of Essays? To prepare a standard solution of potassium iodate for on behavior use . to determine the published phd thesis, concentration of on behavior, sodium thiosulphate solution accurately.

To acquire the published in geotechnical, proper techniques of carrying out a titration. Essays? Introduction Redox titrations using sodium thiosulphate as a reducing agent is known as iodometric titration since it is used specifically to titrate iodine. The reaction involved is: I2 + 2Na2S2O3 I2 + 2S2O322NaI + Na2S4O6. Chemical reaction , Chemistry , Iodine 1141 Words | 5 Pages. ? Experiment : 1 Tittle : Preparation of bis(acetylacetonato)copper(II) complex Objective : To synthesis the . bis(acetylacetonato)copper(II) complex Introduction : A complex ion is usually form with high charge density metal ion as a central and formation of coordinate covalent bond (dative bond) with high electron molecules or ions.

These molecules or ions are functioning as ligands (electrophile in organic compounds). They are easily attracted by electrophile (electron deficiency. Ammonia , Coordination chemistry , Coordination complex 1723 Words | 11 Pages. ? Experiment 2: IDENTIFICATION OF UNKNOWNS BY TLC AND MP IN COMBINATION Introduction: Thin layer chromatography (TLC) is thesis hard binding one of . the most valuable techniques in organic chemistry. This is a best method of separating and identifying mixtures of essays, two or more compounds. The separation is accomplished by the distribution of the mixture between two phases: one that is stationary and one that is moving or mobile. Chromatography works on the principle that different compounds will have different.

Analytical chemistry , Chemical compound , Chemistry 1428 Words | 5 Pages. process of distillation. Distillation is the referencing, separation of on behavior, volatile substances mixed with nonvolatile substances by boiling the mixture to referencing of essays, alter the phase of . the volatile substance. The researchers used the simple distillation set up to conduct the experiment . 25 ml of The Bar Vodka was used and essays on behavior, 7 ml of distillate was collected before a temperature of 95 degrees Celsius was reached. Collected distillate was then subjected to to build a fire essays, a flammability test to confirm ethanol content. The percent ethanol was computed.

Alcoholic beverage , Boiling point , Distillation 956 Words | 5 Pages. FIRE RESISTANT BALLOON: Materials - 1 matchbox - 1 candle - 1 yellow colored balloon - 1 blue colored balloon - Half a cup of water . On Behavior? Procedure: 1. For this experiment , the independent variable is in geotechnical whether the balloon is filled with water or not. Essays? The dependent variable is what happens to the balloon when it is placed above the lit candle. This is determined by observing the balloon. Published Phd Thesis In Geotechnical? The constants (control variables) are how much the essays, balloon is inflated and the amount. Atlantic Ocean , Ice , Magnet 2181 Words | 7 Pages. The Life of Albert Einstein Psy300 BF01BSP3 February 22, 2013 . THE LIFE OF ALBERT EINSTEIN As we all know Albert Einstein was no ordinary man.

He was a man of determination, strength, struggle and a curiosity of the unknown. This is a man who dared dream to influence society, challenge the strong and overcome the published phd thesis in geotechnical, weak minded. But there was a time when Albert was just a kid, and like all kids he had. Albert Einstein , Mathematics , Mother 1031 Words | 3 Pages. the famous ones is the social learning theory from Albert Bandura (Ormord, 2012). However, there are many issues involved in this theory and on behavior, . also many supportive evidences as well as controversies.

Social learning is also known as observational learning, it is thesis hard binding a theory that explains how people are influenced by essays observing other’s behaviors, especially the children's, aggression of children (Bernstein, Penner, Clarke-Stewart, Roy, 2008). According to on behavior, Albert Bandura’s social learning theory, children tend to. Aggression , Albert Bandura , Behavior 1355 Words | 4 Pages.

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chivalry thesis wiki Chivalry and the Law: How Women Get Off. The chivalry thesis, as it relates to criminal justice, is the essays on behavior idea that women are more often spared punishment for their crimes than men, in part, because a predominantly male legal system favors women, a prejudice stemming from an inculcated or ingrained sense of chivalry. When the judges (or magistrates), police, prosecuting attorneys, and other individuals in narrative essay on internet, our legal systems are female, it is claimed that this bias is reduced, therefore resulting in on behavior, less clemency toward women in the criminal justice process. This thesis was originally presented by Otto Pollak in the 1950 book The Criminality of Women , but unlike his thesis, which was rooted primarily in biological causes, this piece will argue for i complete my homework the presence of a chivalry bias in criminal justice from on behavior a principally sociological perspective. While the existence of a chivalry bias in various criminal justice systems, such as those of the United States and Britain, has long been disputed, more recent research has contended and sought to confirm it, though employing different (yet interchangeable) terminology. In 2004, Max M. Schanzenbach, from the Northwestern University School of Law, made the problem maths case for the actuality of a paternalistic or chivalrous bias in a paper called Racial and Gender Disparities in Prison Sentences: The Effect of District-Level Judicial Demographics. On Behavior? Significant among his findings was that, where gender disparities were concerned: The greater the proportion of female judges in a district, the lower the gender disparity for hard binding that district. He, as others have before and after him, concluded that this, along with comparable discoveries, was evidence of a paternalistic bias among male judges that favors women. This concept and essays on behavior his findings, while mainly offered under an published, alternative designation, are the same as the arguments and evidence for essays the presence of a chivalry bias in criminal justice. Additionally, self-report studies have, for many years, revealed that the disparity between the sexes in criminal behavior is not as great as the differences in arrest and conviction statistics.

In British law, for my homework instance: Although women who stepped far outside expected gender roles (through the use [of] violence towards children, for example) were prosecuted severely, most crimes committed by essays on behavior women were likely to thesis hard, be dealt with by less formal judicial procedures, such as informal arbitration and summary prosecution, or at essays the Quarter Sessions courts, and such cases do not appear in the Old Bailey records. A similar state of affairs has existed during much of U.S. history. But before we shift on to inspecting at length more self-report survey findings, data on arrest and conviction disparities, and children's a few feasible solutions, let us examine what chivalry was, what it means today, and what role it may play in the criminal justice system, as well as some broader theories surrounding the issue. Notions of chivalry from the essays medieval period have continued to i complete, the present in some ways and melted away in others; initially intended as a set of rules to on behavior, live by for Christian knights, this code of how can my homework conduct contained elements of patriotism, honor, and to a lesser extent, guidance regarding interactions with women, which some aver began as observations of the importance of the Virgin Mary in on behavior, the Catholic belief system. Today, the sole aspect that the majority of people, men in particular, tend to remember about chivalry is hard that women must be treated with reverence and essays respect. The distorted view of maths coursework women and men in regard to criminal behaviors dates back even to the earliest days of sociological theory and research, which women were, prior to the emergence of feminism, not largely a part of as subjects. On Behavior? Indeed, when women were considered, the prevailing notion was that crimes committed by females were more exclusive to the individual, stemming from a defect of their own personal biology, as opposed to something which all women were potentially capable of. Essay? Late 19th century thinkers such as criminologist and essays physician Cesare Lombroso and Italian historian, journalist, and novelist Guglielmo Ferrero made cases based on such reasoning.

In their 1898 book The Female Offender , the pair theorized that women's biology has a tendency to prevent them from children's engaging in criminal behavior. Further, they believed that, while women do suffer from a paucity of moral code, this is counterbalanced by other feminine biological traits (e.g., underdeveloped intelligence, maternity, and piety). In 1950, writer and professor of sociology Otto Pollak, the originator of the chivalry thesis (as noted above), contended that women were skilled at concealing their crimes due to biology, arguing in addition that women had grown efficient at essays on behavior lying to men by way of narrative essay practice at hiding their discomfort and pain during periods and false interest and pleasure during sex. Author David Jessel and scientist Anne Moir, in 1997, attempted to support the biological argument as they discovered that a significant percentage of women are let off on charges of violent acts due to PMS. Different theories, some of essays on behavior which antedate Otto Pollak's work, centered on how can my homework, the divergent roles of the sexes in relation to their children. On Behavior? Talcott Parsons, in children's referencing of essays, a 1937 book entitled The Structure of Social Action , asserted that because children were most frequently raised by on behavior the female parent, this provided a role model for girls which was denied boys, at least in the modern industrialized world where men had to narrative, go off to work rather than take boys out to the field to learn farming. More current research likewise supports this notion in a broader context. In the 2008 study Family Transitions and Later Delinquency and Drug Use, Marvin D. Krohn, Gina Penly Hall, and Alan J. Lizotte hypothesized that family transitions such as divorce will trigger a greater tendency for drug abuse, both directly and indirectly, through effects which such transitions have on essays on behavior, school performance, discipline, and household stability. In addition, their work focused on published phd thesis, the greater impact that these transitions have on essays, boys than on girls due to the fact that boys are more likely to externalize their anger at the situation, and that in broken families, the mother is more likely to retain control of the children. The belief that the mother-girl bond is stronger than the mother-boy bond was hypothesized in their research to produce this outcome. Interestingly, however, the actual results of this study did not support the gender difference which was hypothesized, although they did, unsurprisingly, show an overall relationship between family disruption and subsequent drug abuse.

Enter the Chivalry Thesis. Though Otto Pollak was the originator of the chivalry thesis, the faults of his overly biological approach and explanations rendered the validity and effectiveness of children's his conclusions lacking. But by taking a more sociological approach, it is possible to evidence the idea of a chivalry bias in various criminal justice processes. In a 1995 study called Young People and essays on behavior Crime , John Graham and Benjamin Bowling, of the British Home Office Research and Statistics Department, conducted a national random sample of 1,721 young people aged 14 to 25, with a booster sample of 808 respondents from ethnic minorities of the same age. A Fire Essays? In this study, participants were asked whether they had ever committed any of a range of offenses from essays vandalism to serious property and violent crimes. The study was extensive in scope and covered sex, age, and racial variables. In their findings, they reported that 31% of females and phd thesis in geotechnical 55% of males admitted to at least one of 23 offenses throughout their lifetimes, and 12% of females and 28% of males admitted to at least one in the last year. This revealed that sex differences in criminal behavior were not as great as the disparities in crime statistics, and essays although the authors did not promote a chivalry thesis directly, their data could, and has been interpreted to, support such a thesis. Then, in 2000, Claire Flood-Page, Siobhan Campbell, Victoria Harrington, and Joel Miller, also of the Home Office, performed a second sweep of the Youth Lifestyles Survey.

In their report, 37% of females and published phd thesis in geotechnical 57% of essays on behavior males admitted to at least one of i complete 27 offenses in their lifetimes, and 11% of females and essays on behavior 26% of males admitted to at least one in the last year. They likewise discovered no significant change during the six years between the first survey in 1992/93 and the second survey from 1998/99 in the percentage of women or men who admitted to committing offenses in the past year. These outcomes were congruent with the Graham and narrative Bowling findings in suggesting some difference in the probability of being convicted between the sexes. Furthermore, a number of studies have endeavored to measure the variance in sentences for women and men that might be due to a chivalry bias. One of the more striking instances of a marked disparity comes from a 2001 work called Racial, Ethnic, and Gender Disparities in essays on behavior, Sentencing: Evidence from the U.S. Federal Courts by professor David B. Mustard, of the University of Georgia. Without controlling for variables such as criminal history and level of offense, his review found that: The average sentence for males is 278.4 percent greater than that of females (51.5 versus 18.5 months).

Later in the text, he noted that after controlling for the offense level, criminal history, district, and narrative essay on internet offense type, . . . females received 5.5 fewer months than males. According to Mustard, the average sentence length is 46 months, which evaluated at the mean, evinces that males receive 12 percent longer terms than females. He also remarked that females receive even shorter sentences relative to men than whites relative to blacks. Essays? Lastly, much like Max M. Thesis Hard? Schanzenbach, he argued that while literature on discrimination regularly declares that females are objects of discrimination and receive worse outcomes, in sentencing: women receive better outcomes, consistent with women's being treated paternalistically in court. As well, in Do You Receive a Lighter Prison Sentence Because You Are a Woman? An Economic Analysis of Federal Criminal Sentencing Guidelines, Supriya Sarnikar, Todd Sorensen, and Ronald L. Oaxaca (2007) observed what they suspected was a 30% gender gap. But in a more recent U.S. paper from 2012 entitled Estimating Gender Disparities in Federal Criminal Cases, Sonja B. Starr, a professor of law at the University of Michigan Law School, inquired: Do otherwise-similar men and women who are arrested for the same crimes end up with the same punishments, and essays if not, at what points do their fates diverge? Importantly, she noted that this is not a simple measure of the to build final verdict in trials which ascend to completion.

That number, as measured by essays previous studies, would be lower. Instead, Starr took into account intermediate decisions made along the way (to the problem coursework extent that they can be traced), such as discoveries of evidence by essays the police and decisions to prosecute or not by prosecuting attorneys. Prosecuting attorneys, in fact, have a great deal to say regarding what sort of sentence a convicted criminal will face. In a case involving a couple, such as a husband and how can my homework wife, committing a serious crime, they might select to reduce the charges against the woman by claiming that it was the man who planned the crime, and that the woman had little choice in the matter. Sentencing guidelines were, in the past, exceptionally broad at on behavior times, beginning with no jail sentence and rising to tens of how can years. These ranges were later more tightly constrained, but that had the effect of prosecutors adjusting the on behavior charges which they brought against defendants, as alluded to above, to achieve the same effect: In 2003, Congress passed the PROTECT Act. The Act sought to eliminate virtually all departures from the Guidelines by problem maths creating a reporting mechanism for the judges who were not 'compliant.' These evolving factors over essays on behavior, the years have made precise determinations regarding the totality of gender bias in to build essays, the law arduous to come by. Prior to Starr's work, several studies attempted to essays on behavior, arrive at an estimate, and concluded values, as partially referenced already, ranging from 10% to 30% longer sentences for men than women.

Yet these studies only considered the bias as it might exist from the point of in geotechnical arrest until final disposition of any given case. Starr analyzed the on behavior data in terms of several points at which such a bias could be applied, and found that being male can contribute in sum to a 63% increase in sentence length on average. (It should be mentioned here that a case decided by the U.S. Hard? Supreme Court in 2005, United States v. Booker, 543 U.S. 220 (2005), and three subsequent cases, restored a certain degree of essays on behavior freedom to judges when it comes to a fire, sentencing, but it is too soon to tell if this will deepen or lessen the essays on behavior extent of unequal sentences for women and binding men.) Since Roman times, Lady Justice has been depicted wearing a blindfold and essays carrying a set of scales to represent the objectivity applied by of essays the court system. The facts are weighed, and justice is not distracted by essays the superficialities of emotion, hence the blindfold.

Yet we know that in problem coursework, the real world, justice does not function so flawlessly. In the modern era, it has been accepted that fairness begins, not in the courtroom, but in the legislatures and councils which produce the laws in the first place. While laws against essays murder and robbery would not typically specify the sex of the to build a fire essays perpetrator, there were, until recently, still laws on the books that assumed that sexual aggression was always committed by a male and that the victim was always female. Alterations to essays, both U.S. and British law have now largely eliminated personal pronouns such as he, she, him, and her, replacing the gendered terms with sex-neutral language such as perpetrator and maths coursework victim in legal definitions of rape and sexual abuse. Essays? But those modifications have not yet entirely filtered into the consciousness of the public and i complete media, and we often see people, including journalists, leap to assumptions about the on behavior sexes of victims and perpetrators even when so doing compromises the argument which they are attempting to make.

Even when laws are discussed by legislators and the courts, two of the published in geotechnical most substantial elements of criminal justice, the use of sex-neutral language has still not fully taken hold. Unfortunately, when it comes to studying crime from a sociological perspective, these prejudices of the past can still thwart our best intentions. We lament the essays fact that so many crime studies rely exclusively on surveys, frequently anonymous ones, but our criminal justice systems do not perceive themselves as the servants of sociologists. How Can? The reason that sociologists must so regularly rely on surveys is that crime statistics are, in some cases, either unreliable (different states report differently), or unavailable (police and court records having been expunged for one reason or another). Because, mathematically, the on behavior number of convictions cannot exceed the number of prosecutions, and the number of my homework prosecutions cannot exceed the number of arrests, we witness in the public record good statistics about convictions, less perfect data regarding arrests, and less data about those who were acquitted or arrested and then released for reasons other than acquittal. Since there will always be individuals who are falsely accused, and on behavior even more who are mistakenly arrested, this seems an expectable outcome as far as data collection is concerned.

It just doesn't assist us in understanding crime as well as we would desire to in the trenches. The answers to questions such as: How many women committed a robbery but were freed as a first offense, and how does this compare with men in the same or similar circumstances? can, for the most part, only be conjectured about. As imperfect as the data that we have is, we must strive to i complete my homework, make sense of essays it. Concurrently, we must hope that the quality of the data improves in order that more crimes can be prevented in how can i complete my homework, the first place, rather than placing the essays emphasis, as we do now, on after the fact detection, conviction, and punishment. What About the maths Children? One of the several facets of these biases (against men) is the presumption that women take primary responsibility for essays on behavior the raising of children, an easy assumption to children's, make until a few decades ago, but far less so today. Sentencing guidelines and the laws themselves do not have an essays, explicit manner of handling this concern regarding the welfare of children. A Fire Essays? Were that so, a great deal more transparency would be possible. A man who was solely responsible for three children could thus expect to receive a lighter sentence.

Without such unambiguous guidelines in the law, it is on behavior likely that child welfare is simply taken into account at an almost subconscious level under the presupposition that it is principally the obligation or occupation of women. This extends beyond a mere notion of chivalry alone. Thesis Hard Binding? As it becomes more and more common for on behavior men to assume roles as caregivers, this form of bias may well start to correct itself, just as gender balance on the bench will, to a degree, correct the essays bias due to chivalry (or paternalism). How Can It Change? The first substantial development to recognize here is essays on behavior that this issue is changing. FBI arrest data from 2003 to i complete my homework, 2012 show that arrest rates have decreased for males while increasing slightly for essays females overall, with significant differences in some categories. We can anticipate that politicians and pundits will do everything that they can to maneuver in front of the parade and work to convince us that they are leading it, but demographic shifts which began decades ago continue to referencing of essays, bear fruit when it comes to the pursuit of equality in the present. Women have nearly caught up with men in law schools today, and while we would hope to maintain a fair and close balance there when one is attained, this has and will continue to essays, gradually populate the problem bench - and on down through the legal system - with women who are, at least based on what the evidence indicates, more likely not to share men's greater biases of chivalry or paternalism (women who might, in fact, overcompensate against these drives or beliefs). Moreover, if the trend for more and more men to be responsible for the raising of children endures, this too could result in that pendulum swinging the other way for a while, but clearly we are not there yet.

Sex-neutral laws, more specific sentencing guidelines which take men's growing share of childcare into greater consideration, and even seemingly unrelated factors such as efforts to clear overcrowded prisons by endeavoring to reform criminals rather than incarcerate them could all have an equalizing effect when it comes to gender disparities in criminal justice. This article has been republished with updates to essays on behavior, (August 11, 2017): @1056858 Great stuff. I've followed you for ages and you've produced a lot of good work in the past few years. Certainly deserve much more credit for the terrific insights. Also agree with your point on G+ about chivalry being alive and well and just another form of gynocentrism. It's part of the reason people view women above men in some respects. Like the idea that women are innocent, nonviolent by narrative essay on internet nature, etc. The knights have simply gone from suits of armor to our courts and legislatures. And I do think women view women differently and more equally to men generally, especially when it comes to on behavior, shitty behavior, than men view women. I remember back when Casey Anthony was in trial, all my dude friends just joked about her appearance and all my female friends were outraged.

And then the protests of her happened before and after her verdict and almost everyone protesting was a woman/mother. There's a lot of truth in what you wrote here. So thank you for thesis binding saying it so well.